1. Articles in category: Urology

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    1. University of Massachusetts, Amherst Receives NIH Grant for Automatic Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography for Assessment of Transplant Kidney Viability

      University of Massachusetts, Amherst Receives NIH Grant for Automatic Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography for Assessment of Transplant Kidney Viability

      University of Massachusetts, Amherst Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $671,945 for Automatic Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography for Assessment of Transplant Kidney Viability. The principal investigator is Yu Chen. Below is a summary of the proposed study. There is a worldwide shortage of kidneys for transplantation due mainly to the fact that there is no reliable means to determine the viability of kidneys available for transplant. There are unmet clinical needs to reduce the >8,000 deaths that occur each year from failures of finding viable kidney matches for transplant, to reduce the nearly 4- year time on donor ...

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    2. Optical coherence tomography and convolutional neural networks can differentiate colorectal liver metastases from liver parenchyma ex vivo

      Optical coherence tomography and convolutional neural networks can differentiate colorectal liver metastases from liver parenchyma ex vivo

      Purpose: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technology based on low-coherence interferometry, which provides non-invasive, high-resolution cross-sectional images of biological tissues. A potential clinical application is the intraoperative examination of resection margins, as a real-time adjunct to histological examination. In this ex vivo study, we investigated the ability of OCT to differentiate colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) from healthy liver parenchyma, when combined with convolutional neural networks (CNN). Methods: Between June and August 2020, consecutive adult patients undergoing elective liver resections for CRLM were included in this study. Fresh resection specimens were scanned ex vivo, before fixation in formalin, using ...

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    3. Assessment of microvascular involvement in lupus nephritis patients by retinal OCT-angiography and kidney biopsies

      Assessment of microvascular involvement in lupus nephritis patients by retinal OCT-angiography and kidney biopsies

      Objectives: Ocular and renal microvascular damage in lupus nephritis (LN) share similar physiopathological pathways that have investigated using traditional fundus examination and high-resolution colour electroretinography. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a recent, non-invasive technique for imaging the microvasculature of retina and choroid. Aim of the study was to investigate through OCTA analysis the relationship between retinal microvascular alterations and renal functional and histologic features. Methods: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with LN, SLE without renal involvement and healthy controls were recruited and accomplished an ophthalmological evaluation, including OCTA. SLE-LN patients underwent a rheumatological evaluation, including disease-related clinical and laboratory ...

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    4. Dynamic volumetric imaging and cilia beat mapping in the mouse male reproductive tract with optical coherence tomography

      Dynamic volumetric imaging and cilia beat mapping in the mouse male reproductive tract with optical coherence tomography

      Spermatozoa transport within the male reproductive tract is a highly dynamic and biologically important reproductive event. However, due to the lack of live volumetric imaging technologies and quantitative measurements, there is little information on the dynamic aspect and regulation of this process. Here, we presented ex vivo dynamic volumetric imaging of the mouse testis, efferent duct, epididymis, and vas deferens at a micro-scale spatial resolution with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Micro computed tomography imaging is presented as a reference for the proposed OCT imaging. Application of functional OCT analysis allowed for 3D mapping of the cilia beat frequency in the ...

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    5. Feasibility of the soft attention-based models for automatic segmentation of OCT kidney images

      Feasibility of the soft attention-based models for automatic segmentation of OCT kidney images

      Clinically, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been utilized to obtain the images of the kidney's proximal convoluted tubules (PCTs), which can be used to quantify the morphometric parameters such as tubular density and diameter. Such parameters are useful for evaluating the status of the donor kidney for transplant. Quantifying PCTs from OCT images by human readers is a time-consuming and tedious process. Despite the fact that conventional deep learning models such as conventional neural networks (CNNs) have achieved great success in the automatic segmentation of kidney OCT images, gaps remain regarding the segmentation accuracy and reliability. Attention-based deep learning ...

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    6. Ex-vivo evaluation of miniaturized probes for endoscopic optical coherence tomography in urothelial cancer diagnostics

      Ex-vivo evaluation of miniaturized probes for endoscopic optical coherence tomography in urothelial cancer diagnostics

      Background: The gold standard for detecting bladder cancer is white light cystoscopy (WLC) and resection of suspicious lesions. In this study, we evaluate two miniaturized Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) probes for endoscopic use, regarding their applicability in diagnosing urothelial cancer. Materials and methods: In total, 33 patients who underwent a radical cystectomy were included. Preoperative oncological staging and determining the indication for the surgical intervention were done following the latest European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines. Samples were taken from bladder tissue after bladder removal and prepared for OCT measurement. Additionally, porcine bladder samples were used as reference tissue. We ...

