1. Articles in category: Otolaryngology

    1-24 of 383 1 2 3 4 ... 14 15 16 »
    1. Longitudinal optical coherence tomography to visualize the in vivo response of middle ear biofilms to antibiotic therapy

      Longitudinal optical coherence tomography to visualize the in vivo response of middle ear biofilms to antibiotic therapy

      Studying the impact of antibiotic treatment on otitis media (OM), the leading cause of primary care office visits during childhood, is critical to develop appropriate treatment strategies. Tracking dynamic middle ear conditions during antibiotic treatment is not readily applicable in patients, due to the limited diagnostic techniques available to detect the smaller amount and variation of middle ear effusion (MEE) and middle ear bacterial biofilm, responsible for chronic and recurrent OM. To overcome these challenges, a handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT) system has been developed to monitor in vivo response of biofilms and MEEs in the OM-induced chinchilla model, the ...

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    2. Mammalian Cochlear Hair Cell Imaging Using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): A Preliminary Study

      Mammalian Cochlear Hair Cell Imaging Using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): A Preliminary Study

      Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to provide information about cochlear microanatomy at a cellular level, specifically of cochlear hair cells in mammals. Materials and methods: A total of 10 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 experimental groups for comparing the arrangement of normal and damaged hair cells. Postnatal day 3 Sprague-Dawley rats were used to test the swept-source OCT system, and the images recorded were compared with fluorescence microscope images. Results: Intracochlear structures (the inner hair cells, outer hair cells, and auditory nerve fibers) were clearly visualized at the individual cellular ...

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    3. Quantitative evaluation of the human vocal fold extracellular matrix using multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography

      Quantitative evaluation of the human vocal fold extracellular matrix using multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography

      Identifying distinct normal extracellular matrix (ECM) features from pathology is of the upmost clinical importance for laryngeal diagnostics and therapy. Despite remarkable histological contributions, our understanding of the vocal fold (VF) physiology remains murky. The emerging field of non-invasive 3D optical imaging may be well-suited to unravel the complexity of the VF microanatomy. This study focused on characterizing the entire VF ECM in length and depth with optical imaging. A quantitative morphometric evaluation of the human vocal fold lamina propria using two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF), second harmonic generation (SHG), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) was investigated. Fibrillar morphological features, such ...

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    4. Clinical Development of Deep Learning for the TOMi Scope

      Clinical Development of Deep Learning for the TOMi Scope

      The objective of this study is to clinically develop and evaluate a machine learning approach to improve the performance and data interpretation of the PhotoniCare TOMi Scope in pediatric patients presenting at the primary care office for suspected ear infections. In this observational study, results of TOMi Scope imaging will not affect patient standard of care.

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      Mentions: PhotoniCare
    5. In vivo dynamic characterization of the human tympanic membrane using pneumatic optical coherence tomography

      In vivo dynamic characterization of the human tympanic membrane using pneumatic optical coherence tomography

      Decreased mobility of the human eardrum, the tympanic membrane (TM), is an essential indicator of a prevalent middle ear infection. The current diagnostic method to assess TM mobility is via pneumatic otoscopy, which provides subjective and qualitative information of subtle motion. In this study, a handheld spectral-domain pneumatic optical coherence tomography system was developed to simultaneously measure the displacement of the TM, air pressure inputs applied to a sealed ear canal, and to perform digital pneumatic otoscopy. A novel approach based on quantitative parameters is presented to characterize spatial and temporal variations of the dynamic TM motion. Furthermore, the TM ...

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    6. Investigation of the Clinical Potential of Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography in a Laryngeal Tumor Model

      Investigation of the Clinical Potential of Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography in a Laryngeal Tumor Model

      BACKGROUND: The vocal cord tissue consists of three anatomical layers from the surface to deep inside: the epithelium that contains almost no collagen, the lamina propria that is composed of abundant collagen, and the vocalis muscle layer. It is clinically important to visualize the tissue microstructure using a non-invasive method, especially in the case of vocal cord nodules or cancer, since histological changes in each layer of the vocal cord cause changes in the voice. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) enables phase retardation measurement to evaluate birefringence of tissue with varied organization of collagen fibers in different tissue layers. Therefore ...

