1. Articles in category: Urology

    1-24 of 116 1 2 3 4 5 »
    1. Georgetown University Receives NIH Grant for Non-Invasive Evaluation of Transplant Kidney Using OCT

      Georgetown University Receives NIH Grant for Non-Invasive Evaluation of Transplant Kidney Using OCT

      Georgetown University Received at 2014 NIH Grant for $520,754 for Non-Invasive Evaluation of Transplant Kidney Using OCT. The principal investigator is Peter Michael Andrewss. The program began in 2014 and ends in 2018. Below is a summary of the proposed work. There is currently a worldwide shortage of kidneys for transplantation due mainly to the fact that there is no reliable means to determine their viability (i.e., kidneys stored for long periods of time, etc.). Also, following transplantation, kidneys oftn do not function immediately and their status is unclear. Previously, we have shown that the histopathology of living ...

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    2. Optical Coherence Tomography in Staging Patients With Upper Tract Urothelial Cancer

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Staging Patients With Upper Tract Urothelial Cancer

      This clinical trial studies how well optical coherence tomography works in staging patients with upper-tract urothelial carcinomas. Staging describes the severity of a person's cancer based on the size and/or extent (reach) of the original (primary) tumor and whether or not cancer has spread in the body. It also helps the doctor plan the appropriate treatment. Optical coherence tomography is a procedure that uses infrared light waves to give three-dimensional pictures of structures inside tissues and organs. The pictures are made by a computer linked to the light source. Optical coherence tomography may be effective in staging patients ...

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    3. Emerging endoscopic imaging technologies for bladder cancer detection

      Emerging endoscopic imaging technologies for bladder cancer detection

      Modern urologic endoscopy is the result of continuous innovations since the early nineteenth century. White-light cystoscopy is the primary strategy for identification, resection, and local staging of bladder cancer. While highly effective, white light cystoscopy has several well-recognized shortcomings. Recent advances in optical imaging technologies and device miniaturization hold the potential to improve bladder cancer diagnosis and resection. Photodynamic diagnosis and narrow band imaging are the first to enter the clinical arena. Confocal laser endomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography, Raman spectroscopy, UV autofluorescence, and others have shown promising clinical and pre-clinical feasibility. We review their mechanisms of action, highlight their respective ...

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    4. Clinical applications of functional optical coherence tomography (Thesis)

      Clinical applications of functional optical coherence tomography (Thesis)

      The purpose of the work presented in this thesis is to show the potential of functional optical coherence tomography (OCT) to discriminate pathological from normal tissues in several clinical settings, by means of the attenuation coefficient. To that end, several fundamental studies were carried out to increase the fundamental understanding of the measured signals (in phantoms, during apoptosis) and both ex and in vivo investigations are performed in the urological and gynecological clinic.

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    5. Three-dimensional, distendable bladder phantom for optical coherence tomography and white light cystoscopy

      Three-dimensional, distendable bladder phantom for optical coherence tomography and white light cystoscopy

      We describe a combination of fabrication techniques and a general process to construct a three-dimensional (3-D) phantom that mimics the size, macroscale structure, microscale surface topology, subsurface microstructure, optical properties, and functional characteristics of a cancerous bladder. The phantom also includes features that are recognizable in white light (i.e., the visual appearance of blood vessels), making it suitable to emulate the bladder for emerging white light + optical coherence tomography (OCT) cystoscopies and other endoscopic procedures of large, irregularly shaped organs. The fabrication process has broad applicability and can be generalized to OCT phantoms for other tissue types or phantoms ...

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    6. Volumetric mosaicing for optical coherence tomography for large area bladder wall visualization

      Volumetric mosaicing for optical coherence tomography for large area bladder wall visualization

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has shown potential as a complementary imaging modality to white light cystoscopy (WLC) because it can visualize sub-surface details of the bladder wall, enabling it to stage early cancers and visualize tumors undetectable to WLC. However, the inherently small field of view (FOV) of OCT compared with the area of the bladder wall restricts its clinical utility. A large OCT FOV could improve surgical planning by enabling complete visualization of tumor margins or could aid in early cancer detection by tracking the appearance of the bladder wall over time. To overcome the limited FOV of OCT ...

