1. Articles in category: Otolaryngology

    1-24 of 445 1 2 3 4 ... 17 18 19 »
    1. Intraoperative Use of Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography to Evaluate Tissue Microstructure in the Oral Cavity and Oropharynx

      Intraoperative Use of Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography to Evaluate Tissue Microstructure in the Oral Cavity and Oropharynx

      Importance: Involvement of deep margins represents a significant challenge in the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer, and given practical limitations of frozen-section analysis, a need exists for real-time, nondestructive intraoperative margin analysis. Wide-field optical coherence tomography (WF-OCT) has been evaluated as a tool for high-resolution adjunct specimen imaging in breast surgery, but its clinical application in head and neck surgery has not been explored. Objective: To evaluate the utility of WF-OCT for visualizing microstructures at margins of excised oral and oropharyngeal tissue. Design, setting, and participants: This nonrandomized, investigator-initiated qualitative study evaluated the feasibility of the Perimeter Medical Imaging AI Otis ...

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    2. Organ of Corti vibrations are dominated by longitudinal motion in vivo

      Organ of Corti vibrations are dominated by longitudinal motion in vivo

      Recent observations of sound-evoked vibrations of the cochlea’s sensory organ of Corti (ooC) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) have revealed unanticipated and complex motions. Interpreting these results in terms of the micromechanical inner-ear processes that precede hair-cell transduction is not trivial since OCT only measures a projection of the true motion, which may include transverse and longitudinal displacements. We measure ooC motions at multiple OCT beam angles relative to the longitudinal axis of the basilar membrane (BM) by using the cochlea’s natural curvature and find that the relative phase between outer hair cells (OHC) and BM varies with ...

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    3. An optically-guided cochlear implant sheath for real-time monitoring of electrode insertion into the human cochlea

      An optically-guided cochlear implant sheath for real-time monitoring of electrode insertion into the human cochlea

      In cochlear implant surgery, insertion of perimodiolar electrode arrays into the scala tympani can be complicated by trauma or even accidental translocation of the electrode array within the cochlea. In patients with partial hearing loss, cochlear trauma can not only negatively affect implant performance, but also reduce residual hearing function. These events have been related to suboptimal positioning of the cochlear implant electrode array with respect to critical cochlear walls of the scala tympani (modiolar wall, osseous spiral lamina and basilar membrane). Currently, the position of the electrode array in relation to these walls cannot be assessed during the insertion ...

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    4. Cochlear motion across the reticular lamina implies that it is not a stiff plate

      Cochlear motion across the reticular lamina implies that it is not a stiff plate

      Within the cochlea, the basilar membrane (BM) is coupled to the reticular lamina (RL) through three rows of piezo-like outer hair cells (OHCs) and supporting cells that endow mammals with sensitive hearing. Anatomical differences across OHC rows suggest differences in their motion. Using optical coherence tomography, we measured in vivo and postmortem displacements through the gerbil round-window membrane from approximately the 40–47 kHz best-frequency (BF) regions. Our high spatial resolution allowed measurements across the RL surface at the tops of the three rows of individual OHCs and their bottoms, and across the BM. RL motion varied radially; the third-row ...

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    5. Overturning the mechanisms of cochlear amplification via area deformations of the organ of Corti

      Overturning the mechanisms of cochlear amplification via area deformations of the organ of Corti

      The mammalian ear embeds a cellular amplifier that boosts sound-induced hydromechanical waves as they propagate along the cochlea. The operation of this amplifier is not fully understood and is difficult to disentangle experimentally. In the prevailing view, cochlear waves are amplified by the piezo-electric action of the outer hair cells (OHCs), whose cycle-by-cycle elongations and contractions inject power into the local motion of the basilar membrane (BM). Concomitant deformations of the opposing (or “top”) side of the organ of Corti are assumed to play a minor role and are generally neglected. However, analysis of intracochlear motions obtained using optical coherence ...