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    7. University of Southern California Receives NIH Grant for Mechanisms of Cochlear Synaptopathy After Noise or Blast Trauma

      University of Southern California Receives NIH Grant for Mechanisms of Cochlear Synaptopathy After Noise or Blast Trauma

      University of Southern California Receives a 2021 NIH Grant for $606,342 for Mechanisms of Cochlear Synaptopathy After Noise or Blast Trauma. The principal investigator is John Oghalai. Below is a summary of the proposed work. About 15% of Americans have hearing loss due to noise exposure. The classical explanation is trauma to the cochlear hair cells. An additional mechanism of noise-induced hearing loss is cochlear synaptopathy. There are no effective treatments used clinically to prevent hearing loss via either mechanism after traumatic noise exposure. Recently, we identified that endolymphatic hydrops occurs after blast or noise trauma, and that endolymphatic ...

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    8. Efficacy of endotracheal tube suctioning in intubated intensive care unit patients determined by in vivo catheter-based optical coherence tomography—a pilot study

      Efficacy of endotracheal tube suctioning in intubated intensive care unit patients determined by in vivo catheter-based optical coherence tomography—a pilot study

      Background: Mechanical ventilation using an endotracheal tube (ETT) is one of the critical interventions given to patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). ETTs are associated with the formation of biofilms, placing patients at increased risk for developing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). ETT suctioning is used to remove secretions, reduce bacterial colonization, and reduce the rate of biofilm formation. However, current standard-of-care suctioning procedures do not adequately eliminate all secretions from the ETT. Methods: This observational study was conducted in a cohort of 4 subjects admitted to the ICU and intubated with an ETT, irrespective of ethnicity, gender, or race. A ...

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    9. Machine learning aided automated differential diagnostics of chronic rhinitis based on optical coherence tomography

      Machine learning aided automated differential diagnostics of chronic rhinitis based on optical coherence tomography

      Chronic rhinitis (CR) is among the most frequent inflammatory diseases of ear-nose-throat (ENT) covering up to 30% of the population. Different forms of CR require different treatment tactics, which indicates the need for an efficient tool for differential diagnostics of CR. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising tool for fast non-invasive evaluation of nasal mucosa, which, however, requires further interpretation of the obtained diagnostic image. In this paper, we provide a comparative analysis of several machine learning approaches that aim at automated differential diagnostics of CR based on diagnostic OCT images of 78 patients aged between 28 and 74 ...

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    10. In Vivo Cochlear imaging provides a tool to study endolymphatic hydrops

      In Vivo Cochlear imaging provides a tool to study endolymphatic hydrops

      Exposure to noise trauma, such as that from improvised explosive devices, can lead to sensorineural hearing loss and a reduced quality of life. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying noise-induced hearing loss, we have adapted optical coherence tomography (OCT) for real-time cochlear visua lization in live mice after blast exposure. We demonstrated that endolymphatic hydrops develops following blast injury, and that this phenomenon may be associated with glutamate excitotoxicity and cochlear synaptopathy. Additionally, osmotic stabilization of endolymphatic hydrops partially rescues cochlear synapses after blast trauma. OCT is thus a valuable research tool for investigating the mechanisms underlying acoustic trauma ...

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    11. Integrated Multifunctional Laryngoscope for Medical Diagnosis and Treatment

      Integrated Multifunctional Laryngoscope for Medical Diagnosis and Treatment

      Laryngeal lesions can cause great inconvenience to patients. Early diagnosis and corresponding treatments are critical to the survival of patients. However, the diagnosis and precise removal of tumors remain a challenge under the use of a white light laryngoscope. In this work, an integrated, multifunctional laryngoscope was designed and tested for the imaging evaluation and precision laser surgery for laryngeal tissue. This integrated diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic system included two imaging modes (i.e., optical coherence tomography and white light endoscopy) and a laser ablation treatment mode. The endoscope had a common-path design to ensure that the same position could ...

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    12. Manipulation of the Endocochlear Potential Reveals Two Distinct Types of Cochlear Nonlinearity

      Manipulation of the Endocochlear Potential Reveals Two Distinct Types of Cochlear Nonlinearity

      The mammalian hearing organ, the cochlea, contains an active amplifier to boost the vibrational response to low level sounds. Hallmarks of this active process are sharp location-dependent frequency tuning and compressive nonlinearity over a wide stimulus range. The amplifier relies on outer hair cell (OHC) generated forces driven in part by the endocochlear potential (EP), the ̴ +80 mV potential maintained in scala media, generated by the stria vascularis. We transiently eliminated the EP in vivo by an intravenous injection of furosemide and measured the vibrations of different layers in the cochlea’s organ of Corti using optical coherence tomography. Distortion ...

