1. Articles in category: Otolaryngology

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    1. Do You Hear That? It Sounds Like a Technology Breakthrough

      Do You Hear That? It Sounds Like a Technology Breakthrough

      The inner workings of the ear have been a mystery for decades. However, that’s all about to change thanks to the efforts of a team of researchers determined to shed some light on the hearing process. Researchers from Stanford University and Texas A&M are working on mapping the tissues of the cochlea, the portion of the inner ear responsible for hearing. To map the cochlea, they used a technique known as optical coherence tomography (OCT) on animal models. OCT is similar to ultrasound but generates very high-resolution images, along with terabytes of measurement data. This data must be ...

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    2. High-resolution images of inner ear could lead to new hearing loss therapies

      High-resolution images of inner ear could lead to new hearing loss therapies

      Understanding how hearing works has long been hampered by challenges associated with seeing inside the inner ear, but technology being developed by a team of researchers that includes a biomedical engineer from Texas A&M University is generating some of the most detailed images of the inner ear to date while offering new insight into the mechanics of hearing that could lead to new therapies for hearing loss. Employing a technique that generates high-resolution, three-dimensional images, Brian Applegate, associate professor in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at Texas A&M, and colleagues from Stanford University are mapping the tissues within ...

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    3. Observing cochlear function

      Observing cochlear function

      Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography measures the morphology and functional vibratory response in the mouse cochlea and helps decipher the complex mechanical processes responsible for hearing.  Hearing loss is the most common sensory health issue due to the multiple effects of noise, aging, disease, and heredity. According to the World Health Organization, more than 360 million people worldwide suffer from disabling hearing loss. 1 Current therapies for hearing loss treat some of the symptoms by providing volume amplification, but there are no curative therapies. The development of effective therapies significantly depends upon a detailed understanding of the complex mechanisms of the ...

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    4. UC Irvine Receives at 2014 NIH Grant for Evaluation of Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Long Range 3D Endoscopic FD-OCT

      UC Irvine Receives at 2014 NIH Grant  for Evaluation of Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Long Range 3D Endoscopic FD-OCT

      University of California Irvine Receives at 2014 NIH Grant for $122,254 for Evaluation of Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Long Range 3D Endoscopic FD-OCT. The principal investigator is Jun Zhang. The program began in 2011 and ends in 2016. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a major medical problem that affects 18-20 million people in the United States. Patients with OSA suffer from fragmented sleep, chronic fatigue, daytime sleepiness, lack of concentration and memory problems with consequences including increased risk of motor vehicle accidents and the development of cardiovascular diseases with risk for ...

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    5. Robot-assisted three-dimensional registration for cochlear implant surgery using a common-path swept-source optical coherence tomography probe

      Robot-assisted three-dimensional registration for cochlear implant surgery using a common-path swept-source optical coherence tomography probe

      Cochlear implantation offers the potential to restore sensitive hearing in patients with severe to profound deafness. However, surgical placement of the electrode array within the cochlea can produce trauma to sensorineural components, particularly if the initial turn of the cochlea is not successfully navigated as the array is advanced. In this work, we present a robot-mounted common-path swept-source optical coherence tomography endoscopic platform for three-dimensional (3-D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) registration and preoperative surgical planning for cochlear implant surgery. The platform is composed of a common-path 600- μ m diameter fiber optic rotary probe attached to a five degrees of freedom ...

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    6. Oregon Health & Science University Receives NIH Grant for Ossicle Vibration Measurements in Conductive Hearing Loss.

      Oregon Health & Science University Receives NIH Grant for Ossicle Vibration Measurements in Conductive Hearing Loss.

      Oregon Health & Science University Receives a 2014 NIH Grant for $427,225 for Ossicle Vibration Measurements in Conductive Hearing Loss. The principle investigator is Steven Jacques. The program began in 2013 and ends in 2017. Below is a summary of hte propose work. The proposal develops a hand-held otoscope that uses optical coherence tomography (OCT) to image the tympanic membrane and ossicles behind an intact tympanic membrane. The system is based on spectral Fourier-domain OCT and can measure vibrations of the ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes) of the middle ear on the scale of nm to ¿m amplitude. In Aim 1 ...

