1. Articles in category: Otolaryngology

    1-24 of 305 1 2 3 4 ... 11 12 13 »
    1. Using intraoperative optical coherence tomography to image pediatric unilateral vocal fold paralysis

      Using intraoperative optical coherence tomography to image pediatric unilateral vocal fold paralysis

      Objectives Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) impairs communication and reduces academic performance and social interactions in children. Deciding between temporary, permanent, or potentially destructive surgical interventions can be challenging, as there currently exists no reliable means of predicting vocal fold recovery or assessing the presence of vocal fold atrophy. Regarding vocal fold atrophy, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been shown to be an appealing non-invasive alternative for accessing vocal fold structures. This study describes UVFP microanatomy and identifies possible vocal fold atrophy using OCT. Methods Three UVFP patients (ages 1, 11, and 17 years) underwent bilateral OCT imaging using a ...

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    2. Optical Coherence Tomography Doppler Vibrometry Measurement of Stapes Vibration in Patients With Stapes Fixation and Normal Controls

      Optical Coherence Tomography Doppler Vibrometry Measurement of Stapes Vibration in Patients With Stapes Fixation and Normal Controls

      Hypothesis: Ears with otosclerotic stapes fixation will exhibit lower-than-normal levels of ossicular mobility as measured by Optical Coherence Tomography Doppler Vibrometry (OCT-DV). Background: OCT-DV measures the vibration of middle ear structures in response to sound non-invasively through the intact tympanic membrane. This allows, in particular, direct measurement of the vibration at the lenticular process of the incus which is expected to be lower in patients with otosclerotic stapes fixation. Methods: OCT-DV was performed on ears presumptively diagnosed with otosclerosis (n = 13) and a group of normal control ears (n = 42). Displacement was measured at the umbo and the lenticular process ...

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    3. Columbia University Receives NIH Grant for Auditory Mechanics and Cochlear Amplificatiom

      Columbia University Receives NIH Grant for Auditory Mechanics and Cochlear Amplificatiom

      Columbia University Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for $428,832 for Auditory Mechanics and Cochlear Amplification. The principal investigator is Elizabeth Olson. The program began in 2016 and ends in 2021. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Sound input to the inner ear (cochlea) causes a frequency-segregated wave-pattern of sensory tissue motion that conveys sound information to the auditory neurons, leading to hearing. A currently untreatable aspect of hearing impairment is the deterioration of the cochlea's ability to sharply segregate sound by frequency. The cochlea's healthy frequency tuning is largely provided by the cochlear amplifier, an ...

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    4. lntraoperative Imaging of Pediatric Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      lntraoperative Imaging of Pediatric Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Objectives Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) impairs communication and reduces academic performance and social interactions in children. Deciding between temporary, permanent, or potentially destructive surgical interventions can be challenging, as there currently exists no reliable means of predicting vocal fold recovery or assessing the presence of vocal fold atrophy. Regarding vocal fold atrophy, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been shown to be an appealing non-invasive alternative for accessing vocal fold structures. This study describes UVFP microanatomy and identifies possible vocal fold atrophy using OCT. Methods Three UVFP patients (ages 1, 11, and 17 years) underwent bilateral OCT imaging using a ...

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    5. MEEI Receives NIH Grant for Measuring and Modeling The Cochlear Motions that Drive The Inner and Outer Hair Cells and Produce Otoacoustic Emissions

      MEEI Receives NIH Grant for Measuring and Modeling The Cochlear Motions that Drive The Inner and Outer Hair Cells and Produce Otoacoustic Emissions

      Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for $540,156 for Measuring and Modeling The Cochlear Motions that Drive The Inner and Outer Hair Cells and Produce Otoacoustic Emissions. The principal investigator is Sunil Puria. The program began in 2007 and ends in 2022. Below is a summary of the propose work. Our knowledge of cochlear mechanics is currently undergoing a revolution. While the basilar membrane (BM) has long been considered the principal structure in cochlear motion, new techniques such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) have instead revealed not only that the reticular lamina (RL) moves in ...

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    6. Using OCT to Watch an Ear Hear

      Using OCT to Watch an Ear Hear

      A research team led by OSA Fellow Seok-Hyun Yun at the Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital, USA, reports using a form of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to capture 3-D anatomical and vibrational images of ossicles—tiny bones within the middle ear—as they move in response to sound (Biomed. Opt. Express, doi: 10.1364/BOE.9.005489 ). The imaging method, which they named OCT vibrography, uses OCT phase-synchronized with a range of high-frequency sound stimuli. In demonstrations with a chinchilla ear model, the researchers used OCT vibrography to observe a previously unknown mode of ossicular motion at ...

