1. Articles in category: Otolaryngology

    1-24 of 338 1 2 3 4 ... 12 13 14 »
    1. The Use of Optical Coherence Tomography and Convolutional Neural Networks to Distinguish Normal and Abnormal Oral Mucosa

      The Use of Optical Coherence Tomography and Convolutional Neural Networks to Distinguish Normal and Abnormal Oral Mucosa

      Incomplete surgical resection of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the most common cause of local HNSCC recurrence. Currently, surgeons rely on pre‐operative imaging, direct visualization, palpation, and frozen section to determine the extent of tissue resection. It has been demonstrated that optical coherence tomography (OCT), a minimally invasive, non‐ionizing near infrared mesoscopic imaging modality can resolve subsurface differences between normal and abnormal head and neck mucosa. Previous work has utilized 2‐D OCT imaging which is limited to the evaluation of a small regions of interest generated frame by frame. OCT technology is capable of ...

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    2. Extratympanic Observation of Middle and Inner Ear Structures in Rodents Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Extratympanic Observation of Middle and Inner Ear Structures in Rodents Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Objectives. This study aimed to investigate whether optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides useful information about the microstructures of the middle and inner ear via extratympanic approach and thereby could be utilized as an alternative diagnostic technology in ear imaging. Method. Five rats and mice were included, and the swept-source OCT system was applied to confirm the extent of visibility of the middle and inner ear and measure the length or thickness of the microstructures in the ear. The cochlea was subsequently dissected following OCT and histologically evaluated to compare with the OCT images. Results. The middle ear microstructures such as ...

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    3. Assessing the Effect of Middle Ear Effusions on Wideband Acoustic Immittance Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Assessing the Effect of Middle Ear Effusions on Wideband Acoustic Immittance Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Objectives: Wideband acoustic immittance (WAI) noninvasively assesses middle ear function by measuring the sound conduction over a range of audible frequencies. Although several studies have shown the potential of WAI for detecting the presence of middle ear effusions (MEEs), determining the effects of MEE type and amount on WAI in vivo has been challenging due to the anatomical location of middle ear cavity. The purpose of this study is to correlate WAI measurements with physical characteristics of the middle ear and MEEs determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT), a noninvasive optical imaging technique. Design: Sixteen pediatric subjects (average age of ...

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    4. High-resolution Imaging of the Human Cochlea through the Round Window by means of Optical Coherence Tomography

      High-resolution Imaging of the Human Cochlea through the Round Window by means of Optical Coherence Tomography

      The human cochlea is deeply embedded in the temporal bone and surrounded by a thick otic capsule, rendering its internal structure inaccessible for direct visualization. Clinical imaging techniques fall short of their resolution for imaging of the intracochlear structures with sufficient detail. As a result, there is a lack of knowledge concerning best practice for intracochlear therapy placement, such as cochlear implantation. In the past decades, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proven valuable for non-invasive, high-resolution, cross-sectional imaging of tissue microstructure in various fields of medicine, including ophthalmology, cardiology and dermatology. There is an upcoming interest for OCT imaging of ...

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    5. The frequency limit of outer hair cell motility measured in vivo

      The frequency limit of outer hair cell motility measured in vivo

      Outer hair cells (OHCs) in the mammalian ear exhibit electromotility, electrically driven somatic length changes that are thought to mechanically amplify sound-evoked vibrations. For this amplification to work, OHCs must respond to sounds on a cycle-by-cycle basis even at frequencies that exceed the low-pass corner frequency of their cell membranes. Using in vivo optical vibrometry we tested this theory by measuring sound-evoked motility in the 13–25 kHz region of the gerbil cochlea. OHC vibrations were strongly rectified, and motility exhibited first-order low-pass characteristics with corner frequencies around 3 kHz– more than 2.5 octaves below the frequencies the OHCs ...

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    6. Compensation for the Influence of Fluctuations in the Distance to the Object During Noncontact Probing in Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Compensation for the Influence of Fluctuations in the Distance to the Object During Noncontact Probing in Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      We propose and experimentally test a numerical method for correction of the influence of fluctuations in the distance to objects during noncontact probing in optical coherence tomography. The method is based on the analysis of phase shifts of the neighboring scans, which are due to microscale displacements, and further compensation for these displacements by using phasefrequency correction in the spectral domain. Unlike the known correlation methods, the proposed method does not distort the represented shape of the object surface. Its operability is demonstrated in model experiments in the cases of harmonic and random types of the motion of the scattering ...

