1. Articles in category: Otolaryngology

    1-24 of 297 1 2 3 4 ... 11 12 13 »
    1. Mapping the phase and amplitude of ossicular chain motion using sound-synchronous optical coherence vibrography

      Mapping the phase and amplitude of ossicular chain motion using sound-synchronous optical coherence vibrography

      The sound-driven vibration of the tympanic membrane and ossicular chain of middle-ear bones is fundamental to hearing. Here we show that optical coherence tomography in phase synchrony with a sound stimulus is well suited for volumetric, vibrational imaging of the ossicles and tympanic membrane. This imaging tool — OCT vibrography — provides intuitive motion pictures of the ossicular chain and how they vary with frequency. Using the chinchilla ear as a model, we investigated the vibrational snapshots and phase delays of the manubrium, incus, and stapes over 100 Hz to 15 kHz. The vibrography images reveal a previously undescribed mode of motion ...

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    2. Organ of Corti vibration within the intact gerbil cochlea measured by volumetric optical coherence tomography and vibrometry

      Organ of Corti vibration within the intact gerbil cochlea measured by volumetric optical coherence tomography and vibrometry

      There is indirect evidence that the mammalian cochlea in the low-frequency apical and the more commonly-studied high-frequency basal regions function in fundamentally different ways. Here, we directly tested this hypothesis by measuring sound-induced vibrations of the organ of Corti (OoC) at three turns of the gerbil cochlea using volumetric optical coherence tomography vibrometry (VOCTV), an approach that permits non-invasive imaging through the bone. In the apical turn, there was little frequency selectivity and the displacement-versus-frequency curves had low-pass filter characteristics with a corner frequency of ~0.5-0.9 kHz. The vibratory magnitudes increased compressively with increasing stimulus intensity at all ...

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    3. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings in obstructive sleep apnea

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings in obstructive sleep apnea

      We have read the article by Mentek et al., however, we believe some discussion would be of benefit [1]. The authors describe vascular disorders of the retina and optic nerve in patients affected by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). When reviewing results of eye tests in this disease it is necessary to mention that OSA itself presents alterations in particular ophthalmic examinations.

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    4. Optical Coherence Tomography as an Oral Cancer Screening Adjunct in a Low Resource Settings

      Optical Coherence Tomography as an Oral Cancer Screening Adjunct in a Low Resource Settings

      Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, predominantly seen in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Two thirds of all cases are detected at a late stage when prognosis and treatment outcomes are poor. Oral lesions are commonly detected by visual inspection, followed by invasive surgical biopsy and time consuming histopathological analysis. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), a minimally invasive tomographic imaging technology, can be used to non-invasively identify premalignant or malignant change in the oral mucosa. In this study, a mobile OCT imaging system was designed, constructed and tested for its performance as a point-of-care oral diagnostic device. Twenty ...

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    5. Clinical and surgical implications of intraoperative optical coherence tomography imaging for benign pediatric vocal fold lesions

      Clinical and surgical implications of intraoperative optical coherence tomography imaging for benign pediatric vocal fold lesions

      Introduction Benign vocal disorders in children include an extensive list of abnormalities creating a variety of debilitating levels of dysphonia. Precise delineation of the benign lesion type and margins may have significant public health implications in children. An innovative technology such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) is being explored to delineate pediatric benign laryngeal lesions. An accurate assessment of the subepithelial morphology may help towards tailoring more personalized therapeutic treatments. This study was established to highlight key morphological and optical features of benign pediatric laryngeal lesions using intraoperative OCT and to suggest clinical implications that arise from such optical imaging ...

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    6. Optical coherence tomography for observation of the olfactory epithelium in mice

      Optical coherence tomography for observation of the olfactory epithelium in mice

      Objective Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging tool that exploits the coherence of infrared light and is clinically utilized in the field of ophthalmology and dermatology. This study aimed to examine the feasibility of using OCT for diagnosing degeneration and regeneration of the olfactory epithelium in mice. Methods The olfactory and respiratory epithelia in excised nasal septa of adult mice were observed using OCT. Subsequently, histological assessments were performed with hematoxylin and eosin (H–E) staining. The thicknesses of the olfactory or respiratory epithelia were measured in both OCT images and H–E-stained paraffin sections. The ability of OCT ...

