1. Articles in category: Urology

    73-96 of 178 « 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 »
    1. Optical coherence tomography diagnostics for onco–urology. Review of clinical perspectives

      Optical coherence tomography diagnostics for onco–urology. Review of clinical perspectives

      Introduction. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is being investigated widely for use in urologic pathology. The current imaging of urogenital cancers cannot be perfect, thus, routine methods demands new updates or inventions of alternative radiological scope. OCT presents so–called “live” optical biopsy. The authors aim to review this modality for uro–oncological purposes. Matherial and methods. A series of 37 publications between 1989 and 2012 was selected and cited from GoogleScholar and PubMED/MEDLINE. The urogenital tract (bladder, ureter, scrotum organs and prostate) was imaged by OCT. Results. The overall OCT sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, negative and positive predictive values ranged ...

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    2. From industrial laboratory directly to operating table: the vicissitudes of optical coherence tomography (OCT)

      From industrial laboratory directly to operating table: the vicissitudes of optical coherence tomography (OCT)

      The current issue of the CEJU runs a paper presenting the prospect of an amazing, unconventional diagnostic method. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a relatively new interferometric technique of optical imaging [1]. Though physical foundations of OCT are difficult to grasp for a run–of–the–mill kind of CEJU reader (editor alike), Dr. S. Kharchenko and co–workers’ paper deserves our notice. This technique has been developed in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology twenty years ago and now OCT emerges as a powerful supplementary tool for uro–oncology. We can be really moved by amazing 3–D scans of ...

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    3. Optical Coherence Tomography of the Living Human Kidney

      Optical Coherence Tomography of the Living Human Kidney

      Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) induced by ischemia is the most common insult to donor kidneys destined for transplantation. ATN results from swelling and subsequent damage to cells lining the kidney tubules. In this study, we demonstrate the capability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to image the renal microstructures of living human donor kidneys and potentially provide a measure to determine the extent of ATN. We also found that Doppler-based OCT (i.e., DOCT) reveals renal blood flow dynamics that is another major factor which could relate to post-transplant renal function. All OCT/DOCT observations were performed in a noninvasive, sterile ...

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    4. Full field optical coherence tomography of prostate biopsies: A step towards pre-histological diagnosis?

      Full field optical coherence tomography of prostate biopsies: A step towards pre-histological diagnosis?

      Objectives To evaluate the value of full field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) for cancer detection on prostate biopsies Patients and methods Eight consecutive patients who underwent prostate biopsies for an elevated PSA or suspicious DRE findings were included in the study. For each patient, one to three biopsy cores were imaged with FFOCT immediately after sampling. Images obtained were analyzed by a pathologist blinded to the pathological results, and classified into three categories: non-cancerous tissue, suspicion of malignancy and prostate carcinoma. A pathological correlation analysis was further performed. Results Sixteen biopsy cores were analyzed. The median FFOCT procedure time was ...

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    5. The impact of real-time 3d imaging by ultra-high speed optical coherence tomography in urothelial carcinoma

      The impact of real-time 3d imaging by ultra-high speed optical coherence tomography in urothelial carcinoma

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become a promising diagnostic tool in many medical fields. In particular, noninvasive real-time optical biopsy of internal organs is one of the most attractive applications of OCT, enabling in situ diagnosis of carcinoma at an early stage. We used an ultra-high speed OCT system for real-time three-dimensional (3D) imaging of three excised specimens of advanced urothelial carcinoma (UC) and investigated the association of the images with results from histopathological examination. Case presentations: Case 1 was a 69-year-old man underwent radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive UC (pT2). Case 2 was a 53-year-old man underwent laparoscopic nephroureterectomy and ...

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      Mentions: Kohji Ohbayashi
    6. Intraoperative optical imaging and tissue interrogation during urologic surgery

      Intraoperative optical imaging and tissue interrogation during urologic surgery

      Purpose of review: To review optical imaging technologies in urologic surgery aimed to facilitate intraoperative imaging and tissue interrogation. Recent findings: Emerging new optical imaging technologies can be integrated in the operating room environment during minimally invasive and open surgery. These technologies include macroscopic fluorescence imaging that provides contrast enhancement between normal and diseased tissue and microscopic imaging that provides tissue characterization. Summary: Optical imaging technologies that have reached the clinical arena in urologic surgery were reviewed, including photodynamic diagnosis, near infrared fluorescence imaging, optical coherence tomography, and confocal laser endomicroscopy.

