1. Articles in category: Urology

    145-168 of 181 « 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 »
    1. Sexual dysfunction in men after surgery of colorectal carcinoma. New developments in prevention and therapy

      (Article in Czech) Current procedures in the treatment of rectal carcinoma respect preservation quality of life. Development of sexual dysfunction (SD) in men after iatrogenic damage to neurovascular structures has been reported in 21-38% and significantly decreases quality of life. The author summarizes new developments in the area of surgical anatomy of Denonvilliers' fascia, occurrence of accessory pudendal arteries (APA), and neural anatomy. Introduction of robotic nerve-sparing surgery along with application of new diagnostic perioperative methods such as Doppler diagnostics and Optical Coherence Tomography will allow precise perioperative identification of neurovascular structures. New approaches in the treatment of erectile dysfunction ...
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    2. How to improve the effectiveness of transurethral resection in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer?

      Purpose of review: The high rate of early recurrences in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer is considered to be strongly related to the effectiveness of transurethral resection (TUR). The aim of this article is to review methods, currently available or in development, that aim at improving TUR, with an emphasis on studies over the past year. Recent findings: It has been shown that re-TUR diminishes staging error and improves local tumour control. However, instead of simply repeating the standard procedure, it makes more sense to improve the technique itself. Modifications in TUR equipment, such as bipolar resection and laser treatment, mainly ...
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    3. OCT-assisted control of catheter positioning in the urethra of the rabbit — A feasibility study

      Background A fundamental precondition of local radiotherapy by means of 32P-loaded urethral catheters is a precise position with respect to the target tissue. This feasibility study investigates optical coherence tomography (OCT)-assisted examination of the catheter position and its adherence to the tissue surface. Materials and methods OCT investigations were performed using an animal model (rabbit urethra, n=4). A radial scanning OCT probe located in the lumen of the catheter provided OCT images of the catheter structure as well as of the surrounding tissue. Descriptive evaluation of the OCT images gives information about the fitting, the structure of the ...
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    4. THE USE OF HIGH RESOLUTION OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY TO EVALUATE ROBOTIC RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY SPECIMENS

      Objective: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a unique technology, developed to provide high resolution, cross sectional images of human tissue. The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of OCT for the evaluation of positive surgical margins and extra capsular extension in robotic prostatectomy specimens and compare it to histopathology. Materials and Methods: Radical prostatectomy was performed in 100 patients. Twenty OCT images of each specimen were taken from the base of the seminal vesicles (SV), apical and vesicle margins, peripheral and posterolateral area and any palpable nodule. Predictions were made regarding positive surgical margin, SV involvement, capsular ...
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    5. Optical coherence tomography in diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer

      (Article in Russian) Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was tested in diagnosis of bladder cancer (BC) in 100 BC suspects. This method showed higher sensitivity (by 16%) in diagnosis of BC compared to standard cystoscopy as it more presicely identified squamous intraepithelial and noninvasive tumors. The analysis of OCT images was made with a noval computer program of filtration and color overlay. This improved quality of the image allowed verification or rejection of BC, its localization on urinary bladder wall. PMID: 19526873 [PubMed - in process]
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    6. Comparative morphometry in porcine ureteral wall specimens ex vivo using catheter-based intraluminal optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histology

      Rationale and objectives In order to assess the reliability of the delineation of cross-sectional optical coherence tomography (OCT) images, we compared the width of different tissue layers of the wall of upper porcine ureters ex vivo as measured on OCT images with the corresponding whole mount histology microscopy sections. Materials and methods Fifteen specimens of porcine upper ureters were flushed with normal saline solution prior to imaging from the inside by means of an OCT catheter (diameter: 0.014 in, OCT wavelength: 1300±20 nm) at marked locations. Ring-shaped ureter specimens of 3 mm width were fixed in 4% formalin ...
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    7. Catheter-based intraluminal optical coherence tomography (OCT) and endoluminal ultrasound (elus) in the delineation of different wall layers of porcine ureters ex vivo