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    7. Utility of Optical Coherence Tomography for Guiding Laser Therapy Among Patients With Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

      Utility of Optical Coherence Tomography for Guiding Laser Therapy Among Patients With Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

      Importance Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a viral-induced disease caused by human papillomavirus and the second leading cause of dysphonia in children; however, neither a cure nor a definitive surgical treatment is currently available for RRP. Although laser therapy is often used in the treatment of RRP, the lack of real-time laser-tissue interaction feedback undermines the ability of physicians to provide treatments with low morbidity. Therefore, an intraoperative tool to monitor and control laser treatment depth is needed. Objective To investigate the potential of combining optical coherence tomography (OCT) with laser therapy for patient-tailored laryngeal RRP treatments. Design, Setting, and ...

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    8. Ba-Boom! There Goes Your Hearing

      Ba-Boom! There Goes Your Hearing

      The most common injury to American troops is silent and invisible. And I don't mean PTSD: hearing loss and tinnitus—ringing in the ear—top the list of service-related disabilities for veterans. They are an unsung consequence of prolonged exposure to roaring environments, such as the deck of an aircraft carrier, or, increasingly, to the sudden blast of a roadside bomb. One fifth of veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars are affected, according to a 2017 analysis . Hearing loss has enduring social and economic impacts, harming one's ability to earn a living and the quality of relationships ...

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    9. In Vivo Vibration Measurement of Middle Ear Structure Using Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography: Preliminary Study

      In Vivo Vibration Measurement of Middle Ear Structure Using Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography: Preliminary Study

      Objectives Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is useful for both, the spatially resolved measurement of the tympanic membrane (TM) oscillation and high-resolution imaging. We demonstrated a new technique capable of providing real-time two-dimensional Doppler OCT image of rapidly oscillatory latex mini-drum and in vivo rat TM and ossicles. Methods Using DOCT system, the oscillation of sample was measured at frequency range of 1–4 kHz at an output of 15 W. After the sensitivity of the DOCT system was verified using a latex mini-drum consisting of a 100 μm-thick latex membrane, changes in displacement of the umbo and contacted area ...

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    10. Multiple Wavelength Optical Coherence Tomography Assessments for Enhanced Ex Vivo Intra-Cochlear Microstructural Visualization

      Multiple Wavelength Optical Coherence Tomography Assessments for Enhanced Ex Vivo Intra-Cochlear Microstructural Visualization

      The precise identification of intra-cochlear microstructures is an essential otorhinolaryngological requirement to diagnose the progression of cochlea related diseases. Thus, we demonstrated an experimental procedure to investigate the most optimal wavelength range, which can enhance the visualization of ex vivo intra-cochlear microstructures using multiple wavelengths (i.e., 860 nm, 1060 nm, and 1300 nm) based optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems. The high-resolution tomograms, volumetric, and quantitative evaluations obtained from Basilar membrane, organ of Corti, and scala vestibule regions revealed complementary comparisons between the aforementioned three distinct wavelengths based OCT systems. Compared to 860 nm and 1300 nm wavelengths, 1060 nm ...

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    11. Time domain optical coherence tomography is a useful tool for diagnosing otitis media with effusion

      Time domain optical coherence tomography is a useful tool for diagnosing otitis media with effusion

      The usability of time-domain optical coherence tomography equipped with a flexible endoscopic probe for detecting effusion in the tympanic cavity is shown in the clinical environment. The possibility of assessing the dynamic properties of effusion, particularly its contained scatterers' mobility, is shown in real clinical cases. A method of comparative assessment of scatterers' mobility is proposed.

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    12. Optical Coherence Tomography of the Tympanic Membrane and Middle Ear: A Review

      Optical Coherence Tomography of the Tympanic Membrane and Middle Ear: A Review

      Objective To evaluate the recent developments in optical coherence tomography (OCT) for tympanic membrane (TM) and middle ear (ME) imaging and to identify what further development is required for the technology to be integrated into common clinical use. Data Sources PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science. Review Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed for English language articles published from January 1966 to January 2018 with the keywords “tympanic membrane or middle ear,”“optical coherence tomography,” and “imaging.” Conclusion Conventional imaging techniques cannot adequately resolve the microscale features of TM and ME, sometimes necessitating diagnostic exploratory surgery ...

