1. Articles in category: Urology

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    1. Optical coherence microangiography of the mouse kidney for diagnosis of circulatory disorders

      Optical coherence microangiography of the mouse kidney for diagnosis of circulatory disorders

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become widespread in clinical applications in which precise three-dimensional functional imaging of living organs is required. Nevertheless, the kidney is inaccessible for the high resolution OCT imaging due to a high light attenuation coefficient of skin and soft tissues that significantly limits the penetration depth of the probing laser beam. Here, we introduce a surgical protocol and fixation scheme that enables functional visualization of kidney's peritubular capillaries via OCT microangiography. The model of reversible/irreversible glomerulus embolization using drug microcarriers confirms the ability of OCT to detect circulatory disorders. This approach can be used ...

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    2. Evaluation Through the Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis of the Influence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease on the Gingival Inflammation in Periodontal Patients

      Evaluation Through the Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis of the Influence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease on the Gingival Inflammation in Periodontal Patients

      Purpose: The purpose of this ex vivo study is to exhibit the inflammatory changes that occur within the gingival tissue by using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in periodontal patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and if NAFLD could influence the local periodontal inflammation. Patients and Methods: Gingival tissue samples obtained from patients were divided into three groups – P (periodontitis), NAFLD+P (NAFLD+periodontitis) and H (healthy) groups - and were scanned using an OCT light beam, in order to perform a qualitative and quantitative analysis of images. The value of average pixel density has been associated with the degree of ...

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    3. Phase II multi-center trial of optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to white light cystoscopy for intravesical real time imaging and staging of bladder cancer

      Phase II multi-center trial of optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to white light cystoscopy for intravesical real time imaging and staging of bladder cancer

      Background: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel imaging modality that provides microstructural information of different tissue layers using near-infrared light. This prospective, multicenter phase II trial aimed to assess the accuracy of OCT-assisted cystoscopy for bladder tumor staging. Methods: Patients with primary or recurrent bladder tumors (Ta,T1) identified by outpatient cystoscopy were included. The primary objective was to assess the accuracy and positive predictive value of for determining tumor stage ≥T1 correlated by histopathology. 72 suspicious lesions from 63 patients were eligible to analyze in the study. All suspected lesions were evaluated with conventional cystoscopy, interpreted in real-time ...

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    4. Low-molecular-weight dextran for optical coherence tomography may not be protective against kidney injury in patients with renal insufficiency

      Low-molecular-weight dextran for optical coherence tomography may not be protective against kidney injury in patients with renal insufficiency

      Background: Low-molecular-weight dextran (LMWD) is considered a safe alternative to contrast media for blood displacement during optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Aim: To investigate whether the use of LMWD for OCT is protective against kidney injury in patients with advanced renal insufficiency. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we identified 421 patients with advanced renal insufficiency (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) who underwent coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention; 79 patients who used additional LMWD for OCT imaging (LMWD group) and 342 patients who used contrast medium exclusively (control group). We evaluated the differences ...

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    5. Safety and outcomes of combined carbon dioxide angiography and OCT-guided femoro-popliteal chronic total occlusion crossing and directional atherectomy in patients with chronic kidney disease

      Safety and outcomes of combined carbon dioxide angiography and OCT-guided femoro-popliteal chronic total occlusion crossing and directional atherectomy in patients with chronic kidney disease

      Background: Carbon dioxide angiography with addition of optical coherence tomography imaging may improve procedural success and clinical outcomes in patients with peripheral artery disease and chronic kidney disease. Methods: Single-center, retrospective analysis of patients with chronic kidney disease who underwent carbon dioxide angiography and optical coherence tomography-guided chronic total occlusion crossing and/or optical coherence tomography-guided directional atherectomy was performed. Patient and procedure-related characteristics, along with peri- and one-year post-procedural major adverse events, were analyzed. Results: A total of 18 vessels in 11 patients, with mean age 70 years were treated. All had co-morbidities such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, had history ...

