1. Articles in category: Urology

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    1. Renal fluid overload diagnosed by retinal optical coherence tomography scanning

      Renal fluid overload diagnosed by retinal optical coherence tomography scanning

      Fluid overload is one of the major findings in patients with end-stage renal disease. Common findings in fluid overload include shortness of breath, pedal edema, ascites, and pericardial effusion. Rarely, vision loss can be associated with decompensated systemic fluid status. In the following case, we report an unusual case of vision loss due to retinal edema as a result of fluid overload diagnosed and followed to resolution by optical coherence tomography testing.

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    2. LLTECH Records Major Progress In Prostate Cancer Detection And Diagnosis On Use Its Cellular-Scale Imaging Solution

      LLTECH Records Major Progress In Prostate Cancer Detection And Diagnosis On Use Its Cellular-Scale Imaging Solution

      LLTech, an imaging company specialized in the field of the real-time optical biopsy for the diagnosis and the assessment of cancer surgery, announces today the publication of a new study demonstrating the potential of its Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) technology in the pre-histological detection of prostate cancer. During a study led to the Beijing Hospital of Health Ministry (Beijing, China), Cochin Hospital (Paris, France) and UCLA (Los Angeles, USA), three readers (a pathologist with previous experience with FFOCT, a pathologist new to FFOCT, and a urologist new to FFOCT) were trained to read FFOCT images of prostate biopsies (a ...

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    3. Multi-modality Optical Imaging of Rat Kidney Dysfunction: In Vivo Response to Various Ischemia Times

      Multi-modality Optical Imaging of Rat Kidney Dysfunction: In Vivo Response to Various Ischemia Times

      We observed in vivo kidney dysfunction with various ischemia times at 30, 75, 90, and 120 min using multi-modality optical imaging: optical coherence tomography (OCT), Doppler OCT (DOCT), and two-photon microscopy (TPM). We imaged the renal tubule lumens and glomerulus at several areas of each kidney before, during, and after ischemia of 5-month-old female Munich-Wistar rats. For animals with 30 and 75 min ischemia times, we observed that all areas were recovered after ischemia, that tubule lumens were re-opened and the blood flow of the glomerulus was re-established. For animals with 90 and 120 min ischemia times, we observed unrecovered ...

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    4. Optical Coherence Tomography as a Tool for in Vivo Staging and Grading of Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma: A Study for Diagnostic Accuracy

      Optical Coherence Tomography as a Tool for in Vivo Staging and Grading of Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma: A Study for Diagnostic Accuracy

      Purposes Biopsies and cytology are cornerstones in the diagnosis of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). However, a high rate of non-diagnostic biopsies, tumor upgrading and -staging after nephroureterectomy is observed. In this prospective in vivo study we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of OCT for grading and staging of UTUC Material & Methods Twenty-six patients underwent diagnostic URS including biopsies and OCT imaging, followed by nephroureterectomy or segmental ureter resection. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of UTUC grading and staging by OCT were evaluated according to the STARD initiative and second stage (2a and 2b ...

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    5. Impact of chronic kidney disease stages on atherosclerotic plaque components on optical coherence tomography in patients with coronary artery disease

      Impact of chronic kidney disease stages on atherosclerotic plaque components on optical coherence tomography in patients with coronary artery disease

      The progression of coronary atherosclerosis has been influenced by the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study investigated the impact of CKD stages on coronary plaque components observed on optical coherence tomography (OCT). We investigated 296 native coronary lesions with stable angina pectoris treated with stent implantation. All lesions were divided into the three groups according to the values of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, mL min −1 1.73 m −2 ): the non-CKD group (eGFR ≥60, n = 142), CKD group (15 ≤ eGFR < 60, n = 126), and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) group (eGFR <15 and/or hemodialysis, n = 28 ...

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    6. High efficiency for prostate biopsy qualification with full-field OCT after training

      High efficiency for prostate biopsy qualification with full-field OCT after training

      Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) offers a fast and non-destructive method of obtaining images of biological tissues at ultrahigh resolution, approaching traditional histological sections. In the context of prostate cancer diagnosis involving multiple biopsies, FFOCT could be used to validate the cores just after they are obtained in order to guide the number of biopsies to be performed. The aim of the study was to define and test a training protocol for efficient FFOCT prostate biopsy assessment. Three readers (a pathologist with previous experience with FFOCT, a pathologist new to FFOCT, and a urologist new to FFOCT) were trained to ...