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    7. Feature Of The Week 11/10/13: Volumetric In-Vivo Visualization of Upper Urinary Tract Tumors Using Optical Coherence Tomography: A Pilot Study

      Feature Of The Week 11/10/13: Volumetric In-Vivo Visualization of Upper Urinary Tract Tumors Using Optical Coherence Tomography: A Pilot Study

      Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has proven a powerful tool for ophthalmologists to make clinical decisions for a wide range of blinding diseases and the there are now ~20 million ophthalmic OCT patient scans per year. Significant progress is also being made in intravascular imaging where OCT is emerging as a tool for both clinical decision making and the understanding of cardiovascular disease and development of new therapeutic tools. OCT also has the potential to impact the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of some forms of cancer. There are many leading research groups around the world that are making excellent progress in ...

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    8. Case Western Reserve University Receives NIH Grant for Staging of Upper Tract Urothelial Cancer with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Case Western Reserve University Receives NIH Grant for Staging of Upper Tract Urothelial Cancer with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Case Western Reserve University Receive at 2013 NIH Grant for $244,983 for Staging of Upper Tract Urothelial Cancer with Optical Coherence Tomography. The principal investigator is Andrew Rollins. The program began in 2012 and ends in 2014. Below is a summary of the proposed work.

      Diagnosis and treatment of upper-tract urothelial carcinomas (UTUC) remain very challenging for urologists. Standard management for many years has been radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). However, RNU is a significant over-treatment for low-risk tumors, which have low rate of progression. Endoscopic management of these low-risk cases bears obvious advantages over RNU, including lower co-morbidity and lower ...

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    9. Innovations in the endoscopic management of bladder cancer: is the era of white light cystoscopy over

      Innovations in the endoscopic management of bladder cancer: is the era of white light cystoscopy over

      Bladder cancer is the most common tumor of the urinary tract, with a worldwide incidence of 8.6 x 100000 in men and 2.6 x 100000 in women (1). The majority of patients (75-85%) present as non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC); within this category the most represented stage is Ta (70%), followed by T1 (20%) and, less frequently, carcinoma in situ (CIS) (10%) (2). The diagnosis of NMIBC and, more generally, of bladder cancer, depends on urine cytology and endoscopic examination with histological evaluation of the resected tissue. Clearly, an optimal cystoscopy with accurate transurethral resection (TUR) is of ...

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    10. University of Maryland Receives NIH Grant for Age-Related Changes in Renal Morphology and Function in Chronic Kidney Disease

      University of Maryland Receives NIH Grant for Age-Related Changes in Renal Morphology and Function in Chronic Kidney Disease

      University of Maryland Received a 2013 NIH Grant for $219,084 for Age-Related Changes in Renal Morphology and Function in Chronic Kidney Disease. The principal investigator is Yu Chen. The program begain in 2012 and ends in 2014. Below is a summary of the proposed work. This application is in response to PA-09-166 "Renal Function and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) in Aging (R21)". CKD is a growing problem among the aging population. According to the United States Renal Data System, the number of older patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has almost doubled over the last 25 years. Thus, CKD ...

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    11. Volumetric In-Vivo Visualization of Upper Urinary Tract Tumors Using Optical Coherence Tomography: A Pilot Study

      Volumetric In-Vivo Visualization of Upper Urinary Tract Tumors Using Optical Coherence Tomography: A Pilot Study

      Purpose Knowledge on tumor stage and grade is paramount for treatment decision in Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma (UUT-UC), but cannot be accurately assessed by current techniques. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a technique, which can hypothetically provide the urologist with real-time intra-operative information on tumor grade and stage. In this pilot study the first results of OCT in grading and staging of UUT-UC are presented. Material & Methods Eight consecutive patients underwent URS for UUT-UC suspicion or follow-up. OCT datasets were intra-operatively obtained from the ureter and pyelum. All patients eventually underwent nephroureterectomy. OCT staging was performed by visual inspection ...

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    12. OCT assisted identification of the grade of encrustation of urologic catheters

      OCT assisted identification of the grade of encrustation of urologic catheters

      Introduction: Ureteric stenting is a commonly used endourologic procedure for temporary and long-term drainage of an obstructed upper urinary tract. The indication for ureteric stenting is obstruction due to intrinsic (intraureteral stones, strictures, or tumors) or extrinsic (for example compressing pelvic or retroperitoneal mass) causes. Despite the fact that stents do certainly have proven benefits in all fields of urology, there are potential morbidities. The most common problem of indwelling ureteral stents is infection. As foreign body in the urinary system, stents act as a nidus for bacteria colonization, crystallization and encrustation. Bacteria induced biofilm formation predisposes for the crystallization ...