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    13. Optical coherence tomography and confocal laser scanning microscopy as non-invasive tools in the diagnosis of sinonasal inverted papilloma: a pilot study

      Optical coherence tomography and confocal laser scanning microscopy as non-invasive tools in the diagnosis of sinonasal inverted papilloma: a pilot study

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) are light-based imaging techniques that allow for a visualization of microscopic tissue properties in vivo. Our study was to examine whether they allow for differentiation of inverted papilloma (IP) from nasal polyps (NP). Five cases of IP and NP, respectively, were investigated intraoperatively with OCT and CLSM. Biopsies were taken of the investigated area and were analyzed ex vivo with OCT and CLSM and then underwent HE-staining for standard light microscopy. On OCT images, IP showed the characteristic inverted character of the epithelium, that was thicker with a high degree ...

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    14. Osmotic stabilization prevents cochlear synaptopathy after blast trauma

      Osmotic stabilization prevents cochlear synaptopathy after blast trauma

      Traumatic noise causes hearing loss by damaging sensory hair cells and their auditory synapses. There are no treatments. Here, we investigated mice exposed to a blast wave approximating a roadside bomb. In vivo cochlear imaging revealed an increase in the volume of endolymph, the fluid within scala media, termed endolymphatic hydrops. Endolymphatic hydrops, hair cell loss, and cochlear synaptopathy were initiated by trauma to the mechanosensitive hair cell stereocilia and were K + -dependent. Increasing the osmolality of the adjacent perilymph treated endolymphatic hydrops and prevented synaptopathy, but did not prevent hair cell loss. Conversely, inducing endolymphatic hydrops in control mice ...

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    15. Osmosis could prevent noise-induced hearing loss

      Osmosis could prevent noise-induced hearing loss

      oadside bombs injure soldiers in many ways, including causing hearing loss. The loud blasts can damage hair cells in the inner ear as well as destroy the connections between auditory neurons. This damage is irreversible. But a new study in mice suggests that triggering osmosis in the ear could prevent this noise-induced hearing loss ( Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2018, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720121115 ). John Oghalai , a head-and-neck surgeon at the University of Southern California, and colleagues found the possible treatment while studying inner ear damage in mice. The researchers subjected anesthetized mice to load blasts, equivalent to the ...

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    16. A System for Clinical Use of Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography

      A System for Clinical Use of Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography

      Introduction: Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) allows non-invasive high-resolution imaging of tissues. With a penetration depth of a few millimeters it's possible to image the tympanic membrane and the close-by part of the tympanum, e.g. for diagnostics of otitis media and middle ear effusion. In the field of in vivo examination there are difficulties in access to the human tympanic membrane due to the narrow and curved external ear canal. We report a compact endoscopic OCT system for use in clinical research. Methods: We use a 3,5 mm endoscopic GRIN lens for video endoscopy and OCT. OCT is ...

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    17. Optical coherence tomography reveals complex motion between the basilar membrane and organ of corti in the gerbil cochlea

      Optical coherence tomography reveals complex motion between the basilar membrane and organ of corti in the gerbil cochlea

      The mechanical basis of auditory transduction within the mammalian cochlea is not fully understood but relies on complex mechanical interactions between different structures within the Organ of Corti (OoC). We used spectral domain phase microscopy, a functional extension of optical coherence tomography (OCT), to measure the sound-evoked motion in response to “Zwuis” frequency complexes, in vivo, in the basal region of the gerbil cochlea. Because OCT allows for measurements from multiple axial positions along the optical path, we are able to simultaneously record vibration at different points within the OoC between the basilar membrane (BM) and tectorial membrane. Imaging through ...

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    18. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography enables morphological and subnanometer vibratory imaging of the porcine cochlea through the round window

      Endoscopic optical coherence tomography enables morphological and subnanometer vibratory imaging of the porcine cochlea through the round window

      A highly phase stable hand-held (HH) endoscopic system has been developed for optical coherence tomography and vibrometry. Designed to transit the ear canal to the middle ear space and peer through the round window (RW), it is capable of imaging the vibratory function of the cochlear soft tissues with subnanometer scale sensitivity. A side-looking, 9 cm long rigid endoscope with a distal diameter of 1.2 mm, was able to fit within the RW niche and provide imaging access. The phase stability was achieved in part by fully integrating a Michelson interferometer into the HH device. Ex vivo imaging of ...