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    7. Multilayered disease-mimicking bladder phantom with realistic surface topology for optical coherence tomography

      Multilayered disease-mimicking bladder phantom with realistic surface topology for optical coherence tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has shown potential as a complementary modality to white light cystoscopy (WLC), the gold standard for imaging bladder cancer. OCT can visualize sub-surface details of the bladder wall, which enables it to stage cancers and detect tumors that are otherwise invisible to WLC. Currently, OCT systems have too slow a speed and too small a field of view for comprehensive bladder imaging, which limits its clinical utility. Validation and feasibility testing of technological refinements aimed to provide faster imaging and wider fields of view necessitates a realistic bladder phantom. We present a novel process to fabricate ...

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    8. Non-Invasive Evaluation of Transplant Kidney Using OCT

      Non-Invasive Evaluation of Transplant Kidney Using OCT

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a rapidly emerging imaging modality that can function as a type of "optical biopsy", providing non-invasive cross-sectional images of tissue architectural morphology in situ and in real-time. This proposal will demonstrate that OCT has the ability to provide novel and valuable histopathological information regarding donor kidneys that can be used to predict post-transplant renal function. These investigations will result in a major breakthrough in increasing the number of healthy kidneys available for transplantation by making the most efficient use of available donor kidneys, eliminating the possible use of bad donor kidneys, providing an accurate measure ...

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    9. Optical coherence tomography provides images similar to histology and allows the performance of extensive measurements of drug-eluting metal stents in animal ureter

      Optical coherence tomography provides images similar to histology and allows the performance of extensive measurements of drug-eluting metal stents in animal ureter

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and histology images of metal stents (MSs) inserted in animal ureters were compared, and the reliability of an OCT-based automated method for the performance of quantitative evaluation of ureteral MSs was evaluated. A zotarolimus-eluting metal stent (ZES) and a bare metal stent (BMS) were inserted in each ureter of ten pigs and six rabbits. OCT was performed in unobstructed stented ureters. Histopathologic examination of the stented ureters embedded in glycol-methacrylate took place. Quadrants of OCT images were compared to their respective histologic images by employing two independent observers who delineated different layers in the quadrants ...

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    10. Using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to Evaluate Human Donor Kidneys Prior to and Following Transplantation

      Using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to Evaluate Human Donor Kidneys Prior to and Following Transplantation

      The most common insult to donor kidneys destined for transplantation is Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN). The extent of ATN will affect post-transplant function and is a significant risk factor for long-term graft function and survival. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a rapidly emerging imaging modality that can function as a type of “optical biopsy”, providing non-invasive images of tissue morphology in situ and in real-time. In this paper, we review studies that support the use of OCT and Doppler based OCT (i.e., DOCT) to image the renal microstructure and blood flow of human donor kidneys. We conclude that OCT ...

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    11. Optical coherence tomography diagnostics for onco–urology. Review of clinical perspectives

      Optical coherence tomography diagnostics for onco–urology. Review of clinical perspectives

      Introduction. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is being investigated widely for use in urologic pathology. The current imaging of urogenital cancers cannot be perfect, thus, routine methods demands new updates or inventions of alternative radiological scope. OCT presents so–called “live” optical biopsy. The authors aim to review this modality for uro–oncological purposes. Matherial and methods. A series of 37 publications between 1989 and 2012 was selected and cited from GoogleScholar and PubMED/MEDLINE. The urogenital tract (bladder, ureter, scrotum organs and prostate) was imaged by OCT. Results. The overall OCT sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, negative and positive predictive values ranged ...

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    12. From industrial laboratory directly to operating table: the vicissitudes of optical coherence tomography (OCT)

      From industrial laboratory directly to operating table: the vicissitudes of optical coherence tomography (OCT)

      The current issue of the CEJU runs a paper presenting the prospect of an amazing, unconventional diagnostic method. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a relatively new interferometric technique of optical imaging [1]. Though physical foundations of OCT are difficult to grasp for a run–of–the–mill kind of CEJU reader (editor alike), Dr. S. Kharchenko and co–workers’ paper deserves our notice. This technique has been developed in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology twenty years ago and now OCT emerges as a powerful supplementary tool for uro–oncology. We can be really moved by amazing 3–D scans of ...