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    7. Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography for Assessing Inhalation Airway Injury: A Technical Review

      Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography for Assessing Inhalation Airway Injury: A Technical Review

      Diagnosis of inhalation injury has been clinically challenging. Currently, assessment of inhalation injury relies on subjective clinical exams and bronchoscopy, which provides little understanding of tissue conditions and results in limited prognostics. Endoscopic Optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology has been recently utilized in the airway for direct assessment of respiratory tract disorders and injuries. Endoscopic OCT is capable of capturing highresolution images of tissue morphology 1-3 mm beneath the surface as well as the complex 3D anatomical shape. Previous studies indicate that changes in airway histopathology can be found in the OCT image almost immediately after inhalation of smoke and ...

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    8. Measurement of Vibrating Tympanic Membrane in an In Vivo Mouse Model Using Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography

      Measurement of Vibrating Tympanic Membrane in an In Vivo Mouse Model Using Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has a micro-resolution with a penetration depth of about 2 mm and field of view of about 10 mm. This makes OCT well suited for analyzing the anatomical and internal structural assessment of the middle ear. To study the vibratory motion of the tympanic membrane (TM) and its internal structure, we developed a phase-resolved Doppler OCT system using Kasai’s autocorrelation algorithm. Doppler optical coherence tomography is a powerful imaging tool which can offer the micro-vibratory measurement of the tympanic membrane and obtain the micrometer-resolved cross-sectional images of the sample in real-time. To observe the relative ...

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    9. Dynamic programming and automated segmentation of optical coherence tomography images of the neonatal subglottis: enabling efficient diagnostics to manage subglottic stenosis

      Dynamic programming and automated segmentation of optical coherence tomography images of the neonatal subglottis: enabling efficient diagnostics to manage subglottic stenosis

      Subglottic stenosis (SGS) is a challenging disease to diagnose in neonates. Long-range optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging modality that has been described to image the subglottis in intubated neonates. A major challenge associated with OCT imaging is the lack of an automated method for image analysis and micrometry of large volumes of data that are acquired with each airway scan (1 to 2 Gb). We developed a tissue segmentation algorithm that identifies, measures, and conducts image analysis on tissue layers within the mucosa and submucosa and compared these automated tissue measurements with manual tracings. We noted small ...

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    10. Method and apparatus for obtaining a three-dimensional map of tympanic membrane thickness

      Method and apparatus for obtaining a three-dimensional map of tympanic membrane thickness

      Methods and apparatus for combining a low coherence interferometry (LCI) technique for single-point thickness measurement with videootoscopy for recording the image of a tissue such as the tympanic membrane (TM). TM thickness distribution maps are obtained by mapping the LCI imaging sites onto an anatomically accurate wide-field image of the TM, generated by mosaicking a sequence of multiple small field-of-view video-otoscopy images.

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    11. Synchronized, concurrent optical coherence tomography and videostroboscopy for monitoring vocal fold morphology and kinematics

      Synchronized, concurrent optical coherence tomography and videostroboscopy for monitoring vocal fold morphology and kinematics

      Voice disorders affect a large number of adults in the United States, and their clinical evaluation heavily relies on laryngeal videostroboscopy, which captures the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior motion of the vocal folds using stroboscopic sampling. However, videostroboscopy does not provide direct visualization of the superior-inferior movement of the vocal folds, which yields important clinical insight. In this paper, we present a novel technology that complements videostroboscopic findings by adding the ability to image the coronal plane and visualize the superior-inferior movement of the vocal folds. The technology is based on optical coherence tomography, which is combined with videostroboscopy within the ...

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    12. Picometer scale vibrometry in the human middle ear using a surgical microscope based optical coherence tomography and vibrometry system

      Picometer scale vibrometry in the human middle ear using a surgical microscope based optical coherence tomography and vibrometry system

      We have developed a highly phase stable optical coherence tomography and vibrometry system that attaches directly to the accessory area of a surgical microscope common to both the otology clinic and operating room. Careful attention to minimizing sources of phase noise has enabled a system capable of measuring vibrations of the middle ear with a sensitivity of < 5 pm in an awake human patient. The system is shown to be capable of collecting a wide range of information on the morphology and function of the ear in live subjects, including frequency tuning curves below the hearing threshold, maps of tympanic ...