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    13. University of Southern California Receives NIH Grant for Role of Tonic Outer Hair Cell Motility in Cochlear Amplification

      University of Southern California Receives NIH Grant for Role of Tonic Outer Hair Cell Motility in Cochlear Amplification

      University of Southern California Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $165,000 for Role of Tonic Outer Hair Cell Motility in Cochlear Amplification. The principal investigator is Hames Dewey Below is a summary of the proposed work. Mammalian hearing sensitivity depends on outer hair cells (OHCs), which change length and generate force to amplify sound-evoked vibrations within the cochlea. While it is often assumed that amplification depends on cycle-by-cycle OHC motility, the ability of this mechanism to operate at sufficiently high frequencies in vivo has been questioned, and exactly how OHCs interact with the surrounding organ of Corti structures to ...

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    14. Intra-operative Optical Coherence Imaging of In-vivo Chronic Otitis Media followed by Post-operative Audiogram Assessments

      Intra-operative Optical Coherence Imaging of In-vivo Chronic Otitis Media followed by Post-operative Audiogram Assessments

      The successful surgery of chronic otitis media (COM) is challenging; this depends on the surgeon's knowledge of the optical visibility of surgical microscopes. Herein, we reported the utilization of intra-surgical optical coherence tomography (OCT) system to effectively guide the surgery of COM based on augmented reality with cross-sectional images. The intra-surgical spectral-domain OCT system with a center wavelength of 846 nm was capable of obtaining non-invasive, high-resolution, and high-speed visualizations with an axial resolution of 8 μm, lateral resolution of 30 μm, and an extended working distance of 280 mm. Three patients with COM were involved in this research ...

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    15. Cochlear mechanics: new insights from vibrometry and Optical Coherence Tomography

      Cochlear mechanics: new insights from vibrometry and Optical Coherence Tomography

      The cochlea is a complex biological machine that transduces sound-induced mechanical vibrations to neural signals. Hair cells within the sensory tissue of the cochlea transduce vibrations into electrical signals, and exert electromechanical feedback that enhances the passive frequency separation provided by the cochlea's traveling wave mechanics; this enhancement is termed cochlear amplification. The vibration of the sensory tissue has been studied with many techniques, and the current state of the art is optical coherence tomography (OCT). The OCT technique allows for motion of intra-organ structures to be measured in vivo at many layers within the sensory tissue, at several ...

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    16. PhotoniCare Announces More Than $7 Million in Funding for Commercial Expansion of First-In-Class Ear Imaging Technology

      PhotoniCare Announces More Than $7 Million in Funding for Commercial Expansion of First-In-Class Ear Imaging Technology

      PhotoniCare, Inc., a company dedicated to revolutionizing healthcare by providing physicians with better diagnostic tools, today announced an oversubscribed $5.2 million Series A financing led by i2E Management Company Inc., with co-investment from OSF Ventures, Sony Innovation Fund, and Dreampact Ventures. The company also announced that it has received a $2.1 million Phase II Small Business Innovation Research ( SBIR ) grant from the National Institutes of Health ( NIH ). The competitive NIH SBIR program funds early-stage small businesses seeking to commercialize innovative biomedical technologies. In January, PhotoniCare announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had granted clearance ...

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    17. Optical coherence tomography: current and future clinical applications in otology

      Optical coherence tomography: current and future clinical applications in otology

      Purpose of review This article reviews literature on the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in otology and provides the reader with a timely update on its current clinical and research applications. The discussion focuses on the principles of OCT, the use of the technology for the diagnosis of middle ear disease and for the delineation of in-vivo cochlear microarchitecture and function. Recent findings Recent advances in OCT include the measurement of structural and vibratory properties of the tympanic membrane, ossicles and inner ear in healthy and diseased states. Accurate, noninvasive diagnosis of middle ear disease, such as otosclerosis and ...

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    18. Optical coherence tomographic measurements of the sound-induced motion of the ossicular chain in chinchillas: Additional modes of ossicular motion enhance the mechanical response of the chinchilla middle ear at higher frequencies

      Optical coherence tomographic measurements of the sound-induced motion of the ossicular chain in chinchillas: Additional modes of ossicular motion enhance the mechanical response of the chinchilla middle ear at higher frequencies

      Wavelength-swept optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to scan the structure of cadaveric chinchilla ears in three dimensions with high spatial resolution and measure the sound-induced displacements of the entire OCT-visible lateral surfaces of the ossicles in the lateral-to-medial direction. The simultaneous measurement of structure and displacement allowed a precise match between the observed motion and its structural origin. The structure and measured displacements are consistent with previously published data. The coincident detailed structural and motion measurements demonstrate the presence of several frequency-dependent modes of ossicular motion, including: (i) rotation about an anteriorly-to-posteriorly directed axis positioned near the commonly defined ...