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    7. Scinvivo Closes an Investment Round of 1 Million Euro from NextStage Early Stage Fund

      Scinvivo  Closes an Investment Round of 1 Million Euro from NextStage Early Stage Fund

      Scinvivo, a MedTech startup based in Eindhoven, has closed an investment round of 1 Million Euro from NextStage Early Stage Fund (NSESF), Innovatiefonds Noord-Holland and current shareholders. With this investment Scinvivo has secured the development of in human clinical trials and CE certification. Scinvivo is on a mission to make cancer diagnostics faster and more accurate, enabling reduction of unnecessary surgeries and improving the quality of patients' lives. Scinvivo develops an imaging platform based on a forward looking OCT catheter to visualise the human morphological tissue structure a few mm’s deep with a high resolution.This approach fills the ...

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      Mentions: Scinvivo
    8. Label-free functional and structural imaging of liver microvascular complex in mice by Jones matrix optical coherence tomography

      Label-free functional and structural imaging of liver microvascular complex in mice by Jones matrix optical coherence tomography

      We demonstrate label-free imaging of the functional and structural properties of microvascular complex in mice liver. The imaging was performed by a custom-built Jones-matrix based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (JM-OCT), which is capable of measuring tissue's attenuation coefficient, birefringence, and tiny tissue dynamics. Two longitudinal studies comprising a healthy liver and an early fibrotic liver model were performed. In the healthy liver, we observed distinctive high dynamics beneath the vessel at the initial time point (0 h) and reappearance of high dynamics at 32-h time point. In the early fibrotic liver model, we observed high dynamics signal that ...

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    9. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Early Stage 1a Retinal Hemangioblastoma in Von-Hippel-Lindau

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Early Stage 1a Retinal Hemangioblastoma in Von-Hippel-Lindau

      Von-Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome is characterized by focal vasoproliferative tumors of retinal capillaries called retinal capillary hemangioblastomas (RCH). These tumors are initially small and can be easily missed if not looked for carefully. As they grow, these tumors are more demanding to treat and hence the importance of detecting them early and treating them. Herein, we describe and review the optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) of the early- stage lesion, which suggested the involvement of superficial and a deeper retinal capillary plexus. In addition, to helping us detect these lesions earlier, OCTA may also help to understand the in vivo changes ...

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    10. Optical coherence microangiography of the mouse kidney for diagnosis of circulatory disorders

      Optical coherence microangiography of the mouse kidney for diagnosis of circulatory disorders

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become widespread in clinical applications in which precise three-dimensional functional imaging of living organs is required. Nevertheless, the kidney is inaccessible for the high resolution OCT imaging due to a high light attenuation coefficient of skin and soft tissues that significantly limits the penetration depth of the probing laser beam. Here, we introduce a surgical protocol and fixation scheme that enables functional visualization of kidney's peritubular capillaries via OCT microangiography. The model of reversible/irreversible glomerulus embolization using drug microcarriers confirms the ability of OCT to detect circulatory disorders. This approach can be used ...

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    11. Evaluation Through the Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis of the Influence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease on the Gingival Inflammation in Periodontal Patients

      Evaluation Through the Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis of the Influence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease on the Gingival Inflammation in Periodontal Patients

      Purpose: The purpose of this ex vivo study is to exhibit the inflammatory changes that occur within the gingival tissue by using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in periodontal patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and if NAFLD could influence the local periodontal inflammation. Patients and Methods: Gingival tissue samples obtained from patients were divided into three groups – P (periodontitis), NAFLD+P (NAFLD+periodontitis) and H (healthy) groups - and were scanned using an OCT light beam, in order to perform a qualitative and quantitative analysis of images. The value of average pixel density has been associated with the degree of ...

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    12. Phase II multi-center trial of optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to white light cystoscopy for intravesical real time imaging and staging of bladder cancer

      Phase II multi-center trial of optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to white light cystoscopy for intravesical real time imaging and staging of bladder cancer

      Background: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel imaging modality that provides microstructural information of different tissue layers using near-infrared light. This prospective, multicenter phase II trial aimed to assess the accuracy of OCT-assisted cystoscopy for bladder tumor staging. Methods: Patients with primary or recurrent bladder tumors (Ta,T1) identified by outpatient cystoscopy were included. The primary objective was to assess the accuracy and positive predictive value of for determining tumor stage ≥T1 correlated by histopathology. 72 suspicious lesions from 63 patients were eligible to analyze in the study. All suspected lesions were evaluated with conventional cystoscopy, interpreted in real-time ...