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    7. Optical Coherence Tomography of the Aging Kidney

      Optical Coherence Tomography of the Aging Kidney

      Objectives: The aging kidney exhibits a progressive decline in renal function with characteristic histopathologic changes and is a risk factor for renal transplant. However, the degree to which the kidney exhibits this decline depends on several factors that vary from one individual to the next. Optical coherence tomography is an evolving noninvasive imaging technology that has recently been used to evaluate acute tubular necrosis of living-human donor kidneys before their transplant. With the increasing use of kidneys from older individuals, it is important to determine whether optical coherence tomography also can distinguish the histopathology associated with aging. Materials and Methods ...

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    8. Combined optical coherence tomography and optical coherence elastography for glomerulonephritis classification

      Combined optical coherence tomography and optical coherence elastography for glomerulonephritis classification

      Acute Glomerulonephritis caused by anti-glomerular basement membrane disease has a high mortality due to delayed diagnosis. Thus, an accurate and early diagnosis is critical for preserving renal function. Currently, blood, urine, and tissue-based diagnoses can be time consuming, while ultrasound and CT imaging have relatively low spatial resolution. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging technique that provides superior spatial resolution (micron scale) as compared to ultrasound and CT. Pathological changes in tissue properties can be detected based on the optical metrics analyzed from the OCT signal, such as optical attenuation and speckle variance. Moreover, OCT does not rely ...

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    9. Catheter-based intraluminal optical coherence tomography of the normal human upper urinary tract in vivo: proof of concept and comparison with an ex-vivo porcine model

      Catheter-based intraluminal optical coherence tomography of the normal human upper urinary tract in vivo: proof of concept and comparison with an ex-vivo porcine model

      Objective : Single-slice, cross-sectional, intraluminal optical-coherence-tomography (OCT) is a new destruction-free optical imaging method that could be applied clinically to examine the upper urinary tract from within. In-vivo access to the human upper urinary tract (UUT) was attempted. Similar performance statistics as in ex-vivo porcine UUT were expected for delineation of different wall layers by in-vivo OCT of human UUTs. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Institutional ethics committee approved OCT in a volunteer sample of 15 patients suspected of having UUT pathology (urolithiasis, strictures, urothelial carcinoma (UC)). Commercially available, catheter-mounted 400-μm-OCT-probes (lateral resolution, < 20 µm) were introduced through a rigid cystoscope and ...

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    10. Prostate cancer diagnosis by optical coherence tomography: First results from a needle based optical platform for tissue sampling

      Prostate cancer diagnosis by optical coherence tomography: First results from a needle based optical platform for tissue sampling

      The diagnostic accuracy of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) based optical attenuation coefficient analysis is assessed for the detection of prostate cancer. Needle-based OCT-measurements were performed on the prostate specimens. Attenuation coefficients were determined by an earlier described in-house developed software package. The mean attenuation coefficients (benign OCT data; malignant OCT data; p-value Mann-Whitney U test) were: (3.56 mm –1 ; 3.85 mm –1 ; p < 0.0001) for all patients combined. The area under the ROC curve was 0.64. In order to circumvent the effect of histopathology mismatching, we performed a sub-analysis on only OCT data in which tumor ...

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    11. Customized Tool for the Validation of Optical Coherence Tomography in Differentiation of Prostate Cancer

      Customized Tool for the Validation of Optical Coherence Tomography in Differentiation of Prostate Cancer

      Objective: To design and demonstrate a customized tool to generate histologic sections of the prostate that directly correlate with needle-based optical coherence tomography pullback measurements. Materials and Methods: A customized tool was created to hold the prostatectomy specimens during optical coherence tomography measurements and formalin fixation. Using the tool, the prostate could be sliced into slices of 4 mm thickness through the optical coherence tomography measurement trajectory. In this way, whole-mount pathology slides were produced in exactly the same location as the optical coherence tomography measurements were performed. Full 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography pullbacks were fused with the histopathology slides ...

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    12. Percutaneous Needle Based Optical Coherence Tomography for the Differentiation of Renal Masses: a Pilot Cohort

      Percutaneous Needle Based Optical Coherence Tomography for the Differentiation of Renal Masses: a Pilot Cohort

      To view the full text, please login as a subscribed user or purchase a subscription . Click here to view the full text on ScienceDirect. The aim of this study is to determine the ability of percutaneous needle based Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to differentiate renal masses, by using the attenuation coefficient (μOCT, mm-1) as a quantitative measure. Percutaneous needle based OCT of the kidney was performed in patients presenting with a solid renal mass.