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    6. Segmentation of the Urothelium in Optical Coherence Tomography Images with Dynamic Contrast

      Segmentation of the Urothelium in Optical Coherence Tomography Images with Dynamic Contrast

      Significance: Speckle variations induced by intracellular motion (IM) in the urothelium was observed in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. It is feasible to use the IM as a dynamic contrast to segment the urothelium with only two sequential OCT images. This new method opens the possibility of tracking the distribution of the urothelial cells to identify the microinvasion of bladder tumors. Approach: With fresh porcine bladder tissue, IM was analyzed by tracking speckle variations using autocorrelation function, then quantified with CONTINE algorism to identify the decorrelation time (DT) of the speckle variations. Variance analysis is conducted to show IM amplitude ...

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      Mentions: Cleveland Clinic
    7. The role of cavitation in energy delivery and stone damage during laser lithotripsy

      The role of cavitation in energy delivery and stone damage during laser lithotripsy

      Purpose: While cavitation during laser lithotripsy contributes to the Moses effect, the impact of cavitation on stone damage is less clear. Using different laser settings, we investigate the role of cavitation bubbles in energy delivery and stone damage. Materials and Methods: The role of cavitation in laser energy delivery was characterized using photodetector measurements synced with high-speed imaging for laser pulses of varying durations. BegoStone samples were treated with the laser fiber oriented perpendicularly in contact with the stone in water or in air to assess the impact of cavitation on crater formation. Crater volume and geometry were quantified using ...

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    8. In vivo assessment of structural changes of the urethra in lower urinary tract disease using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography

      In vivo assessment of structural changes of the urethra in lower urinary tract disease using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography

      The paper presents the results of a study of the female urethra in cases of urethral pain syndrome (UPS) and inflammatory diseases of the lower urinary tract using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP OCT). Urethral wall structure was studied in 86 patients; 233 CP OCT images were collected. A comparative qualitative analysis of three groups of CP OCT images — “norm”, “Inflammation” and “UPS” — identified that despite the absence of a clear inflammatory factor in the patient’s examination, the urethral tissues in UPS were in an altered state. The changes in the urethral wall with UPS and in cases of ...

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      Mentions: BioMedTech LLC
    9. Toward image quality assessment in optical coherence tomography (OCT) of rat kidney

      Toward image quality assessment in optical coherence tomography (OCT) of rat kidney

      Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a useful tool for the evaluation of structure and function of the kidney, but the image quality can be affected by many factors. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the image quality of different OCT systems in OCT imaging of the living kidney. Methods One swept-source OCT (SSOCT) of 1300 nm, one spectral domain OCT (SDOCT) of 1300 nm and another of 900 nm were used. A FeO phantom was used to establish the point spread function (PSF). Rat kidneys were imaged for image quality assessment. Light penetration in the kidney ...

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    10. The analysis of prostate tissue by optical coherence tomography (Thesis)

      The analysis of prostate tissue by optical coherence tomography (Thesis)

      The prostate is the gland located around the urethra beneath the bladder that produces most of the sperm fluid (figure 1). Prostate cancer (PCa) accounted for almost 1 in 5 new cancer diagnoses in males in the USA in 2017, and 1 in 8 men will develop invasive cancer in the prostate in their lifetime [1]. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men (after skin cancer) and the second most common cause of cancer-related death (after lung cancer). Advances in screening, diagnosis, and treatment have led to an overall survival increase from 69% in 1991-1995 to 89 ...

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    11. Diagnostic Performance of Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy for the Detection of Bladder Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

      Diagnostic Performance of Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy for the Detection of Bladder Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

      Objective: To systematically evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) in detection of bladder cancer. Methods: A systematic literature search on CLE in diagnosing bladder cancer in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases was performed. A bivariate meta-regression model was used for meta-analysis to evaluate the pooled diagnostic value of CLE. Results: A total of 5 eligible studies involving 302 lesions were available for this meta-analysis. In a per-lesion analysis, pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and summary receiver-operating curve (SROC) area under the curve (AUC) of CLE ...

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      Mentions: Fudan University
    12. The eye, the kidney, and cardiovascular disease: old concepts, better tools, and new horizons

      The eye, the kidney, and cardiovascular disease: old concepts, better tools, and new horizons

      Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common, with hypertension and diabetes mellitus acting as major risk factors for its development. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide and the most frequent end point of CKD. There is an urgent need for more precise methods to identify patients at risk of CKD and cardiovascular disease. Alterations in microvascular structure and function contribute to the development of hypertension, diabetes, CKD, and their associated cardiovascular disease. Homology between the eye and the kidney suggests that noninvasive imaging of the retinal vessels can detect these microvascular alterations to improve targeting of at-risk patients ...