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      Mentions: Herbert Stepp
    13. Visualization of synthetic mesh utilizing optical coherence tomography

      Visualization of synthetic mesh utilizing optical coherence tomography

      Introduction and hypothesis Owing to the recent upsurge in adverse events reported after mesh-augmented pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repairs, our aim was to determine whether the location and depth of synthetic mesh can be measured postoperatively within the vaginal tissue microstructure using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods Seventeen patients with prior mesh-augmented repairs were recruited for participation. Patients were included if they had undergone an abdominal sacral colpopexy (ASC) or vaginal repair with mesh. Exclusion criteria were a postoperative period of <6 months, or the finding of mesh exposure on examination. OCT was used to image the vaginal wall at ...

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    14. Nonculprit Coronary Plaque Characteristics of Chronic Kidney Disease

      Nonculprit Coronary Plaque Characteristics of Chronic Kidney Disease

      Background— Chronic kidney disease (CKD) promotes the development of atherosclerosis and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to compare the coronary plaque characteristics of patients with and without CKD using optical coherence tomography. Methods and Results— We identified 463 nonculprit plaques from 287 patients from the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) optical coherence tomography registry. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 . A total of 402 plaques (250 patients) were in the non-CKD group and 61 plaques (37 patients) were in the CKD group. Compared ...

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    15. Telerobotic system designed to treat bladder cancer

      Telerobotic system designed to treat bladder cancer

      Although bladder cancer is the sixth most common form of cancer in the U.S. and the most expensive to treat, the basic method that doctors use to treat it hasn’t changed much in more than 70 years. An interdisciplinary collaboration of engineers and doctors at Vanderbilt and Columbia Universities intends to change that situation dramatically. Headed by Nabil Simaan , associate professor of mechanical engineering at Vanderbilt, the team has developed a prototype telerobotic platform designed to be inserted through natural orifices – in this case the urethra – that can provide surgeons with a much better view of bladder tumors ...

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    16. Combined use of fluorescence cystoscopy and cross-polarization OCT for diagnosis of bladder cancer and correlation with immunohistochemical markers

      Combined use of fluorescence cystoscopy and cross-polarization OCT for diagnosis of bladder cancer and correlation with immunohistochemical markers

      The combined use of fluorescence cystoscopy and cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP OCT) with quantitative estimation of the OCT signal was assessed in 92 bladder zones. It demonstrated the diagnostic accuracy in detecting superficial bladder cancer of 93.6%, sensitivity 96.4%, specificity 92.1%, positive predictive value 87% and negative predictive value 97.9%. Quantitative estimation of OCT signal standard deviation in cross-polarization (CP OCT SD index) makes the visual criteria of CP OCT image assessment more objective. The level of CP OCT SD index for diagnosing superficial bladder cancer, including cancer in situ, was 4.32 dB and ...

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    17. Feature Of The Week 2/3/13: Automated Segmentation Algorithm for Medical Image Processing using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Feature Of The Week 2/3/13: Automated Segmentation Algorithm for Medical Image Processing using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive optical imaging technique for in vivo and in situ imaging of microstructure in biological tissues. Improvements in identification, imaging, and visualization of biological microstructures are necessary before OCT clinical use. Using the proposed algorithm, OCT images of the prostate and cervicovaginal epithelium were segmented to differentiate the cavernous nerves from the prostate gland and to detect minute changes in the epithelial layer, respectively. To detect these nerves and epithelial layer changes, three image features were employed: Gabor filter, Daubechies wavelet, and Laws filter. The Gabor feature was applied with different standard deviations in ...

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    18. New Study Shows Promise For Women Needing Mesh-Augmented Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) Repair

      New Study Shows Promise For Women Needing Mesh-Augmented Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) Repair

      Imalux Press Release - Imalux® Corporation , manufacturer of the Niris ® Imaging System announces that the Niris 1300e has been successfully used to help physicians evaluate women for their suitability and response to mesh-augmented pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair. The Imalux Niris 1300e Imaging System was used by researchers at North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System. They were able to image previously placed mesh located in the vaginal epithelium, and were able to measure the thickness of the epithelial tissue. These studies have generated valuable information relative to the success of the vaginal mesh placement procedures. Both studies were presented at ...