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    13. Optical Coherence Tomography of the Living Human Kidney

      Optical Coherence Tomography of the Living Human Kidney

      Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) induced by ischemia is the most common insult to donor kidneys destined for transplantation. ATN results from swelling and subsequent damage to cells lining the kidney tubules. In this study, we demonstrate the capability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to image the renal microstructures of living human donor kidneys and potentially provide a measure to determine the extent of ATN. We also found that Doppler-based OCT (i.e., DOCT) reveals renal blood flow dynamics that is another major factor which could relate to post-transplant renal function. All OCT/DOCT observations were performed in a noninvasive, sterile ...

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    14. Full field optical coherence tomography of prostate biopsies: A step towards pre-histological diagnosis?

      Full field optical coherence tomography of prostate biopsies: A step towards pre-histological diagnosis?

      Objectives To evaluate the value of full field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) for cancer detection on prostate biopsies Patients and methods Eight consecutive patients who underwent prostate biopsies for an elevated PSA or suspicious DRE findings were included in the study. For each patient, one to three biopsy cores were imaged with FFOCT immediately after sampling. Images obtained were analyzed by a pathologist blinded to the pathological results, and classified into three categories: non-cancerous tissue, suspicion of malignancy and prostate carcinoma. A pathological correlation analysis was further performed. Results Sixteen biopsy cores were analyzed. The median FFOCT procedure time was ...

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    15. The impact of real-time 3d imaging by ultra-high speed optical coherence tomography in urothelial carcinoma

      The impact of real-time 3d imaging by ultra-high speed optical coherence tomography in urothelial carcinoma

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become a promising diagnostic tool in many medical fields. In particular, noninvasive real-time optical biopsy of internal organs is one of the most attractive applications of OCT, enabling in situ diagnosis of carcinoma at an early stage. We used an ultra-high speed OCT system for real-time three-dimensional (3D) imaging of three excised specimens of advanced urothelial carcinoma (UC) and investigated the association of the images with results from histopathological examination. Case presentations: Case 1 was a 69-year-old man underwent radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive UC (pT2). Case 2 was a 53-year-old man underwent laparoscopic nephroureterectomy and ...

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      Mentions: Kohji Ohbayashi
    16. Intraoperative optical imaging and tissue interrogation during urologic surgery

      Intraoperative optical imaging and tissue interrogation during urologic surgery

      Purpose of review: To review optical imaging technologies in urologic surgery aimed to facilitate intraoperative imaging and tissue interrogation. Recent findings: Emerging new optical imaging technologies can be integrated in the operating room environment during minimally invasive and open surgery. These technologies include macroscopic fluorescence imaging that provides contrast enhancement between normal and diseased tissue and microscopic imaging that provides tissue characterization. Summary: Optical imaging technologies that have reached the clinical arena in urologic surgery were reviewed, including photodynamic diagnosis, near infrared fluorescence imaging, optical coherence tomography, and confocal laser endomicroscopy.

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    17. Feature Of The Week 11/10/13: Volumetric In-Vivo Visualization of Upper Urinary Tract Tumors Using Optical Coherence Tomography: A Pilot Study

      Feature Of The Week 11/10/13: Volumetric In-Vivo Visualization of Upper Urinary Tract Tumors Using Optical Coherence Tomography: A Pilot Study

      Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has proven a powerful tool for ophthalmologists to make clinical decisions for a wide range of blinding diseases and the there are now ~20 million ophthalmic OCT patient scans per year. Significant progress is also being made in intravascular imaging where OCT is emerging as a tool for both clinical decision making and the understanding of cardiovascular disease and development of new therapeutic tools. OCT also has the potential to impact the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of some forms of cancer. There are many leading research groups around the world that are making excellent progress in ...

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    18. Case Western Reserve University Receives NIH Grant for Staging of Upper Tract Urothelial Cancer with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Case Western Reserve University Receives NIH Grant for Staging of Upper Tract Urothelial Cancer with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Case Western Reserve University Receive at 2013 NIH Grant for $244,983 for Staging of Upper Tract Urothelial Cancer with Optical Coherence Tomography. The principal investigator is Andrew Rollins. The program began in 2012 and ends in 2014. Below is a summary of the proposed work.

      Diagnosis and treatment of upper-tract urothelial carcinomas (UTUC) remain very challenging for urologists. Standard management for many years has been radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). However, RNU is a significant over-treatment for low-risk tumors, which have low rate of progression. Endoscopic management of these low-risk cases bears obvious advantages over RNU, including lower co-morbidity and lower ...