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      Mentions: UCLA
    6. Stanford University Received a 2022 NIH Grant for development of a Human Ear Cellular Atlas

      Stanford University Received a 2022 NIH Grant for development of a Human Ear Cellular Atlas

      Stanford University Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $803,331 for for development of a Human Ear Cellular Atlas. The principal investigator is Alan Cheng. Below is a summary of the proposed study. Hearing and balance disorders disable nearly half a billion people worldwide, yet there are virtually no pharmacological or biological therapies for these disorders. This alarming state of medicine coexist with the brighter state of science where numerous therapeutic approaches have shown efficacy in animal models. This conundrum reflects the fact that there are important differences between animal models and humans, that we have an incomplete understanding of ...

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    7. Compact briefcase OCT system for point-of-care imaging

      Compact briefcase OCT system for point-of-care imaging

      A detector for characterizing at least one of a middle ear fluid and a middle ear biofilm includes a handheld probe outputting near-infrared and visible light, an OCT system to obtain A-scans at a plurality of positions on a tympanic membrane, and a camera to obtain surface sub-images at the plurality of positions. A-scans and surface sub-images are synchronized and the surface sub-images are mosaicked to generate a surface image of the tympanic membrane. Cross-sectional scan images or a thickness map are generated from the synchronized A-scans and segmented to extract a plurality of specified features. The specified features are ...

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    8. University of Southern California Receives NIH Grant for Role of tonic outer hair cell motility in cochlear amplification

      University of Southern California Receives NIH Grant for Role of tonic outer hair cell motility in cochlear amplification

      University of Southern California Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $165,000 for Role of tonic outer hair cell motility in cochlear amplification. The principal investigator is James Dewey. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Mammalian hearing sensitivity depends on outer hair cells (OHCs), which change length and generate force to amplify sound-evoked vibrations within the cochlea. While it is often assumed that amplification depends on cycle-by-cycle OHC motility, the ability of this mechanism to operate at sufficiently high frequencies in vivo has been questioned, and exactly how OHCs interact with the surrounding organ of Corti structures to ...

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    9. University of Southern California Receives NIH Grant for Long-wavelength 1.7-micron optical coherence tomography for otologic imaging and hearing research

      University of Southern California Receives NIH Grant for Long-wavelength 1.7-micron optical coherence tomography for otologic imaging and hearing research

      University of Southern California Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $67,582 for Long-wavelength 1.7-micron optical coherence tomography for otologic imaging and hearing research. The principal investigator is Jack Tang. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Hearing loss affects the quality of life in nearly one-in-four adults in the United States, yet in many cases it is difficult to identify the cause. CT imaging can provide high-resolution contrast in the small bony structures in the middle/inner ear, and MRI can provide medium-resolution contrast in soft tissues, but there exists a need for high-resolution imaging of the ...

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    10. Loma Linda Veterans Association Receives NIH Grant Role of Organ of Corti Outer Hair Cell/Vibration Hot Spots in Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission Generation

      Loma Linda Veterans Association Receives NIH Grant Role of Organ of Corti Outer Hair Cell/Vibration Hot Spots in Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission Generation

      Loma Linda Veterans Association Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $219,750 for Role of Organ of Corti Outer Hair Cell/Vibration Hot Spots in Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission Generation. The principal investigator is Wei Dong. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Earlier research in our laboratory using interference tones (ITs) and vector-difference analyses between control and various experimental conditions established that large distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) components evidenced by strong enhancement and/or suppression, can arise from regions located up to several octaves basal to the f2 primary-tone. The proposed experiments in gerbils are focused on ...

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    11. Columbia University Receives NIH Grant for Reconstruction of three-dimensional organ of Corti micromechanical motion patterns via optical coherence tomography

      Columbia University Receives NIH Grant for Reconstruction of three-dimensional organ of Corti micromechanical motion patterns via optical coherence tomography

      Columbia University Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $46,752 for Reconstruction of three-dimensional organ of Corti micromechanical motion patterns via optical coherence tomography. The principal investigator is Brian Frost. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used in cochlear mechanics research to image and measure vibrations in the organ of Corti complex (OCC), the sensory tissue that spirals within the cochlea. OCT can be used to measure sub-nanometer vibrations at many points along the optical axis simultaneously. However, this optical axis does not generally bear a straightforward relation to the anatomy of the ...