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    7. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography with wide field-of-view for the morphological and functional assessment of the human tympanic membrane

      Endoscopic optical coherence tomography with wide field-of-view for the morphological and functional assessment of the human tympanic membrane

      An endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with a wide field-of-view of 8 mm is presented, which combines the image capability of endoscopic imaging at the middle ear with the advantages of functional OCT imaging, allowing a morphological and functional assessment of the human tympanic membrane. The endoscopic tube has a diameter of 3.5 mm and contains gradient-index optics for simultaneous forward-viewing OCT and video endoscopy. The endoscope allows the three-dimensional visualization of nearly the entire tympanic membrane. In addition, the oscillation of the tympanic membrane is measured spatially resolved and in the frequency range between 500 Hz and ...

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    8. Clinical Utility of Intraoperative Tympanomastoidectomy Assessment Using a Surgical Microscope Integrated with an Optical Coherence Tomography

      Clinical Utility of Intraoperative Tympanomastoidectomy Assessment Using a Surgical Microscope Integrated with an Optical Coherence Tomography

      Significant technical and optical advances are required for intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) to be utilized during otological surgeries. Integrating OCT with surgical microscopy makes it possible to evaluate soft tissue in real-time and at a high resolution. Herein, we describe an augmented-reality, intraoperative OCT/microscope system with an extended working distance of 280 mm, providing more space for surgical manipulation than conventional techniques. We initially performed ex vivo experiments to evaluate system performance. In addition, we validated the system by performing preliminary clinical assessments of tympanomastoidectomy outcomes in six patients with chronic otitis media. The system evaluated residual inflammation ...

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    9. Mapping the phase and amplitude of ossicular chain motion using sound-synchronous optical coherence vibrography

      Mapping the phase and amplitude of ossicular chain motion using sound-synchronous optical coherence vibrography

      The sound-driven vibration of the tympanic membrane and ossicular chain of middle-ear bones is fundamental to hearing. Here we show that optical coherence tomography in phase synchrony with a sound stimulus is well suited for volumetric, vibrational imaging of the ossicles and tympanic membrane. This imaging tool — OCT vibrography — provides intuitive motion pictures of the ossicular chain and how they vary with frequency. Using the chinchilla ear as a model, we investigated the vibrational snapshots and phase delays of the manubrium, incus, and stapes over 100 Hz to 15 kHz. The vibrography images reveal a previously undescribed mode of motion ...

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    10. Organ of Corti vibration within the intact gerbil cochlea measured by volumetric optical coherence tomography and vibrometry

      Organ of Corti vibration within the intact gerbil cochlea measured by volumetric optical coherence tomography and vibrometry

      There is indirect evidence that the mammalian cochlea in the low-frequency apical and the more commonly-studied high-frequency basal regions function in fundamentally different ways. Here, we directly tested this hypothesis by measuring sound-induced vibrations of the organ of Corti (OoC) at three turns of the gerbil cochlea using volumetric optical coherence tomography vibrometry (VOCTV), an approach that permits non-invasive imaging through the bone. In the apical turn, there was little frequency selectivity and the displacement-versus-frequency curves had low-pass filter characteristics with a corner frequency of ~0.5-0.9 kHz. The vibratory magnitudes increased compressively with increasing stimulus intensity at all ...

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    11. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings in obstructive sleep apnea

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings in obstructive sleep apnea

      We have read the article by Mentek et al., however, we believe some discussion would be of benefit [1]. The authors describe vascular disorders of the retina and optic nerve in patients affected by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). When reviewing results of eye tests in this disease it is necessary to mention that OSA itself presents alterations in particular ophthalmic examinations.

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    12. Optical Coherence Tomography as an Oral Cancer Screening Adjunct in a Low Resource Settings

      Optical Coherence Tomography as an Oral Cancer Screening Adjunct in a Low Resource Settings

      Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, predominantly seen in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Two thirds of all cases are detected at a late stage when prognosis and treatment outcomes are poor. Oral lesions are commonly detected by visual inspection, followed by invasive surgical biopsy and time consuming histopathological analysis. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), a minimally invasive tomographic imaging technology, can be used to non-invasively identify premalignant or malignant change in the oral mucosa. In this study, a mobile OCT imaging system was designed, constructed and tested for its performance as a point-of-care oral diagnostic device. Twenty ...

