1. Articles in category: Urology

    97-120 of 183 « 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 »
    1. University of Maryland College Park Receives NIH Grant for In Vivo Optical Imaging of Kidney Structure and Function

      University of Maryland College Park Receives NIH Grant for In Vivo Optical Imaging of Kidney Structure and Function

      The University of Maryland College Park Received a 2012 NIH Grant for $114,187 for In Vivo Optical Imaging of Kidney Structure and Function. The program started in 2011 and ends in 2013. Yu Chen is the Principal Investigator. Below is a summary of the work. The overall goal of this proposal is to investigate the clinical feasibility of a new minimally-invasive multi-modal optical imaging technology for the diagnosis of kidney diseases in vivo and in real time. Multi-modal optical imaging combining high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-sensitivity fluorescence imaging enables comprehensive assessment of kidney structural and functional parameters ...

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    2. Optical assessment of tissue anisotropy in ex vivo distended rat bladders

      Optical assessment of tissue anisotropy in ex vivo distended rat bladders

      Microstructural remodelling in epithelial layers of various hollow organs, including changes in tissue anisotropy, are known to occur under mechanical distension and during disease processes. In this paper, we analyze how bladder distension alters wall anisotropy using polarized light imaging (followed by Mueller matrix decomposition). Optical retardance values of different regions of normal rat bladders under different distension pressures are derived. Then optical coherence tomography is used to measure local bladder wall thicknesses, enabling the calculation of the tissue birefringence maps as a measure of the tissue anisotropy. Selected two-photon microscopy is also performed to better understand the compositional origins ...

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    3. Encrustation of urologic double pigtail catheters—an ex vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) study

      Encrustation of urologic double pigtail catheters—an ex vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) study

      This study aims to evaluate whether optical coherence tomography (OCT) using both the surface and the endoluminal technique is feasible to investigate the locations and degree of encrustation process in clinically used ureteral stents. After removal from patients, 14 polyurethane JJ stents were investigated. A fresh JJ served as a control. The external surfaces were examined using an endoscopic surface OCT whereas the intraluminal surfaces were investigated by an endoluminal radial OCT device. The focus was on detection of encrustation or crystalline sedimentation. In 12 female and two male patients, the median indwelling time of the ureteral catheter was 100 ...

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    4. Strategies to prevent progression of high-risk bladder cancer at initial diagnosis

      Strategies to prevent progression of high-risk bladder cancer at initial diagnosis

      Purpose of review: As high-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has a high propensity to recur and progress, the primary therapeutic goal in patients with high-risk NMIBC is the prevention or delay of disease recurrence and progression. Recent findings: For improving transurethral resection quality, new optical enhancement technology such as optical coherence tomography, photodynamic diagnosis and narrow band imaging might be considered because these emerging optical techniques may contribute to resection completeness and reduce the recurrence risk. Recent studies have confirmed that a second resection is associated with a lower risk of progression and cancer-related death. Although maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guerin ...

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    5. New Optical Imaging Technologies for Bladder Cancer: Considerations and Perspectives

      New Optical Imaging Technologies for Bladder Cancer: Considerations and Perspectives

      Purpose Bladder cancer presents as a spectrum of different diatheses. Accurate assessment for individualized treatment depends on initial diagnostic accuracy. Detection relies on white light cystoscopy accuracy and comprehensiveness. Aside from invasiveness and potential risks, white light cystoscopy shortcomings include difficult flat lesion detection, precise tumor delineation to enable complete resection, inflammation and malignancy differentiation, and grade and stage determination. Each shortcoming depends on surgeon ability and experience with the technology available for visualization and resection. Fluorescence cystoscopy/photodynamic diagnosis, narrow band imaging, confocal laser endomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography address the limitations and have in vivo feasibility. They detect ...