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    7. Physical Sciences Receives NIH Grant for A Functional Otoscopy for Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Middle Ear

      Physical Sciences Receives NIH Grant for A Functional Otoscopy for Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Middle Ear

      Physical Sciences Received at 2014 NIH Grant for $197,522 for A Functional Otoscopy for Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Middle Ear. The principal investigator is Ernest Chang. The program begins and ends in 2014. Below is a summary of the proposed work. There is a growing clinical need for improving the non-invasive diagnostic capabilities of middle ear pathologies in vivo. To address this need, Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), in collaboration with the Eaton Peabody Lab at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary (MEEI), will develop a clinically viable otoscopic imaging system that will employ phase sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) to ...

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    8. In vivo imaging of middle-ear and inner-ear microstructures of a mouse guided by SD-OCT combined with a surgical microscope

      In vivo imaging of middle-ear and inner-ear microstructures of a mouse guided by SD-OCT combined with a surgical microscope

      We developed an augmented-reality system that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) with a surgical microscope. By sharing the common optical path in the microscope and OCT, we could simultaneously acquire OCT and microscope views. The system was tested to identify the middle-ear and inner-ear microstructures of a mouse. Considering the probability of clinical application including otorhinolaryngology, diseases such as middle-ear effusion were visualized using in vivo mouse and OCT images simultaneously acquired through the eyepiece of the surgical microscope during surgical manipulation using the proposed system. This system is expected to realize a new practical area of OCT application.

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    9. In Vivo Imaging of Mouse Cochlea by Optical Coherence Tomography

      In Vivo Imaging of Mouse Cochlea by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Hypothesis Cochlear pathology can be evaluated in living animals using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Background The current imaging methods available for the detailed analysis of cochlear pathology in a clinical setting provide only limited information. Thus, a cochlear imaging modality with high definition is needed for improving the diagnosis of cochlear pathology. OCT has been used in other fields for obtaining high-resolution subsurface images, and its use could potentially be extended to the analysis of cochlear pathogenesis. Methods Slc26a4 (–/–) mice, which generate endolymphatic hydrops, and their littermates were used in this study. Auditory function was monitored by the auditory brainstem ...

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    10. Imaging of noncarious cervical lesions by means of a fast swept source optical coherence tomography system

      Imaging of noncarious cervical lesions by means of a fast swept source optical coherence tomography system

      Non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL) are defined as the loss of tooth substance at the cemento-enamel junction and are caused by abrasion, erosion and/or occlusal overload. In this paper we proved that our fast swept source OCT system is a valuable tool to track the evolution of NCCL lesions in time. On several extracted bicuspids, four levels of NCCL were artificially created. After every level of induced lesion, OCT scanning was performed. B scans were acquired and 3D reconstructions were generated. The swept source OCT instrument used in this study has a central wavelength of 1050 nm, a sweeping range ...

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    11. Imaging of oral pathological tissue using optical coherence tomography

      Imaging of oral pathological tissue using optical coherence tomography

      Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) constitutes 90% of oral cancer. Early detection is a cornerstone to improve survival. Interaction of light with tissues may highlight changes in tissue structure and metabolism. We propose optical coherence tomography (OCT), as a non-invasive diagnosis method, being a new high-resolution optical technique that permits tri-dimensional (3-D), real-time imaging of near surface abnormalities in complex tissues. In this study half of the excisional biopsy was directed to the pathologist and the other half was assigned for OCT investigation. Histopathology validated the results. Areas of OSCC of the buccal mucosa were identified in the OCT images ...

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    12. Physical Sciences Incorporated Receives 2014 NIH Grant for Integrating Optical Coherence Tomography with Laryngeal High-Speed Videoendoscopy

      Physical Sciences Incorporated Receives 2014 NIH Grant for Integrating Optical Coherence Tomography with Laryngeal High-Speed Videoendoscopy

      Physical Sciences Incorporated Received a 2014 NIH Grant for $224,955 for Integrating Optical Coherence Tomography with Laryngeal High-Speed Videoendoscopy. The principal investigator is Ernest Chang. The program began in 2014 and ends in 2014. Below is a summary of the proposed work. There is a growing clinical need for improving the assessment of vocal fold tissue properties in vivo, especially dynamic properties measured during human voice production. To address this need, Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), in collaboration with MGH Voice Center, will develop a clinically-viable imaging system that will integrate optical coherence tomography (OCT) with laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopy (HSV ...