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    13. En‐face optical coherence tomography for the detection of cancer in prostatectomy specimens: quantitative analysis in 20 patients

      En‐face optical coherence tomography for the detection of cancer in prostatectomy specimens: quantitative analysis in 20 patients

      The increase histopathological evaluation of prostatectomy specimens rises the workload on pathologists. Automated histopathology systems, preferably directly on unstained specimens, would accelerate the pathology workflow. In this study, we investigate the potential of quantitative analysis of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to separate benign from malignant prostate tissue automatically. Twenty fixated prostates were cut, from which 54 slices were scanned by OCT. Quantitative OCT metrics (attenuation coefficient, residue, goodness‐of‐fit) were compared for different tissue types, annotated on the histology slides. To avoid misclassification, the poor‐quality slides, and edges of annotations were excluded. Accurate registration of OCT data with ...

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    14. Morpho-molecular ex vivo detection and grading of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer using forward imaging probe based multimodal optical coherence tomography and Raman spectroscop

      Morpho-molecular ex vivo detection and grading of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer using forward imaging probe based multimodal optical coherence tomography and Raman spectroscop

      Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer affects millions of people worldwide, resulting in significant discomfort to the patient and potential death. Today, cystoscopy is the gold standard for bladder cancer assessment, using white light endoscopy to detect tumor suspected lesion areas, followed by resection of these areas and subsequent histopathological evaluation. Not only does the pathological examination take days, but due to the invasive nature, the performed biopsy can result in significant harm to the patient. Nowadays, optical modalities, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Raman spectroscopy (RS), have proven to detect cancer in real time and can provide more detailed clinical ...

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    15. Imaging the Human Prostate Gland Using 1-μm-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

      Imaging the Human Prostate Gland Using 1-μm-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

      Context.— The accuracy of needle biopsy for the detection of prostate cancer is limited by well-known sampling errors. Thus, there is an unmet need for a microscopic screening tool that can screen large regions of the prostate comprehensively for cancer. Previous prostate imaging by optical coherence tomography (OCT) has had insufficient resolution for imaging cellular features related to prostate cancer. We have recently developed micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT) that generates depth-resolved tissue images at a high frame rate with an isotropic resolution of 1 μm. Objective.— To demonstrate that optical images obtained with μOCT provide cellular-level contrast in prostate specimens ...

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    16. Diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of bladder cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of bladder cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Background Bladder cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in men and a considerable disease burden globally. Multiple studies have focused on the accuracy of optical coherence tomography for bladder cancer diagnosis; however, the findings are inconsistent. Here, we assessed the accuracy of optical coherence tomography for bladder cancer diagnosis. Methods Embase, PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library database were searched for relevant studies from the earliest date available through March 11, 2019. Studies evaluating the accuracy of optical coherence tomography bladder cancer diagnosis were included. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve values of weighted ...

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    17. The First In Vivo Needle‐Based Optical Coherence Tomography in Human Prostate: A Safety and Feasibility Study

      The First In Vivo Needle‐Based Optical Coherence Tomography in Human Prostate: A Safety and Feasibility Study

      Objective To demonstrate the safety and feasibility of clinical in vivo needle‐based optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the prostate. Materials and Methods Two patients with prostate cancer underwent each two percutaneous in vivo needle‐based OCT measurements before transperineal template mapping biopsy. The OCT probe was introduced via a needle and positioned under ultrasound guidance. To test the safety, adverse events were recorded during and after the procedure. To test the feasibility, OCT and US images were studied during and after the procedure. Corresponding regions for OCT and biopsy were determined. A uropathologist evaluated and annotated the histopathology ...

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    18. Apelin as a Potential Treatment for Chronic Kidney Disease

      Apelin as a Potential Treatment for Chronic Kidney Disease

      Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects 8-16% of the world's population, and is independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). As renal function declines, rates of major adverse cardiovascular events, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality increase. In addition to hypertension, increased arterial stiffness is characteristic of CKD, a marker of CVD risk, and an independent predictor of mortality in CKD patients. The endothelium is an important regulator of arterial stiffness, and endothelial dysfunction is a feature of CKD and a predictor of CVD. Current treatment of CKD is limited and aims to reduce blood pressure and proteinuria through the use of angiotensin ...