      Objectives Catheter-guided optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new means of intraluminal microstructural imaging, with a spatial resolution of 10–20 μm. We compared the distinction of tissue layers of several porcine ureters ex vivo using OCT and endoluminal ultrasound (ELUS). Materials and methods Fresh porcine ureters and kidneys were obtained from the municipal slaughterhouse. They were cannulated with a 7 Fr-catheter sheath, flushed with normal saline solution, and marked on the outside with a surgical suture. Images were obtained between marked positions from within the ureter lumen by means of OCT (M1, LightLab Imaging, Inc., Westford, MA, USA) and ...
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    8. Analysis of encrustation of double-J catheters with optical coherence tomography (OCT)

      Objective Encrustation of pigtail catheters with crystalline deposit of urine components is a well-known problem and in addition to lower urinary tract infection, the most common complication of any material placed in the urinary tract. There is neither any data about the beginning of encrustation in literature, nor about location or progression. The aim of this study is to make an analysis of the level of encrustation and to document the longitudinal progression with OCT. Material and methods Fourteen double-J (DJ) catheters (Neomedical Ch 7/28 cm) with different indwelling times were compared with a new DJ catheter as a ...
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    9. First experiences with catheter-based intraluminal optical coherence tomography of the human upper urinary tract in vivo

      Objective Catheter-based intraluminal optical coherence tomography (OCT) with near-infrared light provides cross-sectional images of hollow organs and vessels, with a lateral resolution of 10–20 μm. We evaluated the technical success rate and demonstration of different wall layers of the human upper urinary tract (UUT) in OCT images obtained in vivo. Materials and methods The study protocol was approved by the local hospital ethics committee. The OCT probe (diameter: 0.014 in) was introduced into the UUT of 14 patients either through a cystoscope and urinary catheter, or through an uretero-renoscope to obtain single-slice cross-sectional images. OCT images were evaluated ...
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    10. Intraoperative Tissue Characterization and Imaging

      As surgical operative technology improves, surgeons today have the ability to visualize fine structures and detailed anatomy. There are a number of advances that have been made to optimize patient outcomes with better tissue characterization in urologic procedures. This article focuses on advances in intraoperative imaging and tissue characterization for various urologic procedures. Each modality is presented with its corresponding applications in urology. The following techniques are covered: optical coherence tomography, confocal fluorescent microscopy, near infrared fluorescence imaging, elastography, intraoperative ultrasonography, and a neurovascular bundle surgical mapping aid.
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    11. Study shows benefit of confocal laser endomicroscopy for urology

      APRIL 27, 2009--According to new data presented today at the American Urological Association's (AUA) Annual meeting, real-time, in vivo confocal endomicroscopy may help urologists to differentiate low and high-grade bladder tumors from normal bladder tissue. Mauna Kea Technologies' (Paris, France) Cellvizio probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) system, which provides live images of internal human tissues at the cellular level, is the subject of the work.
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    12. First Ever Report of Cellvizio(r) Use in Cystoscopy: New Data On World's Smallest Microscope Presented At American Urology Association (AUA) Annual Meeting

      PARIS, April 27, 2009 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- New data show that real-time, in vivo imaging with Cellvizio(r), the world's smallest microscope, can be used in the urology field and may help urologists to differentiate low and high-grade bladder tumors from normal bladder tissue, according to data presented today at the American Urological Association's (AUA) Annual meeting being held in Chicago from April 25th to 30th. Cellvizio probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) provides live images of internal human tissues at the cellular level during examination procedures enabling faster clinical decision making.
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    13. Catheter-based Intraluminal Optical Coherence Tomography Versus Endoluminal Ultrasonography of Porcine Ureter Ex Vivo