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    13. Optical Coherence Tomography for Oral Mucosal Lesions – A Review Article

      Optical Coherence Tomography for Oral Mucosal Lesions – A Review Article

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used to produce the cross sectional images of tissues. It is a non-invasive technique. It was first introduced by Huang and co-workers in 1991. It can be used for imaging and diagnosing epithelial and subepithelial dysplastic changes within the oral mucosal tissues and in the detection of early oral cancer. Optical coherence tomography produces higher resolution for imaging the epithelium and lamina propria within the normal and dysplastic oral mucosal tissues. Optical coherence tomography technique utilizes near infrared light which allows it to penetrate into the scattering medium and produces submicrometer resolution. OCT can also ...

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    14. Changes in cochlear blood flow in mice due to loud sound exposure measured with Doppler optical microangiography and laser Doppler flowmetry

      Changes in cochlear blood flow in mice due to loud sound exposure measured with Doppler optical microangiography and laser Doppler flowmetry

      In this work we determined the contributions of loud sound exposure (LSE) on cochlear blood flow (CoBF) in an in vivo anesthetized mouse model. A broadband noise system (20 kHz bandwidth) with an intensity of 119 dB SPL, was used for a period of one hour to produce a loud sound stimulus. Two techniques were used to study the changes in blood flow, a Doppler optical microangiography (DOMAG) system; which can measure the blood flow within individual cochlear vessels, and a laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) system; which averages the blood flow within a volume (a hemisphere of ~1.5 mm ...

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    15. Optical Imaging of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Micro CT

      Optical Imaging of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Micro CT

      Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) constitutes 90% of oral cancer. Early detection is a cornerstone to improve survival and to reduce diagnostic delay. We propose optical coherence tomography (OCT), as a non-invasive diagnosis method. OCT represents a new high-resolution optical technique that permits 3D, real-time imaging of near surface abnormalities in complex tissues. In the present study half of the excisional biopsy was directed to the pathologist and the other half was assigned for OCT and Micro-CT investigation. For the OCT imaging it was used an OCT prototype (1300 nm), Synchrotron Radiation Micro-CT and histopathology validated the results. Areas of ...

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    16. Endoscopic Anatomy of the Pediatric Middle Ear

      Endoscopic Anatomy of the Pediatric Middle Ear

      Traditionally, otologists have aimed to produce a clean, dry, safe ear with the best possible hearing result. More recently, “less invasively” has been added to this list of goals. The development of small-diameter, high-quality rigid endoscopes and high-definition video systems has made totally endoscopic, transcanal surgery a reality in adult otology and a possibility in pediatric otology. This article reviews the anatomy of the pediatric middle ear and its surrounding airspaces and structures based on the work of dozens of researchers over the past 50 years. It will focus on the developmental changes in ear anatomy from birth through the ...

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    17. Evaluation of the Internal Structure of Normal and Pathological Guinea Pig Cochleae Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Evaluation of the Internal Structure of Normal and Pathological Guinea Pig Cochleae Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) makes it possible to visualize the internal structures of several organs, such as the eye, in vivo. Although visualization of the internal structures of the inner ear has been used to try and identify certain pathological conditions, attempts have failed mainly due to the thick bony capsule surrounding this end organ. After decalcifying the bony wall of the cochlea with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, we could clearly visualize its internal structures by using OCT. We identified endolymphatic hydrops, strial atrophy and damage to the organ of Corti, evident as a distention of Reissner's membrane, thinning of ...

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    18. New Concepts in Vocal Fold Imaging: A Review

      New Concepts in Vocal Fold Imaging: A Review

      Objective To review new imaging technology potentially useful in the clinical practice of laryngology. Hypothesis Narrow band imaging, iScan (Pentax Medical Company, Montvale, NJ), optical computed tomography, and confocal microscopy have potential value for enhancing diagnosis of laryngeal pathology. Design Literature review. Methods Literature search of computer databases including MEDLINE and PubMed. Results A review of 50 articles suggests that new imaging technologies may enhance clinical diagnostic capabilities. Conclusion The probable value of new imaging technologies suggests that further research is needed to refine these technologies and define their clinical efficacy.

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      Mentions: Pentax
    19. Regeneration of chronic tympanic membrane perforation using 3D collagen with topical umbilical cord serum

      Regeneration of chronic tympanic membrane perforation using 3D collagen with topical umbilical cord serum

      Chronic tympanic membrane (TM) perforation is one of the most common otology complications. Current surgical management of TM perforation includes myringoplasty and tympanoplasty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of three dimensional (3D) porous collagen scaffolds with topically applied human umbilical cord serum (UCS) for the regeneration of chronic TM perforation in guinea pigs. To achieve this goal, we fabricated porous 3D collagen scaffolds (avg. strut diameter of 236 ± 51 μm, avg. pore size of 382 ± 67 μm, and a porosity of 96%) by using a 3 axis robot dispensing and low temperature plate ...