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    13. Clinical and surgical implications of intraoperative optical coherence tomography imaging for benign pediatric vocal fold lesions

      Clinical and surgical implications of intraoperative optical coherence tomography imaging for benign pediatric vocal fold lesions

      Introduction Benign vocal disorders in children include an extensive list of abnormalities creating a variety of debilitating levels of dysphonia. Precise delineation of the benign lesion type and margins may have significant public health implications in children. An innovative technology such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) is being explored to delineate pediatric benign laryngeal lesions. An accurate assessment of the subepithelial morphology may help towards tailoring more personalized therapeutic treatments. This study was established to highlight key morphological and optical features of benign pediatric laryngeal lesions using intraoperative OCT and to suggest clinical implications that arise from such optical imaging ...

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    14. Optical coherence tomography for observation of the olfactory epithelium in mice

      Optical coherence tomography for observation of the olfactory epithelium in mice

      Objective Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging tool that exploits the coherence of infrared light and is clinically utilized in the field of ophthalmology and dermatology. This study aimed to examine the feasibility of using OCT for diagnosing degeneration and regeneration of the olfactory epithelium in mice. Methods The olfactory and respiratory epithelia in excised nasal septa of adult mice were observed using OCT. Subsequently, histological assessments were performed with hematoxylin and eosin (H–E) staining. The thicknesses of the olfactory or respiratory epithelia were measured in both OCT images and H–E-stained paraffin sections. The ability of OCT ...

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    15. Utility of Optical Coherence Tomography for Guiding Laser Therapy Among Patients With Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

      Utility of Optical Coherence Tomography for Guiding Laser Therapy Among Patients With Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

      Importance Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a viral-induced disease caused by human papillomavirus and the second leading cause of dysphonia in children; however, neither a cure nor a definitive surgical treatment is currently available for RRP. Although laser therapy is often used in the treatment of RRP, the lack of real-time laser-tissue interaction feedback undermines the ability of physicians to provide treatments with low morbidity. Therefore, an intraoperative tool to monitor and control laser treatment depth is needed. Objective To investigate the potential of combining optical coherence tomography (OCT) with laser therapy for patient-tailored laryngeal RRP treatments. Design, Setting, and ...

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    16. Ba-Boom! There Goes Your Hearing

      Ba-Boom! There Goes Your Hearing

      The most common injury to American troops is silent and invisible. And I don't mean PTSD: hearing loss and tinnitus—ringing in the ear—top the list of service-related disabilities for veterans. They are an unsung consequence of prolonged exposure to roaring environments, such as the deck of an aircraft carrier, or, increasingly, to the sudden blast of a roadside bomb. One fifth of veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars are affected, according to a 2017 analysis . Hearing loss has enduring social and economic impacts, harming one's ability to earn a living and the quality of relationships ...

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    17. In Vivo Vibration Measurement of Middle Ear Structure Using Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography: Preliminary Study

      In Vivo Vibration Measurement of Middle Ear Structure Using Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography: Preliminary Study

      Objectives Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is useful for both, the spatially resolved measurement of the tympanic membrane (TM) oscillation and high-resolution imaging. We demonstrated a new technique capable of providing real-time two-dimensional Doppler OCT image of rapidly oscillatory latex mini-drum and in vivo rat TM and ossicles. Methods Using DOCT system, the oscillation of sample was measured at frequency range of 1–4 kHz at an output of 15 W. After the sensitivity of the DOCT system was verified using a latex mini-drum consisting of a 100 μm-thick latex membrane, changes in displacement of the umbo and contacted area ...

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    18. Multiple Wavelength Optical Coherence Tomography Assessments for Enhanced Ex Vivo Intra-Cochlear Microstructural Visualization

      Multiple Wavelength Optical Coherence Tomography Assessments for Enhanced Ex Vivo Intra-Cochlear Microstructural Visualization

      The precise identification of intra-cochlear microstructures is an essential otorhinolaryngological requirement to diagnose the progression of cochlea related diseases. Thus, we demonstrated an experimental procedure to investigate the most optimal wavelength range, which can enhance the visualization of ex vivo intra-cochlear microstructures using multiple wavelengths (i.e., 860 nm, 1060 nm, and 1300 nm) based optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems. The high-resolution tomograms, volumetric, and quantitative evaluations obtained from Basilar membrane, organ of Corti, and scala vestibule regions revealed complementary comparisons between the aforementioned three distinct wavelengths based OCT systems. Compared to 860 nm and 1300 nm wavelengths, 1060 nm ...