      Objectives: To compare the distinction of tissue layers of porcine ureters ex vivo between optical coherence tomography (OCT) and endoluminal ultrasonography (ELUS). Catheter-guided OCT is a new method of intraluminal microstructural imaging, with a spatial resolution of 10-20 μm. Methods: Porcine ureters and kidneys were obtained fresh from the municipal slaughtery, cannulated with a 7F catheter sheath, flushed with normal saline solution, and marked on the outside with surgical suture. Between the marked positions, images were obtained from within the ureter lumen using OCT (M1, Lightlab, Westport, MA) and ELUS at 40 MHz. The distinction of the urothelium, lamina propria ...
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    14. Raman spectroscopy and its urological applications

      Purpose: The Raman spectroscopic technology can be utilized for the detection of changes occurring at the molecular level during the pathological transformation of the tissue. The potential of its use in urology is still in its infancy and increasing utility of this technology will transform noninvasive tissue diagnosis. The Nobel laureate, Sir C.V. Raman is credited for the discovery of the principles of Raman spectroscopy. Materials and Methods: Applications of Raman spectroscopy in the bladder, renal, prostate, and other urological disorders were gathered from Medline and abstracts from recent international urological meetings. Current status and future directions of Raman ...
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    15. A New Generation of Optical Diagnostics for Bladder Cancer: Technology, Diagnostic Accuracy, and Future Applications

      Abstract: Context: New developments in optical diagnostics have a potential for less invasive and improved detection of bladder cancer.Objective: To provide an overview of the technology and diagnostic yield of recently developed optical diagnostics for bladder cancer and to outline their potential future applications.Evidence acquisition: A PubMed literature search was performed, and papers on Raman spectroscopy (RS), optical coherence tomography (OCT), photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) and narrow-band imaging (NBI) regarding bladder cancer were reviewed. Technology, clinical evidence, and future applications of the techniques are discussed.Evidence synthesis: With RS, the molecular components of tissue can be measured objectively in ...
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    16. Near infrared femtosecond laser ablation of urinary calculi in water

      Pulsed light emitted from a near infrared (=800nm) femtosecond laser is capable of plasma induced photodisruption of various materials. We used femtosecond laser pulses to ablate human urinary calculi. Femtosecond pulsed laser interaction with urinary calculi was investigated with various stone compositions, different incident fluences and number of applied pulses. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography was used to image cross sections of ablation craters on the surface of urinary calculi. Our results indicate that femtosecond laser pulses can ablate various calculi compositions. Crater diameter and depth varies from tens of microns to several hundred microns when up to 1000 pulses were ...

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    17. Speckle reduction during all-fiber common-path optical coherence tomography of the cavernous nerves

      Speckle reduction during all-fiber common-path optical coherence tomography of the cavernous nerves
      Improvements in identification, imaging, and visualization of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery, which are responsible for erectile function, may improve nerve preservation and postoperative sexual potency. In this study, we use a rat prostate, ex vivo, to evaluate the feasibility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a diagnostic tool for real-time imaging and identification of the cavernous nerves. A novel OCT system based on an all single-mode fiber common-path interferometer-based scanning system is used for this purpose. A wavelet shrinkage denoising technique using Stein's unbiased risk estimator (SURE) algorithm to calculate a data-adaptive threshold is implemented for ...
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    18. Denoising during optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves via bivariate shrinkage using dual-tree complex wavelet transform

      Denoising during optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves via bivariate shrinkage using dual-tree complex wavelet transform
      The performance of wavelet shrinkage algorithms for image-denoising can be improved significantly by considering the statistical dependencies among wavelet coefficients as demonstrated by several algorithms presented in the literature. In this paper, a locally adaptive denoising algorithm using a bivariate shrinkage function is applied to reduce speckle noise in time-domain (TD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the prostate. The algorithm is illustrated using the dual-tree complex wavelet transform. The cavernous nerve and prostate gland can be separated from discontinuities due to noise, and image quality metrics improvements with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) increase of 14 dB are attained with a ...
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    19. Application of new technology in bladder cancer diagnosis and treatment