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    13. UIUC Receives NIH Grant for Integration of Raman Spectroscopy and OCT for In-vivo identification of Bacterial Otitis Media

      UIUC Receives NIH Grant for Integration of Raman Spectroscopy and OCT  for In-vivo identification of Bacterial Otitis Media

      University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for $648,154 for Integration of Raman Spectroscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography (RS-OCT) for In-vivo identification of Bacterial Otitis Media. The principal investigator is Stephen Boppart. The program began in 2019 and ends in 2023. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Otitis media (middle ear infection) is a highly prevalent disease, especially in young children. It has been documented that more than 75% of children will have at least one episode of otitis media (OM) by age 3, and many children will have recurrent or chronic OM ...

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    14. Application of Multi-Tonal Complex with Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging System for Vibrometric Analysis of Inner-Ear Structures (Thesis)

      Application of Multi-Tonal Complex with Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging System for Vibrometric Analysis of Inner-Ear Structures (Thesis)

      Currently, research is being conducted on single tone sound transduction within the auditory portion of the inner ear, the cochlea [1]. The study of cochlear mechanics in large rodents has provided important insight into cochlear function [1]. Additionally, multi-tone stimuli can provide a new perspective in vibrometric analyses that could be used in audiometry as a measure of hearing loss for patients in terms of both magnitude and their unique frequency envelope. Therefore, the proposed study was aimed to test the recent implementation of multitone calibration into an existing python program, PyVib2, which was used during Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT ...

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    15. PhotoniCare Looks Behind Ear Drums to Help Diagnose Ear Infections

      PhotoniCare Looks Behind Ear Drums to Help Diagnose Ear Infections

      Middle ear infections are one of the most common reasons for visits to the pediatrician. However, because the middle ear is hidden from view by the ear drum, physicians must diagnose based on symptoms and a limited physical exam — and when patients have ambiguous or borderline symptoms, accurate diagnosis can be challenging. PhotoniCare’s TOMi Scope uses near-infrared light waves to provide 3D views beyond the ear drum into the middle ear, allowing physicians to visualize and better diagnose middle ear infections. Co-founder and CEO Ryan Shelton, Ph.D. answered a few of our questions about his company’s beginnings ...

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    16. In vivo tomographic visualization of intracochlear vibration using a supercontinuum multifrequency-swept optical coherence microscope

      In vivo tomographic visualization of intracochlear vibration using a supercontinuum multifrequency-swept optical coherence microscope

      This study combined a previously developed optical system with two additional key elements: a supercontinuum light source characterized by high output power and an analytical technique that effectively extracts interference signals required for improving the detection limit of vibration amplitude. Our system visualized 3D tomographic images and nanometer scale vibrations in the cochlear sensory epithelium of a live guinea pig. The transverse- and axial-depth resolution was 3.6 and 2.7 µm, respectively. After exposure to acoustic stimuli of 21–25 kHz at a sound pressure level of 70–85 dB, spatial amplitude and phase distributions were quantified on a ...

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    17. Cracking the cochlea: U-M team creates mathematical model of ear’s speech center

      Cracking the cochlea: U-M team creates mathematical model of ear’s speech center

      New research paves the way for modeling the transduction of speech and music at the cochlear level. Until now, the part of the ear that processes speech was poorly reflected in computer models, but University of Michigan researchers have figured out the math that describes how it works. It could help improve hearing tests and devices that restore some hearing to the deaf. Inside the ear, a snail-shaped organ called the cochlea takes in pressure information from the eardrum and turns it into nerve impulses that are sent to the brain. A full understanding of how this tube-like structure does ...

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    18. Fiber-optic probe and bulk-optics Spectral Domain Optical Coherence tomography systems for in vivo cochlear mechanics measurements (Thesis)

      Fiber-optic probe and bulk-optics Spectral Domain Optical Coherence tomography systems for in vivo cochlear mechanics measurements (Thesis)

      Acquiring the motions of the inner ear sensory tissues provides insight to how the cochlea works. For this purpose, Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SDOCT) is an ideal tool as it has a penetration depth of several millimeters. SDOCT can not only image inside the cochlear partition, but also measure the sample structures’ simultaneous displacements. We customized a commercial Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography system for such functions and detailed the software and hardware steps so this powerful system could be more accessible to auditory researchers. The cochlea is surrounded by bones and tissues, and damage to it would make ...