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    19. Magnetomotive Displacement of the Tympanic Membrane using Magnetic Nanoparticles: Toward Enhancement of Sound Perception

      Magnetomotive Displacement of the Tympanic Membrane using Magnetic Nanoparticles: Toward Enhancement of Sound Perception

      Objective: A novel hearing-aid scheme using magnetomotive nanoparticles (MNPs) as transducers in the tympanic membrane (TM) is proposed, aiming to noninvasively and directly induce a modulated vibration on the TM. Methods: In this feasibility study, iron-oxide (Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>) nanoparticles were applied on ex vivo rat TM tissues and allowed to diffuse over ~2 hr. Subsequently, magnetic force was exerted on the MNP-laden TM via a programmable electromagnetic solenoid to induce the magnetomotion. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), along with its phase-sensitive measurement capabilities, was utilized to visualize and quantify the nanometer-scale vibrations generated on the ...

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    20. Visualizing cellular markers of sensorineural hearing loss in the murine cochlea using micro-optical coherence tomography

      Visualizing cellular markers of sensorineural hearing loss in the murine cochlea using micro-optical coherence tomography

      Although sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) affects 600 million people globally and its prevalence is increasing, therapies remain limited. Advances in therapy development for SNHL are slow because we do not possess a method for visualizing the cochlea’s interior in living humans and relating visualized pathology to a patient’s hearing ability. To this end, we are investigating the ability of micro-optical coherence tomography (µOCT), a low-coherence interferometric imaging technique that requires no contrast agent and improves upon standard OCT in resolution and depth of focus, to visualize the micron-sized cellular structures in the cochlea. We recently demonstrated µOCT’s ...

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    21. PhotoniCare wins Startup Challenge with pitch for non-invasive ear inspection

      PhotoniCare wins Startup Challenge with pitch for non-invasive ear inspection

      CareWear and Orbis take second and third in new-product pitch contest at SPIE Photonics West. Startup winners: 3,2,1: Orbis's Simpson; Clearview's Castel; and PhotoniCare's Shelton. PhotoniCare , a spinout of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), which has developed a handheld, low-cost imaging platform for medical applications such as inspecting the eardrum, was named the winner of the 2018 SPIE Startup Challenge, last week during Photonics West in San Francisco. The ClearViewT, the first product on the Photonicare platform is described as “being able to fundamentally change the way physicians manage middle ear infections, one ...

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    22. Novel endoscope with increased depth of field for imaging human nasal tissue by microscopic optical coherence tomography

      Novel endoscope with increased depth of field for imaging human nasal tissue by microscopic optical coherence tomography

      Intravital microscopy (IVM) offers the opportunity to visualize static and dynamic changes of tissue on a cellular level. It is a valuable tool in research and may considerably improve clinical diagnosis. In contrast to confocal and non-linear microscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT) with microscopic resolution (mOCT) provides intrinsically cross-sectional imaging. Changing focus position is not needed, which simplifies especially endoscopic imaging. For in-vivo imaging, here we are presenting endo-microscopic OCT (emOCT). A graded-index-lens (GRIN) based 2.75 mm outer diameter rigid endoscope is providing 1.5 – 2 µm nearly isotropic resolution over an extended field of depth. Spherical and chromatic ...

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    23. Noninvasive in vivo optical coherence tomography tracking of chronic otitis media in pediatric subjects after surgical intervention

      Noninvasive in vivo optical coherence tomography tracking of chronic otitis media in pediatric subjects after surgical intervention

      In an institutional review board-approved study, 25 pediatric subjects diagnosed with chronic or recurrent otitis media were observed over a period of six months with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Subjects were followed throughout their treatment at the initial patient evaluation and preoperative consultation, surgery (intraoperative imaging), and postoperative follow-up, followed by an additional six months of records-based observation. At each time point, the tympanic membrane (at the light reflex region) and directly adjacent middle-ear cavity were observed in vivo with a handheld OCT probe and portable system. Imaging results were compared with clinical outcomes to correlate the clearance of symptoms ...

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    24. In vivo imaging of the internal nasal valve during different conditions using optical coherence tomography

      In vivo imaging of the internal nasal valve during different conditions using optical coherence tomography

      Objective Previously, we proposed long-range optical coherence tomography (LR-OCT) to be an effective method for the quantitative evaluation of the nasal valve geometry. Here, the objective was to quantify the reduction in the internal nasal valve angle and cross-sectional area that results in subjective nasal airway obstruction and to evaluate the dynamic behavior of the valve during respiration using LR-OCT. Methods For 16 healthy individuals, LR-OCT was performed in each naris during: 1) normal respiration, 2) peak forced inspiration, 3) lateral nasal wall depression (to the onset of obstructive symptoms), and 4) after application of a topical decongestant. The angle ...

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