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    19. Imaging the Human Prostate Gland Using 1-μm-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

      Imaging the Human Prostate Gland Using 1-μm-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

      Context.— The accuracy of needle biopsy for the detection of prostate cancer is limited by well-known sampling errors. Thus, there is an unmet need for a microscopic screening tool that can screen large regions of the prostate comprehensively for cancer. Previous prostate imaging by optical coherence tomography (OCT) have had insufficient resolution for imaging cellular features related to prostate cancer. We have recently developed micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT) that generates depth-resolved tissue images at a high frame rate with an isotropic resolution of 1 μm. Objective.— To demonstrate that optical images obtained with μOCT provide cellular-level contrast in prostate specimens ...

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    20. Optical Coherence Tomography in Urologic Oncology: a Comprehensive Review

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Urologic Oncology: a Comprehensive Review

      Introduction Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is being investigated in urologic oncology for optical diagnosis. This comprehensive review analyzes the current state of development of OCT for bladder, upper urinary tract, kidney, prostate, testis, and penis cancer. Also, the potential role of OCT with regard to the current diagnostic pathways is critically appraised to guide future developments. Methods Embase and Pubmed were systematically searched for English and German articles on OCT in humans up to December 2017. Reviews were excluded. Case reports were excluded, unless they presented a landmark in the development of OCT. Results Out of 878 articles, 17 relevant ...

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    21. Combination of High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography and Raman Spectroscopy for Improved Staging and Grading in Bladder Cancer

      Combination of High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography and Raman Spectroscopy for Improved Staging and Grading in Bladder Cancer

      We present a combination of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Raman spectroscopy (RS) for improved diagnosis and discrimination of different stages and grades of bladder cancer ex vivo by linking the complementary information provided by these two techniques. Bladder samples were obtained from biopsies dissected via transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT). As OCT provides structural information rapidly, it was used as a red-flag technology to scan the bladder wall for suspicious lesions with the ability to discriminate malignant tissue from healthy urothelium. Upon identification of degenerated tissue via OCT, RS was implemented to determine the molecular characteristics via ...

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    22. One‐to‐one registration of en‐face optical coherence tomography attenuation coefficients with histology of a prostatectomy specimen

      One‐to‐one registration of en‐face optical coherence tomography attenuation coefficients with histology of a prostatectomy specimen

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT), enables high‐resolution 3D imaging of the morphology of light scattering tissues. From the OCT signal, parameters can be extracted and related to tissue structures. One of the quantitative parameters is the attenuation coefficient; the rate at which the intensity of detected light decays in depth. To couple the quantitative parameters with the histology one‐to‐one registration is needed. The primary aim of this study is to validate a registration method of quantitative OCT parameters to histological tissue outcome through one‐to‐one registration of OCT with histology. We matched OCT images of unstained fixated ...

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    23. Focal Prostate Imaging With CLE and OCT (FPI)

      Focal Prostate Imaging With CLE and OCT (FPI)

      The current limitations in prostate cancer diagnostics lead to over- and undertreatment for a significant fraction of patients. Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (CLE) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) are focal imaging modalities with potential for in-vivo prostate imaging. The investigators anticipate that integrating focal imaging with MRI/TRUS fusion will further improve prostate cancer detection and provides a real-time histopathological threedimensional representation of the tumor lesions. This is an investigator-initiated, prospective in-vivo safety and feasibility study with transperineal template mapping biopsies (TTMB) and two focal imaging methods, CLE and OCT, in prostate tissue.

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    24. Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography for the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer: A Needle-Based, In Vivo Feasibility Study Protocol (IDEAL Phase 2A)

      Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography for the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer: A Needle-Based, In Vivo Feasibility Study Protocol (IDEAL Phase 2A)

      Background: Focal therapy for prostate cancer has been proposed as an alternative treatment to whole-gland therapies in selected men to diminish side effects in localized prostate cancer. As nowadays imaging cannot offer complete prostate cancer disease characterization, multicore systematic biopsies are recommended (transrectal or transperineal). Optical imaging techniques such as confocal laser endomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography allow in vivo, high-resolution imaging. Moreover, they can provide real-time visualization and analysis of tissue and have the potential to offer additive diagnostic information. Objective: This study has 2 separate primary objectives. The first is to assess the technical feasibility and safety of ...

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