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    12. Differentiation of otitis media-causing bacteria and biofilms via Raman spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography

      Differentiation of otitis media-causing bacteria and biofilms via Raman spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography

      In the management of otitis media (OM), identification of causative bacterial pathogens and knowledge of their biofilm formation can provide more targeted treatment approaches. Current clinical diagnostic methods rely on the visualization of the tympanic membrane and lack real-time assessment of the causative pathogen(s) and the nature of any biofilm that may reside behind the membrane and within the middle ear cavity. In recent years, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been demonstrated as an improved in vivo diagnostic tool for visualization and morphological characterization of OM biofilms and middle ear effusions; but lacks specificity about the causative bacterial species ...

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    13. Transtympanic Visualization of Cochlear Implant Placement With Optical Coherence Tomography: A Pilot Study

      Transtympanic Visualization of Cochlear Implant Placement With Optical Coherence Tomography: A Pilot Study

      Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the ability of transtympanic middle ear optical coherence tomography (ME-OCT) to assess placement of cochlear implants (CIs) in situ. Patient: A 72-year-old man with bilateral progressive heredodegenerative sensorineural hearing loss due to work-related noise exposure received a CI with a slim modiolar electrode for his right ear 3 months before his scheduled checkup. Intervention: A custom-built swept source ME-OCT system (λo = 1550 nm, ∆λ = 40 nm) designed for transtympanic middle ear imaging was used to capture a series of two- and three-dimensional images of the patient's CI in situ. Separately, transtympanic OCT two-dimensional video ...

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    14. Noninvasive Diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Multi-level Deep Residual Learning on Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Noninvasive Diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Multi-level Deep Residual Learning on Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Background Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most severe cancers in the world, and its early detection is crucial for saving patients. There is an inevitable necessity to develop the automatic noninvasive OSCC diagnosis approach to identify the malignant tissues on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images. Methods This study presents a novel Multi-Level Deep Residual Learning (MDRL) network to identify malignant and benign(normal) tissues from OCT images and trains the network in 460 OCT images captured from 37 patients. The diagnostic performances are compared with different methods in the image-level and the resected patch-level. Results The ...

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    15. COVID-19 Causes Ciliary Dysfunction as Demonstrated by Human Intranasal Micro-Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

      COVID-19 Causes Ciliary Dysfunction as Demonstrated by Human Intranasal Micro-Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

      Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), binds via ACE2 receptors, highly expressed in ciliated cells of the nasal epithelium. Micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT) is a minimally invasive intranasal imaging technique that can determine cellular and functional dynamics of respiratory epithelia at 1-μm resolution, enabling real time visualization and quantification of epithelial anatomy, ciliary motion, and mucus transport. We hypothesized that respiratory epithelial cell dysfunction in COVID-19 will manifest as reduced ciliated cell function and mucociliary abnormalities, features readily visualized by μOCT. Symptomatic outpatients with SARS-CoV-2 aged ≥ 18 years were recruited within 14 ...

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    16. Automated classification of otitis media with OCT: augmenting pediatric image datasets with gold-standard animal model data

      Automated classification of otitis media with OCT: augmenting pediatric image datasets with gold-standard animal model data

      Otitis media (OM) is an extremely common disease that affects children worldwide. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has emerged as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for OM, which can detect the presence and quantify the properties of middle ear fluid and biofilms. Here, the use of OCT data from the chinchilla, the gold-standard OM model for the human disease, is used to supplement a human image database to produce diagnostically relevant conclusions in a machine learning model. Statistical analysis shows the datatypes are compatible, with a blended-species model reaching ∼95% accuracy and F1 score, maintaining performance while additional human data is collected.

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    17. Feasibility of Middle Ear OCT Imaging

      Feasibility of Middle Ear OCT Imaging

      Rationale: Various middle ear diseases can affect anatomical structures of the middle ear in different ways. Unfortunately, current methods for assessing the structure and function of the constituents of the middle ear are limited and often fail to provide all clinically relevant data. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a technology that can provide valuable, additional information with a newly developed prototype OCT-device for structural and functional imaging of the middle ear. Objective: To assess the feasibility and the clinical potential of structural and functional OCT imaging with a newly developed OCT-device in patients with various middle ear problems. Study design ...