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    19. Time domain optical coherence tomography is a useful tool for diagnosing otitis media with effusion

      Time domain optical coherence tomography is a useful tool for diagnosing otitis media with effusion

      The usability of time-domain optical coherence tomography equipped with a flexible endoscopic probe for detecting effusion in the tympanic cavity is shown in the clinical environment. The possibility of assessing the dynamic properties of effusion, particularly its contained scatterers' mobility, is shown in real clinical cases. A method of comparative assessment of scatterers' mobility is proposed.

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    20. Optical Coherence Tomography of the Tympanic Membrane and Middle Ear: A Review

      Optical Coherence Tomography of the Tympanic Membrane and Middle Ear: A Review

      Objective To evaluate the recent developments in optical coherence tomography (OCT) for tympanic membrane (TM) and middle ear (ME) imaging and to identify what further development is required for the technology to be integrated into common clinical use. Data Sources PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science. Review Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed for English language articles published from January 1966 to January 2018 with the keywords “tympanic membrane or middle ear,”“optical coherence tomography,” and “imaging.” Conclusion Conventional imaging techniques cannot adequately resolve the microscale features of TM and ME, sometimes necessitating diagnostic exploratory surgery ...

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    21. Optical coherence tomography and confocal laser scanning microscopy as non-invasive tools in the diagnosis of sinonasal inverted papilloma: a pilot study

      Optical coherence tomography and confocal laser scanning microscopy as non-invasive tools in the diagnosis of sinonasal inverted papilloma: a pilot study

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) are light-based imaging techniques that allow for a visualization of microscopic tissue properties in vivo. Our study was to examine whether they allow for differentiation of inverted papilloma (IP) from nasal polyps (NP). Five cases of IP and NP, respectively, were investigated intraoperatively with OCT and CLSM. Biopsies were taken of the investigated area and were analyzed ex vivo with OCT and CLSM and then underwent HE-staining for standard light microscopy. On OCT images, IP showed the characteristic inverted character of the epithelium, that was thicker with a high degree ...

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    22. Osmotic stabilization prevents cochlear synaptopathy after blast trauma

      Osmotic stabilization prevents cochlear synaptopathy after blast trauma

      Traumatic noise causes hearing loss by damaging sensory hair cells and their auditory synapses. There are no treatments. Here, we investigated mice exposed to a blast wave approximating a roadside bomb. In vivo cochlear imaging revealed an increase in the volume of endolymph, the fluid within scala media, termed endolymphatic hydrops. Endolymphatic hydrops, hair cell loss, and cochlear synaptopathy were initiated by trauma to the mechanosensitive hair cell stereocilia and were K + -dependent. Increasing the osmolality of the adjacent perilymph treated endolymphatic hydrops and prevented synaptopathy, but did not prevent hair cell loss. Conversely, inducing endolymphatic hydrops in control mice ...

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    23. Osmosis could prevent noise-induced hearing loss

      Osmosis could prevent noise-induced hearing loss

      oadside bombs injure soldiers in many ways, including causing hearing loss. The loud blasts can damage hair cells in the inner ear as well as destroy the connections between auditory neurons. This damage is irreversible. But a new study in mice suggests that triggering osmosis in the ear could prevent this noise-induced hearing loss ( Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2018, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720121115 ). John Oghalai , a head-and-neck surgeon at the University of Southern California, and colleagues found the possible treatment while studying inner ear damage in mice. The researchers subjected anesthetized mice to load blasts, equivalent to the ...

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    24. A System for Clinical Use of Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography

      A System for Clinical Use of Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography

      Introduction: Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) allows non-invasive high-resolution imaging of tissues. With a penetration depth of a few millimeters it's possible to image the tympanic membrane and the close-by part of the tympanum, e.g. for diagnostics of otitis media and middle ear effusion. In the field of in vivo examination there are difficulties in access to the human tympanic membrane due to the narrow and curved external ear canal. We report a compact endoscopic OCT system for use in clinical research. Methods: We use a 3,5 mm endoscopic GRIN lens for video endoscopy and OCT. OCT is ...

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