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    19. University of Wisconsin-Madison Receives NIH Grant for The Interaction Between Vocal Fold Hydration and Vibratory Biomechanics

      University of Wisconsin-Madison Receives  NIH Grant for The Interaction Between Vocal Fold Hydration and Vibratory Biomechanics

      University of Wisconsin-Madison Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for $400,600 for The Interaction Between Vocal Fold Hydration and Vibratory Biomechanics. The principal investigator is Jack Jiang. The program began in 2018 and ends in 2023. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Voice disorders affect millions of people worldwide. Patients have reported many negative social econmic impacts of dysphonia. Proper fluid homeostasis is critical to normal vocal fold function. Maintenance of normal fluid levels in vocal fold tissue ensures normal biomechanical and vibratory parameters. Potential disturbances to this homeostasis include overuse, misuse, systemic or surface dehydration, trauma, and ...

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    20. Dalhousie researchers using laser technology to diagnose hearing loss

      Dalhousie researchers using laser technology to diagnose hearing loss

      Researchers at Dalhousie University in Halifax are using existing laser technology in a novel way to diagnose middle ear problems that cause hearing loss, without the need for more invasive procedures. Optical Coherence Tomography allows researchers to create two- and three-dimensional animated images of the middle ear to see whether there's anything irregular that could affect a patient's hearing. "It's a few seconds of tone," Dalhousie researcher Dan MacDougall told CBC's Information Morning as he demonstrated the device in the lab. "It's exciting … All the structures [of the ear] should vibrate in a predictable way ...

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    21. Revealing the morphology and function of the cochlea and middle ear with optical coherence tomography

      Revealing the morphology and function of the cochlea and middle ear with optical coherence tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized physiological studies of the hearing organ, the vibration and morphology of which can now be measured without opening the surrounding bone. In this review, we provide an overview of OCT as used in the otological research, describing advances and different techniques in vibrometry, angiography, and structural imaging.

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    22. Physical Sciences Incorporated Receives NIH Grant for Multimodal Endoscopic Probe for Inner Ear Hearing Loss Diagnosis and Therapy Guidance

      Physical Sciences Incorporated Receives NIH Grant for Multimodal Endoscopic Probe for Inner Ear Hearing Loss Diagnosis and Therapy Guidance

      Physical Sciences Incorporated Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for $ 505,632 for Multimodal Endoscopic Probe for Inner Ear Hearing Loss Diagnosis and Therapy Guidance. The principal investigator is Jesung Park. The program began in 2016 and ends in 2021. Below is a summary of the proposed work.

      Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a source of significant morbidity and in isolated cases is irreversible. Most cases of SNHL are associated with damage or loss of cochlear hair cells. The diagnosis of SNHL is based primarily on audiometric testing as the inner ear cannot be “biopsied” without causing profound hearing loss. Contemporary ...

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    23. Quality Assessment of Tympanoplasty by Means of Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography

      Quality Assessment of Tympanoplasty by Means of Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography

      Introduction: The endoscopic optical coherence tomography (eOCT) allows the direct, contactless representation and evaluation of the morphology and oscillation behaviour of the tympanic membrane and adjoining tympanic cavity content. After further development of the measuring technology, the eOCT will be able to be used in vivo for the assessment of tympanoplasty results. Materials and Methods: The eOCT was applied to 10 patients after a tympanoplasty with an intact ossicular chain and to 10 patients after a Type III tympanoplasty. The measurement data of the morphology – especially the thickness – and oscillation behaviour of the tympanic membrane and the prosthesis coupling to ...

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    24. Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography in Diagnostics of Otosclerosis

      Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography in Diagnostics of Otosclerosis

      Introduction: Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography (eOCT) enables both high-resolution contact-free 3D-imaging of the tympanic membrane and spatial and frequency-resolved oscillation measurement via Doppler-OCT. Thus it is possible to detect causes of conduction hearing loss. In case of otosclerosis, changes in oscillation amplitude at the umbo had been showed via Laser-Doppler-Vibrometry. Material and Methods: The eOCT system utilizes a swept source laser with a wave length around 1300nm. Field-of-view and working distance are 10 mm. Sound stimulus was a Chirp in the frequency range between 0.5 and 5 kHz at 95 dB. Morphological and functional measurements were done on 12 ...

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