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    18. Visualization of ex vivo rabbit olfactory mucosa and foramina with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography

      Visualization of ex vivo rabbit olfactory mucosa and foramina with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography

      There is increasing interest in developing a minimally invasive imaging modality to safely evaluate dynamic microscopic changes of the olfactory mucosa and cribriform foramina. Herein, we utilized three-dimensional (3D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) to characterize the ex vivo stratified substructure of olfactory mucosa in rabbits and create 3D reconstructed images of olfactory foramina. Olfactory mucosa and cribriform plates from four New Zealand White rabbits were dissected and imaged using two swept-source OCT systems: (1) 1.3-µm (μm) center wavelength, 100-nm bandwidth, 200-kHz sweep rate, and (2) 1.7-μm center wavelength, 120-nm bandwidth, 90-kHz sweep rate. Volumetric OCT images ...

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      Mentions: UC Irvine
    19. Interplay between traveling wave propagation and amplification at the apex of the mouse cochlea

      Interplay between traveling wave propagation and amplification at the apex of the mouse cochlea

      Sounds entering the mammalian ear produce waves that travel from the base to the apex of the cochlea. An electro-mechanical active process amplifies traveling wave motions and enables sound processing over a broad range of frequencies and intensities. The cochlear amplifier requires combining the global traveling wave with the local cellular processes that change along the length of the cochlea given the gradual changes in hair cell and supporting cell anatomy and physiology. Thus, we measured basilar membrane (BM) traveling waves in vivo along the apical turn of the mouse cochlea using volumetric optical coherence tomography and vibrometry (VOCTV). We ...

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      Mentions: UCLA
    20. MEEI Receives NIH Grant for Measuring and Modeling the Cochlear Motions that Drive the Inner and Outer Hair Cells and Produce Otoacoustic Emissions

      MEEI Receives NIH Grant for Measuring and Modeling the Cochlear Motions that Drive the Inner and Outer Hair Cells and Produce Otoacoustic Emissions

      Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $117,133 for Measuring and Modeling the Cochlear Motions that Drive the Inner and Outer Hair Cells and Produce Otoacoustic Emissions. The principal investigator is Sunil Puria. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Our knowledge of cochlear mechanics is currently undergoing a revolution. While the basilar membrane (BM) has long been considered the principal structure in cochlear motion, new techniques such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) have instead revealed not only that the reticular lamina (RL) moves in a different pattern from the BM, but that it ...

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    21. University of Southern California Receives NIH Grant for Cochlear mechanics in the mouse

      University of Southern California Receives NIH Grant for Cochlear mechanics in the mouse

      University of Southern California Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $623,326 for Cochlear mechanics in the mouse. The principal investigator is John Oghalai. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Sound pressure produces force across the mammalian cochlear partition, ultimately creating a vibratory traveling wave that propagates longitudinally up the cochlear duct. The key feature distinguishing this process from the non-mammalian cochlea is amplification, whereby forces produced by thousands of outer hair cells (OHCs) sharpen and amplify the traveling wave. Our overarching objective is to understand how the complex biomechanics of the 3D multi-cellular and acellular arrangement that ...

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    22. Vector of motion measurements in the living cochlea using a 3D OCT vibrometry system

      Vector of motion measurements in the living cochlea using a 3D OCT vibrometry system

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become an important tool for measuring the vibratory response of the living cochlea. It stands alone in its capacity to measure the intricate motion of the hearing organ through the surrounding otic capsule bone. Nevertheless, as an extension of phase-sensitive OCT, it is only capable of measuring motion along the optical axis. Hence, measurements are 1-D. To overcome this limitation and provide a measure of the 3-D vector of motion in the cochlea, we developed an OCT system with three sample arms in a single interferometer. Taking advantage of the long coherence length of our ...

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    23. Infrared otoscope for characterization of effusion

      Infrared otoscope for characterization of effusion

      An otoscope uses differential reflected response of optical energy at an absorption range and an adjacent wavelength range to determine the presence of water (where the wavelengths are water absorption wavelength and adjacent non-absorption excitation wavelengths). In another example of the invention, the otoscope utilizes OCT in combination with absorption and non-absorption range for bacteria and water.

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    1-24 of 445 1 2 3 4 ... 17 18 19 »
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