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    19. Innovations in the endoscopic management of bladder cancer: is the era of white light cystoscopy over

      Innovations in the endoscopic management of bladder cancer: is the era of white light cystoscopy over

      Bladder cancer is the most common tumor of the urinary tract, with a worldwide incidence of 8.6 x 100000 in men and 2.6 x 100000 in women (1). The majority of patients (75-85%) present as non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC); within this category the most represented stage is Ta (70%), followed by T1 (20%) and, less frequently, carcinoma in situ (CIS) (10%) (2). The diagnosis of NMIBC and, more generally, of bladder cancer, depends on urine cytology and endoscopic examination with histological evaluation of the resected tissue. Clearly, an optimal cystoscopy with accurate transurethral resection (TUR) is of ...

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    20. University of Maryland Receives NIH Grant for Age-Related Changes in Renal Morphology and Function in Chronic Kidney Disease

      University of Maryland Receives NIH Grant for Age-Related Changes in Renal Morphology and Function in Chronic Kidney Disease

      University of Maryland Received a 2013 NIH Grant for $219,084 for Age-Related Changes in Renal Morphology and Function in Chronic Kidney Disease. The principal investigator is Yu Chen. The program begain in 2012 and ends in 2014. Below is a summary of the proposed work. This application is in response to PA-09-166 "Renal Function and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) in Aging (R21)". CKD is a growing problem among the aging population. According to the United States Renal Data System, the number of older patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has almost doubled over the last 25 years. Thus, CKD ...

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    21. Volumetric In-Vivo Visualization of Upper Urinary Tract Tumors Using Optical Coherence Tomography: A Pilot Study

      Volumetric In-Vivo Visualization of Upper Urinary Tract Tumors Using Optical Coherence Tomography: A Pilot Study

      Purpose Knowledge on tumor stage and grade is paramount for treatment decision in Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma (UUT-UC), but cannot be accurately assessed by current techniques. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a technique, which can hypothetically provide the urologist with real-time intra-operative information on tumor grade and stage. In this pilot study the first results of OCT in grading and staging of UUT-UC are presented. Material & Methods Eight consecutive patients underwent URS for UUT-UC suspicion or follow-up. OCT datasets were intra-operatively obtained from the ureter and pyelum. All patients eventually underwent nephroureterectomy. OCT staging was performed by visual inspection ...

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    22. OCT assisted identification of the grade of encrustation of urologic catheters

      OCT assisted identification of the grade of encrustation of urologic catheters

      Introduction: Ureteric stenting is a commonly used endourologic procedure for temporary and long-term drainage of an obstructed upper urinary tract. The indication for ureteric stenting is obstruction due to intrinsic (intraureteral stones, strictures, or tumors) or extrinsic (for example compressing pelvic or retroperitoneal mass) causes. Despite the fact that stents do certainly have proven benefits in all fields of urology, there are potential morbidities. The most common problem of indwelling ureteral stents is infection. As foreign body in the urinary system, stents act as a nidus for bacteria colonization, crystallization and encrustation. Bacteria induced biofilm formation predisposes for the crystallization ...

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      Mentions: Herbert Stepp
    23. Visualization of synthetic mesh utilizing optical coherence tomography

      Visualization of synthetic mesh utilizing optical coherence tomography

      Introduction and hypothesis Owing to the recent upsurge in adverse events reported after mesh-augmented pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repairs, our aim was to determine whether the location and depth of synthetic mesh can be measured postoperatively within the vaginal tissue microstructure using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods Seventeen patients with prior mesh-augmented repairs were recruited for participation. Patients were included if they had undergone an abdominal sacral colpopexy (ASC) or vaginal repair with mesh. Exclusion criteria were a postoperative period of <6 months, or the finding of mesh exposure on examination. OCT was used to image the vaginal wall at ...

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    24. Nonculprit Coronary Plaque Characteristics of Chronic Kidney Disease

      Nonculprit Coronary Plaque Characteristics of Chronic Kidney Disease

      Background— Chronic kidney disease (CKD) promotes the development of atherosclerosis and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to compare the coronary plaque characteristics of patients with and without CKD using optical coherence tomography. Methods and Results— We identified 463 nonculprit plaques from 287 patients from the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) optical coherence tomography registry. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 . A total of 402 plaques (250 patients) were in the non-CKD group and 61 plaques (37 patients) were in the CKD group. Compared ...

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