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    20. Optical coherence tomography imaging during thyroid and parathyroid surgery: A novel system of tissue identification and differentiation to obviate tissue resection and frozen section

      Optical coherence tomography imaging during thyroid and parathyroid surgery: A novel system of tissue identification and differentiation to obviate tissue resection and frozen section

      Background : Optical coherence tomography(OCT) allows tissue histologic-like evaluation, but without tissue fixation or staining. We investigated OCT images from tissues obtained at thyroid and parathyroid surgeries to provide a preliminary assessment as to whether these images contain sufficient information for recognition and differentiation of normal neck tissues. Methods : Normal tissues were obtained from patients undergoing surgical treatment. Two new-generations OCT systems including optical frequency domain imaging(OFDI) and µOCT were compared to representative H&E histology. Results : Thyroid, fat, muscle, lymph nodes, and parathyroid tissues were evaluated. Histologic-like microscopic characteristics sufficient for tissue type identification was realized using both ...

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    21. Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea

      Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea

      The most collapsible part of the upper airway in the majority of individuals is the velopharynx which is the segment positioned behind the soft palate. As such it is an important morphological region for consideration in elucidating the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study compared steady flow properties during inspiration in the pharynges of nine male subjects with OSA and nine body-mass index (BMI)- and age-matched control male subjects without OSA. The k – SST turbulence model was used to simulate the flow field in subject-specific pharyngeal geometric models reconstructed from anatomical optical coherence tomography (aOCT) data. While analysis ...

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    22. University of Washington Receives NIH Grant for Volumetric Imaging of Blood Perfusion and Tissue Morphology in the Cochlea

      University of Washington Receives NIH Grant for Volumetric Imaging of Blood Perfusion and Tissue Morphology in the Cochlea

      University of Washington Received a 2013 NIH Grant for $465,474 Volumetric Imaging of Blood Perfusion and Tissue Morphology in the Cochlea. The principal investigator is Ruikang Wang. The program began in 2009 and ends in 2014. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Non-invasive techniques for determining blood flow in the cochlea and imaging its tissue morphology are of paramount importance for the improved understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) and Meniere's disease. Currently there is no device capable of in vivo measurement of volumetric cochlear blood flow (CoBF) or cochlear tissue morphology ...

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    23. OHSU Receives NIH Grant for In Vivo Organ of Corti Mechanoelectric Physiology

      OHSU Receives NIH Grant for In Vivo Organ of Corti Mechanoelectric Physiology

      Oregon Health and Science University Received a 2013 NIH Grant for $355,401 for In Vivo Organ of Corti Mechanoelectric Physiology. The principal investigator is Alfred Nuttall. The program began in 1979 and ends in 2016. Below is a summary of the work. A goal of the cochlear physiology laboratory is to understand how the components of the organ of Corti enhance the sound induced vibration of the basilar membrane, a process known as cochlear amplification (CA). Two questions of broad interest are to be studied; how do the outer hair cells transmit force to activate the CA and what ...

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    24. OCT Medical Imaging Incorporated Receives NIH Grant For Office Based Real-Time High Speed 3D-OCT System For Diagnosis of Early Laryngeal Carcinoma

      OCT Medical Imaging Incorporated Receives NIH Grant For Office Based Real-Time High Speed 3D-OCT System For Diagnosis of Early Laryngeal Carcinoma

      OCT Medical Imaging Incorporated received a 2013 NIH Grant for $928,500 for Office Based Real-Time High Speed 3D-OCT System For Diagnosis of Early Laryngeal Carcinoma. The principal investigator is Tirunelveli Ramalingam. The program started in 2013 and lends in 2015. A summary of the program is given below. Laryngeal carcinoma is the most common primary head and neck malignancy. Flexible fiber-optic or rigid endoscopes are normally inserted through the nose or into the pharynx for conventional physical examinations, but endoscopy alone cannot be used to differentiate between benign, pre-malignant and early malignant lesions, which are characterized by identical symptoms ...

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    1-24 of 186 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 »
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