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    6. Differentiation between normal renal tissue and renal tumours using functional optical coherence tomography: a phase I in vivo human study

      Differentiation between normal renal tissue and renal tumours using functional optical coherence tomography: a phase I in vivo human study

      Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was developed in the early 1990s for ophthalmological application and is currently widely accepted in ophthalmology for retinal imaging purposes. In kidneys, the first experiments were performed on transplant kidneys to investigate the ability of OCT to assess ischaemic damage of kidneys. An ex vivo pilot study on the ability of OCT to differentiate normal renal tissue from malignant renal tissue, showed positive results and here we present the results of the first in vivo experiment. The study shows for the first time that in vivo OCT is feasible and safe to perform in humans and ...

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    7. Kidney cancer: First in vivo study shows optical imaging can distinguish renal cancer from normal tissue

      Kidney cancer: First in vivo study shows optical imaging can distinguish renal cancer from normal tissue

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution light-based technique widely used in ophthalmology to image the retina in real time. Researchers in The Netherlands have transferred this technique to the human kidney, and now they report the first in vivo study of OCT for renal tumours in BJU International

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    8. Enhanced thulium fiber laser lithotripsy using micro-pulse train modulation

      Enhanced thulium fiber laser lithotripsy using micro-pulse train modulation

      The thulium fiber laser (TFL) is currently being studied as an alternative to the conventional holmium:YAG (Ho:YAG) laser for lithotripsy. The diode-pumped TFL may be electronically modulated to operate with variable parameters (e.g., pulse rate, pulse duration, and duty cycle) for studying the influence of pulse train mode on stone ablation rates. The TFL under study was operated at 1908 nm, 35-mJ pulse energy, and 500-μs pulse duration, in a train of 5 micro-pulses, with macro-pulse rates of 10 Hz, compared with conventional TFL operation at 10 to 50 Hz. TFL energy was delivered through 100-μm-core fibers ...

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    9. Incorporation of physical constraints in optimal surface search for renal cortex segmentation

      Incorporation of physical constraints in optimal surface search for renal cortex segmentation

      In this paper, we propose a novel approach for multiple surfaces segmentation based on the incorporation of physical constraints in optimal surface searching. We apply our new approach to solve the renal cortex segmentation problem, an important but not sufficiently researched issue. In this study, in order to better restrain the intensity proximity of the renal cortex and renal column, we extend the optimal surface search approach to allow for varying sampling distance and physical separation constraints, instead of the traditional fixed sampling distance and numerical separation constraints. The sampling distance of each vertex-column is computed according to the sparsity ...

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    10. Emerging Endoscopic and Photodynamic Techniques for Bladder Cancer Detection and Surveillance

      Emerging Endoscopic and Photodynamic Techniques for Bladder Cancer Detection and Surveillance
      This review provides an overview of emerging techniques, namely, photodynamic diagnosis (PDD), narrow band imaging (NBI), Raman spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, virtual cystoscopy, and endoscopic microscopy for its use in the diagnosis and surveillance of bladder cancer. The technology, clinical evidence and future applications of these approaches are discussed with particular emphasis on PDD and NBI. These approaches show promise to optimise cystoscopy and transurethral resection of bladder tumours.
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    11. The penetration of renal mass biopsy in daily practice: A survey among urologists

      The penetration of renal mass biopsy in daily practice: A survey among urologists
      Introduction: The vast increase in recent publications on renal mass biopsy (RMB) suggests an increased interest in the subject. Objective: To assess the use of RMB in the current urological practice, including related factors such as indications and patterns in practice. Methods: The link to a web-based questionnaire (www.surveymonkey.com) was sent to all registered e-mail addresses (1854) of members of the Endourological Society in December 2010. The questionnaire contained 6 epidemiological questions, 10 regarding patterns of practice, one regarding the influence of literature and one on future techniques. Chi-square test (for trends) was used to assess statistical significant ...
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    12. Integrated Optical Coherence Tomography and Optical Coherence Microscopy Imaging of Ex Vivo Human Renal Tissues

      Integrated Optical Coherence Tomography and Optical Coherence Microscopy Imaging of Ex Vivo Human Renal Tissues

      Purpose We evaluated the feasibility of using optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy technology to assess human kidney morphology. Materials and Methods A total of 35 renal specimens from 19 patients, consisting of 12 normal tissues and 23 tumors (16 clear cell renal cell carcinomas, 5 papillary renal cell carcinomas and 2 oncocytomas) were imaged ex vivo after surgical resection. Optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy images were compared to corresponding hematoxylin and eosin histology to identify characteristic features of normal and pathological renal tissues. Three pathologists blinded to histology evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of optical coherence ...