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    13. Optical coherence tomography-guided percutaneous coronary intervention in pre-terminal chronic kidney disease with no radio-contrast administration

      Optical coherence tomography-guided percutaneous coronary intervention in pre-terminal chronic kidney disease with no radio-contrast administration

      A 67-year-old man with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) (creatinine = 4.5 mg/dL, eGFR = 13 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) not requiring haemodialysis presented with progressive angina. Diagnostic angiography with ultra-low radio-contrast volume (12 mL, contrast volume/eGFR ratio <1) revealed significant stenosis in the left anterior descending (LAD) artery ( Panel A ). The lesion was haemodynamically significant (fractional flow reserve: 0.77). Post-angiography, the …

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    14. Diagnostics techniques in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer

      Diagnostics techniques in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer

      Introduction: Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is the most common presentation of bladder cancer and is often treatable with endoscopic resection and intravesical therapies. Cystoscopy and urine cytology are the gold standard in diagnosis and surveillance but are limited by their sensitivity in some situations. We seek to provide an overview of recent additions to the diagnostic armamentarium for urologists treating this disease. Methods: Articles were identified through a literature review of articles obtained through PubMed searches including the terms “bladder cancer”and various diagnostic techniques described in the article. Results: A variety of urinary biomarkers are available to assist ...

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    15. A Pilot Study of In Vivo Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

      A Pilot Study of In Vivo Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

      Purpose: Tissue diagnosis of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is limited by variance in tumor sampling by standard ureteroscopic biopsy. Optical imaging technologies can potentially improve UTUC diagnosis, surveillance, and endoscopic treatment. We previously demonstrated in vivo optical biopsy of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder using confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE). In this study, we evaluated a new 0.85-mm imaging probe in the upper urinary tract and demonstrated feasibility and compatibility with standard ureteroscopes to achieve in vivo optical biopsy of UTUC. Patients, Materials and Methods: Fourteen patients scheduled for ureteroscopy of suspected upper tract lesions or surveillance of UTUC ...

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    16. Apparatus And Methods For NON-INVASIVE Assessment Of Transplant Kidney Viability

      Apparatus And Methods For NON-INVASIVE Assessment Of Transplant Kidney Viability

      A kidney viability assessment system (KVAS) is disclosed which provides objective and reliable tests to assess the viability of transplant or donor kidneys in vivo and predict their post-transplant outcomes. KVAS includes an optical device augmented by an intelligent algorithm that can evaluate the viability or quality of the donor kidney in a real-time, non-invasive way. In particular, it includes a handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging device and at least one processor configured for executing a set of instructions corresponding to an automatic image processing algorithm for quantification of kidney microstructures and functions. Handheld OCT can survey the entire ...

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    17. Prostate cancer diagnosis: the feasibility of needle-based optical coherence tomography

      Prostate cancer diagnosis: the feasibility of needle-based optical coherence tomography

      The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of needle-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) and functional analysis of OCT data along the full pullback trajectory of the OCT measurement in the prostate, correlated with pathology. OCT images were recorded using a commercially available C7-XR™ OCT Intravascular Imaging System interfaced to a C7 Dragonfly™ intravascular 0.9-mm-diameter imaging probe. A computer program was constructed for automated image attenuation analysis. First, calibration of the OCT system for both the point spread function and the system roll-off was achieved by measurement of the OCT signal attenuation from an extremely weakly scattering ...

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    18. Catheter-based intraluminal optical coherence tomography: mcomparison with digital light microscopy of ureter wall morphometry in porcine specimens

      Catheter-based intraluminal optical coherence tomography: mcomparison with digital light microscopy of ureter wall morphometry in porcine specimens

      OBJECTIVE: Reproducibility and agreement of width estimates for urothelium, lamina propria, and muscle layer of normal porcine ureter wall ex vivo were compared between catheter-mounted, intraluminal cross-sectional optical coherence tomography (OCT), as a new destruction-free optical imaging method that could be applied clinically to examine the upper urinary tract from within if found to reliably delineate its different anatomical layers, and whole-mount low-power digital light microscopy (DLM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven ex-vivo-specimens of porcine ureter were flushed with normal saline solution prior to OCT (catheter diameter, 0.014 inch, wavelength, 1300 ± 20 nm, LightLab Imaging, Inc., Westford, MA, USA) at ...