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    13. Low-molecular-weight dextran for optical coherence tomography may not be protective against kidney injury in patients with renal insufficiency

      Low-molecular-weight dextran for optical coherence tomography may not be protective against kidney injury in patients with renal insufficiency

      Background: Low-molecular-weight dextran (LMWD) is considered a safe alternative to contrast media for blood displacement during optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Aim: To investigate whether the use of LMWD for OCT is protective against kidney injury in patients with advanced renal insufficiency. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we identified 421 patients with advanced renal insufficiency (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) who underwent coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention; 79 patients who used additional LMWD for OCT imaging (LMWD group) and 342 patients who used contrast medium exclusively (control group). We evaluated the differences ...

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    14. Safety and outcomes of combined carbon dioxide angiography and OCT-guided femoro-popliteal chronic total occlusion crossing and directional atherectomy in patients with chronic kidney disease

      Safety and outcomes of combined carbon dioxide angiography and OCT-guided femoro-popliteal chronic total occlusion crossing and directional atherectomy in patients with chronic kidney disease

      Background: Carbon dioxide angiography with addition of optical coherence tomography imaging may improve procedural success and clinical outcomes in patients with peripheral artery disease and chronic kidney disease. Methods: Single-center, retrospective analysis of patients with chronic kidney disease who underwent carbon dioxide angiography and optical coherence tomography-guided chronic total occlusion crossing and/or optical coherence tomography-guided directional atherectomy was performed. Patient and procedure-related characteristics, along with peri- and one-year post-procedural major adverse events, were analyzed. Results: A total of 18 vessels in 11 patients, with mean age 70 years were treated. All had co-morbidities such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, had history ...

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    15. Segmentation of the Urothelium in Optical Coherence Tomography Images with Dynamic Contrast

      Segmentation of the Urothelium in Optical Coherence Tomography Images with Dynamic Contrast

      Significance: Speckle variations induced by intracellular motion (IM) in the urothelium was observed in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. It is feasible to use the IM as a dynamic contrast to segment the urothelium with only two sequential OCT images. This new method opens the possibility of tracking the distribution of the urothelial cells to identify the microinvasion of bladder tumors. Approach: With fresh porcine bladder tissue, IM was analyzed by tracking speckle variations using autocorrelation function, then quantified with CONTINE algorism to identify the decorrelation time (DT) of the speckle variations. Variance analysis is conducted to show IM amplitude ...

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      Mentions: Cleveland Clinic
    16. The role of cavitation in energy delivery and stone damage during laser lithotripsy

      The role of cavitation in energy delivery and stone damage during laser lithotripsy

      Purpose: While cavitation during laser lithotripsy contributes to the Moses effect, the impact of cavitation on stone damage is less clear. Using different laser settings, we investigate the role of cavitation bubbles in energy delivery and stone damage. Materials and Methods: The role of cavitation in laser energy delivery was characterized using photodetector measurements synced with high-speed imaging for laser pulses of varying durations. BegoStone samples were treated with the laser fiber oriented perpendicularly in contact with the stone in water or in air to assess the impact of cavitation on crater formation. Crater volume and geometry were quantified using ...

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    17. In vivo assessment of structural changes of the urethra in lower urinary tract disease using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography

      In vivo assessment of structural changes of the urethra in lower urinary tract disease using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography

      The paper presents the results of a study of the female urethra in cases of urethral pain syndrome (UPS) and inflammatory diseases of the lower urinary tract using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP OCT). Urethral wall structure was studied in 86 patients; 233 CP OCT images were collected. A comparative qualitative analysis of three groups of CP OCT images — “norm”, “Inflammation” and “UPS” — identified that despite the absence of a clear inflammatory factor in the patient’s examination, the urethral tissues in UPS were in an altered state. The changes in the urethral wall with UPS and in cases of ...

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      Mentions: BioMedTech LLC
    18. Toward image quality assessment in optical coherence tomography (OCT) of rat kidney

      Toward image quality assessment in optical coherence tomography (OCT) of rat kidney

      Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a useful tool for the evaluation of structure and function of the kidney, but the image quality can be affected by many factors. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the image quality of different OCT systems in OCT imaging of the living kidney. Methods One swept-source OCT (SSOCT) of 1300 nm, one spectral domain OCT (SDOCT) of 1300 nm and another of 900 nm were used. A FeO phantom was used to establish the point spread function (PSF). Rat kidneys were imaged for image quality assessment. Light penetration in the kidney ...