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    13. Nerve Mapping for Prostatectomies: Novel Technologies under Development

      Nerve Mapping for Prostatectomies: Novel Technologies under Development
      Prostatic neuroanatomy is difficult to visualize intraoperatively and can be extremely variable. Damage to these nerves during prostatectomies may lead to post-operative complications such as erectile dysfunction and incontinence. This review aims to discuss the prostatic neuroanatomy, sites of potential nerve damage during a prostatectomy, and nerve mapping technologies being developed to prevent neural injury. These technologies include stimulation, dyes, and direct visualization. Nerve stimulation works by testing an area and observing a physiologic response but is limited by the long half life for an erectile response; examples include CaverMap, ProPep, and optical nerve stimulation. Few nerve dyes have been ...
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    14. University of Maryland Researchers Received NIH Grant for In Vivo Optical Imaging of Kidney Structure and Function

      University of Maryland Researchers Received NIH Grant for In Vivo Optical Imaging of Kidney Structure and Function
      University of Maryland Researchers received a $119,533 2011 NIH Grant for In Vivo Optical Imaging of Kidney Structure and Function.  The principal investigator is Dr. Yu Chen and this program stated in 2011 and ends in 2013.  Below is a summary of the work   The overall goal of this proposal is to develop a minimally-invasive optical imaging technology for the diagnosis of kidney diseases in vivo and in real time. Specifically, in this Pilot and Feasibility Clinical Research Grants in Kidney or Urologic Diseases (R21), we will image the ischemic injury in human subjects during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy procedures ...
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    15. Emerging optical techniques in advanced cystoscopy for bladder cancer diagnosis: A review of the current literature

      Emerging optical techniques in advanced cystoscopy for bladder cancer diagnosis: A review of the current literature
      Background and objective : The current standard for the diagnosis and followup of bladder cancer remains white light cystoscopy, despite its well-known limitations. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on three optical diagnostics that have been developed to improve the performance of white light cystoscopy: photodynamic diagnosis, narrow-band imaging and optical coherence tomography. Materials and Methods : A PubMed search was performed for all articles on bladder cancer and photodynamic diagnosis, narrow-band imaging, and optical coherence tomography. Relevant papers on the working mechanism or clinical performance of the techniques were selected. Results : Photodynamic diagnosis and narrow-band imaging ...
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    16. Perioperative management of nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer

      Perioperative management of nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer
      Purpose of review: The management of nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer is a challenge. Despite current guidelines, the treatment is suboptimal as illustrated by the high risk of recurrence and progression. Transurethral resection plays a pivotal role in the management of bladder cancer, but the quality varies dramatically. In this review, we discuss the latest developments that aim to improve the outcome of a transurethral resection such as photodynamic diagnosis, a second resection and adjuvant therapy. Recent findings: The treatment of a bladder cancer patient can be improved, for example, with a standard second resection in a subset of the patients or ...
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    17. Bladder cancer imaging: an update

      Bladder cancer imaging: an update
      Purpose of review: To present the recent advances in imaging for diagnosis, staging, and follow-up of bladder cancer. Recent findings: The use of multidetector 64-slice computed tomography (CT) and diffusion-weighted imaging has enabled higher-resolution imaging of bladder cancer on CT and MRI, respectively, increasing both specificity and sensitivity in the detection of bladder tumors and extravesical disease relative standard imaging. Although urinary excretion of 18F-FDG produces difficulties in the interpretation of 18F-FDG PET/CT, new techniques have been described to overcome this limitation. The use of the agent 11C-acetate with PET/CT may be another option when performing imaging for ...
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    18. High magnification cystoscopy in the primary diagnosis of bladder tumors