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    19. Case Western Reserve University Receives 2012 NIH Grant for Staging of Upper Tract Urothelial Cancer with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Case Western Reserve University Receives 2012 NIH Grant for Staging of Upper Tract Urothelial Cancer with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Case Western Reserve University Received a 2012 NIH Grant for $304,012 for Staging of Upper Tract Urothelial Cancer with Optical Coherence Tomography. The principal investigator is Andrew Rollins. The program started in 2012 and ends in 2014. Below is a summary of the work. D iagnosis and treatment of upper-tract urothelial carcinomas (UTUC) remain very challenging for urologists. Standard management for many years has been radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). However, RNU is a significant over-treatment for low-risk tumors, which have low rate of progression. Endoscopic management of these low-risk cases bears obvious advantages over RNU, including lower co-morbidity and lower ...

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    20. University of Maryland College Park Receives NIH Grant for In Vivo Optical Imaging of Kidney Structure and Function

      University of Maryland College Park Receives NIH Grant for In Vivo Optical Imaging of Kidney Structure and Function

      The University of Maryland College Park Received a 2012 NIH Grant for $114,187 for In Vivo Optical Imaging of Kidney Structure and Function. The program started in 2011 and ends in 2013. Yu Chen is the Principal Investigator. Below is a summary of the work. The overall goal of this proposal is to investigate the clinical feasibility of a new minimally-invasive multi-modal optical imaging technology for the diagnosis of kidney diseases in vivo and in real time. Multi-modal optical imaging combining high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-sensitivity fluorescence imaging enables comprehensive assessment of kidney structural and functional parameters ...

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    21. Optical assessment of tissue anisotropy in ex vivo distended rat bladders

      Optical assessment of tissue anisotropy in ex vivo distended rat bladders

      Microstructural remodelling in epithelial layers of various hollow organs, including changes in tissue anisotropy, are known to occur under mechanical distension and during disease processes. In this paper, we analyze how bladder distension alters wall anisotropy using polarized light imaging (followed by Mueller matrix decomposition). Optical retardance values of different regions of normal rat bladders under different distension pressures are derived. Then optical coherence tomography is used to measure local bladder wall thicknesses, enabling the calculation of the tissue birefringence maps as a measure of the tissue anisotropy. Selected two-photon microscopy is also performed to better understand the compositional origins ...

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    22. Encrustation of urologic double pigtail catheters—an ex vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) study

      Encrustation of urologic double pigtail catheters—an ex vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) study

      This study aims to evaluate whether optical coherence tomography (OCT) using both the surface and the endoluminal technique is feasible to investigate the locations and degree of encrustation process in clinically used ureteral stents. After removal from patients, 14 polyurethane JJ stents were investigated. A fresh JJ served as a control. The external surfaces were examined using an endoscopic surface OCT whereas the intraluminal surfaces were investigated by an endoluminal radial OCT device. The focus was on detection of encrustation or crystalline sedimentation. In 12 female and two male patients, the median indwelling time of the ureteral catheter was 100 ...

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    23. Strategies to prevent progression of high-risk bladder cancer at initial diagnosis

      Strategies to prevent progression of high-risk bladder cancer at initial diagnosis

      Purpose of review: As high-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has a high propensity to recur and progress, the primary therapeutic goal in patients with high-risk NMIBC is the prevention or delay of disease recurrence and progression. Recent findings: For improving transurethral resection quality, new optical enhancement technology such as optical coherence tomography, photodynamic diagnosis and narrow band imaging might be considered because these emerging optical techniques may contribute to resection completeness and reduce the recurrence risk. Recent studies have confirmed that a second resection is associated with a lower risk of progression and cancer-related death. Although maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guerin ...

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    24. New Optical Imaging Technologies for Bladder Cancer: Considerations and Perspectives

      New Optical Imaging Technologies for Bladder Cancer: Considerations and Perspectives

      Purpose Bladder cancer presents as a spectrum of different diatheses. Accurate assessment for individualized treatment depends on initial diagnostic accuracy. Detection relies on white light cystoscopy accuracy and comprehensiveness. Aside from invasiveness and potential risks, white light cystoscopy shortcomings include difficult flat lesion detection, precise tumor delineation to enable complete resection, inflammation and malignancy differentiation, and grade and stage determination. Each shortcoming depends on surgeon ability and experience with the technology available for visualization and resection. Fluorescence cystoscopy/photodynamic diagnosis, narrow band imaging, confocal laser endomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography address the limitations and have in vivo feasibility. They detect ...

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