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    19. The analysis of prostate tissue by optical coherence tomography (Thesis)

      The analysis of prostate tissue by optical coherence tomography (Thesis)

      The prostate is the gland located around the urethra beneath the bladder that produces most of the sperm fluid (figure 1). Prostate cancer (PCa) accounted for almost 1 in 5 new cancer diagnoses in males in the USA in 2017, and 1 in 8 men will develop invasive cancer in the prostate in their lifetime [1]. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men (after skin cancer) and the second most common cause of cancer-related death (after lung cancer). Advances in screening, diagnosis, and treatment have led to an overall survival increase from 69% in 1991-1995 to 89 ...

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    20. Diagnostic Performance of Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy for the Detection of Bladder Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

      Diagnostic Performance of Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy for the Detection of Bladder Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

      Objective: To systematically evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) in detection of bladder cancer. Methods: A systematic literature search on CLE in diagnosing bladder cancer in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases was performed. A bivariate meta-regression model was used for meta-analysis to evaluate the pooled diagnostic value of CLE. Results: A total of 5 eligible studies involving 302 lesions were available for this meta-analysis. In a per-lesion analysis, pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and summary receiver-operating curve (SROC) area under the curve (AUC) of CLE ...

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      Mentions: Fudan University
    21. The eye, the kidney, and cardiovascular disease: old concepts, better tools, and new horizons

      The eye, the kidney, and cardiovascular disease: old concepts, better tools, and new horizons

      Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common, with hypertension and diabetes mellitus acting as major risk factors for its development. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide and the most frequent end point of CKD. There is an urgent need for more precise methods to identify patients at risk of CKD and cardiovascular disease. Alterations in microvascular structure and function contribute to the development of hypertension, diabetes, CKD, and their associated cardiovascular disease. Homology between the eye and the kidney suggests that noninvasive imaging of the retinal vessels can detect these microvascular alterations to improve targeting of at-risk patients ...

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    22. En‐face optical coherence tomography for the detection of cancer in prostatectomy specimens: quantitative analysis in 20 patients

      En‐face optical coherence tomography for the detection of cancer in prostatectomy specimens: quantitative analysis in 20 patients

      The increase histopathological evaluation of prostatectomy specimens rises the workload on pathologists. Automated histopathology systems, preferably directly on unstained specimens, would accelerate the pathology workflow. In this study, we investigate the potential of quantitative analysis of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to separate benign from malignant prostate tissue automatically. Twenty fixated prostates were cut, from which 54 slices were scanned by OCT. Quantitative OCT metrics (attenuation coefficient, residue, goodness‐of‐fit) were compared for different tissue types, annotated on the histology slides. To avoid misclassification, the poor‐quality slides, and edges of annotations were excluded. Accurate registration of OCT data with ...

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    23. Morpho-molecular ex vivo detection and grading of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer using forward imaging probe based multimodal optical coherence tomography and Raman spectroscop

      Morpho-molecular ex vivo detection and grading of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer using forward imaging probe based multimodal optical coherence tomography and Raman spectroscop

      Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer affects millions of people worldwide, resulting in significant discomfort to the patient and potential death. Today, cystoscopy is the gold standard for bladder cancer assessment, using white light endoscopy to detect tumor suspected lesion areas, followed by resection of these areas and subsequent histopathological evaluation. Not only does the pathological examination take days, but due to the invasive nature, the performed biopsy can result in significant harm to the patient. Nowadays, optical modalities, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Raman spectroscopy (RS), have proven to detect cancer in real time and can provide more detailed clinical ...

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    24. Imaging the Human Prostate Gland Using 1-μm-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

      Imaging the Human Prostate Gland Using 1-μm-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

      Context.— The accuracy of needle biopsy for the detection of prostate cancer is limited by well-known sampling errors. Thus, there is an unmet need for a microscopic screening tool that can screen large regions of the prostate comprehensively for cancer. Previous prostate imaging by optical coherence tomography (OCT) has had insufficient resolution for imaging cellular features related to prostate cancer. We have recently developed micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT) that generates depth-resolved tissue images at a high frame rate with an isotropic resolution of 1 μm. Objective.— To demonstrate that optical images obtained with μOCT provide cellular-level contrast in prostate specimens ...

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