      High magnification cystoscopy in the primary diagnosis of bladder tumors
      Purpose of review: In bladder cancer, discrimination between benign and malignant tissue may remain tricky with current endoscopic tools. On the basis of our recent experience with high-magnification cystoscopy, compared with other tools such as optical coherence tomography or confocal laser endomicroscopy, it is suggested here that this discrimination may well be feasible endoscopically. The clinical potential of these systems that are being developed as complementary tools to the current endoscopic equipment is reviewed. Recent findings: At present, white-light cystoscopy, either assisted by fluorescence cystoscopy or narrow-band imaging, is proposed for the global cystoscopic examination of bladder cancer patients. Both ...
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    19. Feasibility of optical coherence tomography imaging to characterize renal neoplasms: limitations in resolution and depth of penetration

      Feasibility of optical coherence tomography imaging to characterize renal neoplasms: limitations in resolution and depth of penetration
      Study Type - Diagnostic (exploratory cohort) Level of Evidence 2b What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Optical coherence tomography has been used for the diagnosis of retinal disease and has been used experimentally for imaging of vascular plaques, gastrointestinal pathology, bladder cancer, prostate cancer, and recently to examine benign kidney microanatomy. It has not been previously used to image kidney cancer. This study presents the first data on the utility of OCT in the imaging for renal neoplasms. It found that OCT was most successful in distinguishing AML and TCC from normal parenchyma. OCT had ...
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    20. Highly sensitive imaging of renal microcirculation in vivo using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography

      Highly sensitive imaging of renal microcirculation in vivo using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography

      Studying renal microcirculation and its dynamics is of great importance for understanding the renal function and further aiding the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of renal pathologies. In this paper, we present a potentially useful method to provide high-sensitive volumetric imaging of renal microcirculations using ultrahigh-sensitive optical microangiography (UHS-OMAG). The UHS-OMAG image system used here is based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography, which uses a broadband light source centered at 1300 nm with an imaging speed of 150 frames per second that requires ~6.7 sec to complete one 3D scan of ~2.5 × 2.5 mm2 area. The technique ...

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    21. Feature Of The Week 3/13/11: Russian Scientists Investigate Cross Polarization OCT for Early Bladder Cancer Detection

      Feature Of The Week 3/13/11: Russian Scientists Investigate Cross Polarization OCT for Early Bladder Cancer Detection
      Feature Of The Week 3/13/11: This week OCT News has another exciting “Feature Of The Week” presentation of exciting scientific results on the use of co- and cross-polarization OCT information applied to early bladder cancer detection.  The work is from the prestigious Institute of Applied and Fundamental Medicine at the Nizhny Novgorod State Medical Academy and the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.  Please note the authors have some excellent animation techniques so go slowly when viewing the slides so the animation can complete.   Capabilities of Cross Polarization Optical Coherence Tomography ...
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    22. High sensitive volumetric imaging of renal microcirculation in vivo using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography

      High sensitive volumetric imaging of renal microcirculation in vivo using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography

      We present a non-invasive, label-free imaging technique called Ultrahigh Sensitive Optical Microangiography (UHSOMAG) for high sensitive volumetric imaging of renal microcirculation. The UHS-OMAG imaging system is based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), which uses a 47000 A-line scan rate CCD camera to perform an imaging speed of 150 frames per second that takes only ~7 seconds to acquire a 3D image. The technique, capable of measuring slow blood flow down to 4 um/s, is sensitive enough to image capillary networks, such as peritubular capillaries and glomerulus within renal cortex. We show superior performance of UHS-OMAG in providing ...

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    97-120 of 183 « 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 »
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