      Abstract  Recent advances in imaging technology may offer the ability to augment bladder cancer diagnosis, staging, and treatment. Fluorescence cystoscopy has been shown in numerous clinical studies to improve the detection of papillary and flat bladder lesions over conventional cystoscopy. Photosensitizing agents like aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and its derivative hexaminolevulinate (HAL) have undergone the most extensive investigation. Prospective clinical trials have demonstrated improved diagnostic ability, enhanced tumor resection, and reduced tumor recurrence. Optical coherence tomography is an emerging technology that shows promise in revealing subsurface information about bladder lesions in real-time, potentially leading to more accurate staging. Narrow-band imaging may ...
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    20. Denoising during optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves via wavelet shrinkage using dual-tree complex wavelet transform

      Denoising during optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves via wavelet shrinkage using dual-tree complex wavelet transform
      The dual-tree complex wavelet transform (CDWT) is a relatively recent enhancement to the discrete wavelet transform (DWT), with important additional properties. It is nearly shift-invariant and directionally selective in two and higher dimensions. In this letter, a locally adaptive denoising algorit ... [J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 014031 (2009)] published Thu Feb 19, 2009.
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    21. Image analysis of Optical Coherence Tomography images of the urinary bladder for the recognition of bladder cancer (Thesis)

      Image analysis of Optical Coherence Tomography images of the urinary bladder for the recognition of bladder cancer (Thesis)
      The vast majority of bladder cancers originate within 600 mum of the tissue surface, making Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) a potentially powerful tool for recognizing cancers that are not easily visible with current techniques. OCT is a new technology, however, and surgeons are not familiar with the resulting images. Technology able to analyze and provide diagnoses based on OCT images would improve the clinical utility of OCT systems. In addition, to avoid the need for gathering training data sets each time a new OCT system is used, it is important that the technology developed be system-independent. In this dissertation, I ...
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    22. Bladder Cancer Imaging Study-OCT Imaging to Stage Bladder Tumors

      The Niris™ OCT Imaging System is a device used in the operating room together with cystoscopy in order to be able to see the condition of the bladder wall. The current implementation of the fiber optic based OCT probe has a 2.7mm (OD) which easily integrates with standard cystoscopy equipment. It builds on the basic skills of conventional cystoscopy, making it straight-forward to learn and simple to use. Imaging data are captured quickly with a 1.5 second scan time per image. The data acquisition module is smaller than a desktop computer and permits real-time capture of data in ...
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    23. Wavelet denoising during optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves using the complex wavelet transform

      Wavelet denoising during optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves using the complex wavelet transform
      Preservation of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery is critical in preserving sexual function after surgery. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the prostate nerves has recently been studied for potential use in nerve-sparing prostate surgery. In this study, the discrete wavelet transform and complex dual-tree wavelet transform are implemented for wavelet shrinkage denoising in OCT images of the rat prostate. Applying the complex dual-tree wavelet transform provides improved results for speckle noise reduction in the OCT prostate image. Image quality metrics of the cavernous nerves and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were improved significantly using this complex wavelet denoising technique.
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    24. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): Ready for the Diagnosis of a Nephrogenic Adenoma of the Urinary Bladder?

      The feasibility of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) as a non-invasive technique was shown in different fields. We investigated OCT's potential to detect nephrogenic adenoma (NA) within the human bladder. Clinically non-invasive methods like ultrasonography or CT have significant limitations. We applied our experience from OCT-analyses to one case of NA. OCT in vivo examination was performed using an optical fiber which was positioned cystoscopically. Characteristic structures of NA were compared in the OCT-images and the hematoxylin and eosin histological samples. Indeed, the structure and exact position of NA could be defined in relation to surrounding layers. However, a definite ...
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    145-168 of 181 « 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 »
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