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      Mentions: St. Jude Medical
    19. Real-time cancer diagnosis during prostate biopsy: ex vivo evaluation of full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) imaging on biopsy cores

      Real-time cancer diagnosis during prostate biopsy: ex vivo evaluation of full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) imaging on biopsy cores

      Objectives To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy (Acc) of full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) for cancer detection on prostate biopsy. Materials and methods Thirty-eight consecutive patients with elevated PSA and/or suspicious digital rectal examination were prospectively included. For each patient, 1–10 cores were randomly selected and imaged with FFOCT immediately after sampling. The images obtained were de-identified and analyzed by three pathologists blinded to the results of pathological evaluation. The overall average Acc was measured, as well as sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV). The Acc learning curve was assessed by multivariate logistic ...

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    20. Collateral damage to the ureter and Nitinol stone baskets during thulium fiber laser lithotripsy

      Collateral damage to the ureter and Nitinol stone baskets during thulium fiber laser lithotripsy

      Background The experimental Thulium fiber laser (TFL) is currently being studied as a potential alternative lithotripter to the clinical gold standard Holmium:YAG laser. Safety studies characterizing undesirable Holmium:YAG laser-induced damage to ureter tissue and stone baskets have been previously reported. Similarly, this study characterizes TFL induced ureter and stone basket damage. Methods A TFL beam with energy of 35 mJ per pulse, pulse duration of 500 µs, and variable pulse rates of 50–500 Hz, was delivered through 100-µm-core optical fibers, to either porcine ureter wall, in vitro , or a standard 1.9-Fr Nitinol stone basket wire ...

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    21. Georgetown University Receives NIH Grant for Non-Invasive Evaluation of Transplant Kidney using OCT

      Georgetown University Receives NIH Grant  for Non-Invasive Evaluation of Transplant Kidney using OCT

      Georgetown University Receives a 2015 NIH Grant for $388,865 for Non-Invasive Evaluation of Transplant Kidney using OCT. The principal investigator is Peter Andrews. The program began in 2014 and ends in 2016. Below is a summary of the proposed work. There is currently a worldwide shortage of kidneys for transplantation due mainly to the fact that there is no reliable means to determine their viability (i.e., kidneys stored for long periods of time, etc.). Also, following transplantation, kidneys oftn do not function immediately and their status is unclear. Previously, we have shown that the histopathology of living, superficial ...

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    22. Integrated Ultrasound, OCT, PA AND/OR Florescence Imaging Endoscope For Diagnosing Cancers In Gastrointestinal, Respiratory, And Urogenital Tracts

      Integrated Ultrasound, OCT, PA AND/OR Florescence Imaging Endoscope For Diagnosing Cancers In Gastrointestinal, Respiratory, And Urogenital Tracts

      A multimodality imaging system including ultrasound, optical coherence tomography (OCT), photoacoustic (PA) imaging, florescence imaging and endoscopic catheter for imaging inside the gastrointestinal tract with real-time automatic image co-registration capability, including: an ultrasound subsystem for imaging; an optical coherence tomography (OCT) subsystem for imaging, a PA microscopy or tomography subsystem for imaging and a florescence imaging subsystem for imaging. An invasive interventional imaging device is included with an instrumentality to take a tissue biopsy from a location visible on the ultrasound subsystem for imaging, on the optical coherence tomography (OCT) subsystem for imaging, photoacoustic (PA) subsystem for imaging and florescence ...

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    23. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of a murine model of chronic kidney disease

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of a murine model of chronic kidney disease

      Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is characterized by a progressive loss in renal function over time. Pathology can provide valuable insights into the progression of CKD by analyzing the status of glomeruli and the uriniferous tubules over time. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new procedure that can analyze the microscopic structure of the kidney in a non-invasive manner. This is especially important because there are significant artifacts associated with excision biopsies and immersion fixation procedures. Recently, we have shown that OCT can provide real time images of kidney microstructure and Doppler OCT (DOCT) can image glomerular renal blood flow in ...

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    24. Differential diagnosis of human bladder mucosa pathologies in vivo with cross-polarization optical coherence tomography

      Differential diagnosis of human bladder mucosa pathologies in vivo with cross-polarization optical coherence tomography

      Quantitative image analysis and parameter extraction using a specific implementation of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides differential diagnosis of mucosal pathologies in in-vivo human bladders. We introduce a cross-polarization (CP) OCT image metric called Integral Depolarization Factor (IDF) to enable automatic diagnosis of bladder conditions (assessment the functional state of collagen fibers). IDF-based diagnostic accuracy of identification of the severe fibrosis of normal bladder mucosa is 79%; recurrence of carcinoma on the post-operative scar is 97%; and differentiation between neoplasia and acute inflammation is 75%. The promising potential of CP OCT combined with image analysis in human urology is ...

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    1-24 of 155 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 »
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