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    19. The interplay of organ-of-Corti vibrational modes, not tectorial- membrane resonance, sets outer-hair-cell stereocilia phase to produce cochlear amplification

      The interplay of organ-of-Corti vibrational modes, not tectorial- membrane resonance, sets outer-hair-cell stereocilia phase to produce cochlear amplification

      The mechanical motions that deflect outer-hair-cell (OHC) stereocilia and the resulting effects of OHC motility are reviewed, concentrating on high-frequency cochlear regions. It has been proposed that a tectorial-membrane (TM) resonance makes the phase of OHC stereocilia motion be appropriate to produce cochlear amplification, i.e. so that the OHC force that pushes the basilar membrane (BM) is in the same direction as BM velocity. Evidence for and against the TM-resonance hypothesis are considered, including new cochlear-motion measurements using optical coherence tomography, and it is concluded that there is no such TM resonance. The evidence points to there being an ...

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    20. Non-invasive optical screening of Streptococcus Pneumonia based inflammatory changes of the tympanic membrane and mastoid mucosa in guinea pig otitis media using optical coherence tomography

      Non-invasive optical screening of Streptococcus Pneumonia based inflammatory changes of the tympanic membrane and mastoid mucosa in guinea pig otitis media using optical coherence tomography

      Abstract: The accurate screening of otitis media (OM) lies in clarifying the numerous confounding and quantitative factors that are discovered during primary inspections. Increased awareness about bacterial biofilms and inflammation has allowed researchers to develop a better understanding of the bacterial infections that occur in the middle ear. In this study, four live guinea pigs were inoculated with Streptococcus pneumonia to induce OM-related inflammatory changes. Since optical techniques have been effectively used for diagnosis in medicine, low-coherence interferometry-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) was employed for depth-resolved high-resolution data screening. Multiple locations of the tympanic membrane (TM), mastoid mucosa, and round ...

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    21. Live imaging and functional changes of the inner ear in an animal model of Meniere’s disease

      Live imaging and functional changes of the inner ear in an animal model of Meniere’s disease

      The symptoms of Meniere’s disease (MD) are generally considered to be related to endolymphatic hydrops (EH). There are many recent reports supporting the possibility that vasopressin (VP) is closely linked to the formation of EH in Meniere’s disease. Based on this, we developed a clinically relevant animal model of Meniere’s disease in which a VP type 2 receptor agonist was administered after electrocauterization of the endolymphatic sac. We report live imaging of the internal structure, and functional changes of the inner ear after electrocauterization of the endolymphatic sac and administration of a VP type 2 receptor agonist ...

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    22. Coupling Pressure Sensing with Optical Coherence Tomography to Evaluate the Internal Nasal Valve

      Coupling Pressure Sensing with Optical Coherence Tomography to Evaluate the Internal Nasal Valve

      Purpose: To evaluate endoscopic long-range optical coherence tomography system combined with a pressure sensor to concurrently measure internal nasal valve cross-sectional area and intraluminal pressure. Methods: A pressure sensor was constructed using an Arduino platform and calibrated using a limiter-controlled vacuum system and industrial absolute pressure gauge. Long-range optical coherence tomography imaging and pressure transduction were performed concurrently in the naris of eight healthy adult subjects during normal respiration and forced inspiration. The internal nasal valve was manually segmented using Mimics software and cross-sectional area was measured. Internal nasal valve cross-sectional area measurements were correlated with pressure recordings. Results: Mean ...

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    23. Optical coherence tomography for thyroid pathology: 3D analysis of tissue microstructure

      Optical coherence tomography for thyroid pathology: 3D analysis of tissue microstructure

      To investigate the potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to distinguish between normal and pathologic thyroid tissue, 3D OCT images were acquired on ex vivo thyroid samples from adult subjects (n=22) diagnosed with a variety of pathologies. The follicular structure was analyzed in terms of count, size, density and sphericity. Results showed that OCT images highly agreed with the corresponding histopatology and the calculated parameters were representative of the follicular structure variation. The analysis of OCT volumes provides quantitative information that could make automatic classification possible. Thus, OCT can be beneficial for intraoperative surgical guidance or in the pathology ...

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    24. Mathematical Analysis of Texture Indicators for the Segmentation of Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Mathematical Analysis of Texture Indicators for the Segmentation of Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technology which facilitates the process of capturing images from light-scattering organs like retina. Retina is a layered structure each layer of which has its own morphological properties. The segmentation of retinal layers helps to identify retinal diseases. In this paper, a novel mathematical model is proposed which can extract boundary pixels located on the borders between layers. The new model uses texture properties of pixels to extract distinguishing characteristics for boundary pixels. It is explored that boundary pixels provide certain values for texture indicators leading to the existence of special relation between neighbor ...

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