1. Articles in category: Otolaryngology

    1-24 of 369 1 2 3 4 ... 14 15 16 »
    1. Cochlear mechanics: new insights from vibrometry and Optical Coherence Tomography

      Cochlear mechanics: new insights from vibrometry and Optical Coherence Tomography

      The cochlea is a complex biological machine that transduces sound-induced mechanical vibrations to neural signals. Hair cells within the sensory tissue of the cochlea transduce vibrations into electrical signals, and exert electromechanical feedback that enhances the passive frequency separation provided by the cochlea's traveling wave mechanics; this enhancement is termed cochlear amplification. The vibration of the sensory tissue has been studied with many techniques, and the current state of the art is optical coherence tomography (OCT). The OCT technique allows for motion of intra-organ structures to be measured in vivo at many layers within the sensory tissue, at several ...

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    2. PhotoniCare Announces More Than $7 Million in Funding for Commercial Expansion of First-In-Class Ear Imaging Technology

      PhotoniCare Announces More Than $7 Million in Funding for Commercial Expansion of First-In-Class Ear Imaging Technology

      PhotoniCare, Inc., a company dedicated to revolutionizing healthcare by providing physicians with better diagnostic tools, today announced an oversubscribed $5.2 million Series A financing led by i2E Management Company Inc., with co-investment from OSF Ventures, Sony Innovation Fund, and Dreampact Ventures. The company also announced that it has received a $2.1 million Phase II Small Business Innovation Research ( SBIR ) grant from the National Institutes of Health ( NIH ). The competitive NIH SBIR program funds early-stage small businesses seeking to commercialize innovative biomedical technologies. In January, PhotoniCare announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had granted clearance ...

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    3. Optical coherence tomography: current and future clinical applications in otology

      Optical coherence tomography: current and future clinical applications in otology

      Purpose of review This article reviews literature on the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in otology and provides the reader with a timely update on its current clinical and research applications. The discussion focuses on the principles of OCT, the use of the technology for the diagnosis of middle ear disease and for the delineation of in-vivo cochlear microarchitecture and function. Recent findings Recent advances in OCT include the measurement of structural and vibratory properties of the tympanic membrane, ossicles and inner ear in healthy and diseased states. Accurate, noninvasive diagnosis of middle ear disease, such as otosclerosis and ...

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    4. Optical coherence tomographic measurements of the sound-induced motion of the ossicular chain in chinchillas: Additional modes of ossicular motion enhance the mechanical response of the chinchilla middle ear at higher frequencies

      Optical coherence tomographic measurements of the sound-induced motion of the ossicular chain in chinchillas: Additional modes of ossicular motion enhance the mechanical response of the chinchilla middle ear at higher frequencies

      Wavelength-swept optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to scan the structure of cadaveric chinchilla ears in three dimensions with high spatial resolution and measure the sound-induced displacements of the entire OCT-visible lateral surfaces of the ossicles in the lateral-to-medial direction. The simultaneous measurement of structure and displacement allowed a precise match between the observed motion and its structural origin. The structure and measured displacements are consistent with previously published data. The coincident detailed structural and motion measurements demonstrate the presence of several frequency-dependent modes of ossicular motion, including: (i) rotation about an anteriorly-to-posteriorly directed axis positioned near the commonly defined ...

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    5. The interplay of organ-of-Corti vibrational modes, not tectorial- membrane resonance, sets outer-hair-cell stereocilia phase to produce cochlear amplification

      The interplay of organ-of-Corti vibrational modes, not tectorial- membrane resonance, sets outer-hair-cell stereocilia phase to produce cochlear amplification

      The mechanical motions that deflect outer-hair-cell (OHC) stereocilia and the resulting effects of OHC motility are reviewed, concentrating on high-frequency cochlear regions. It has been proposed that a tectorial-membrane (TM) resonance makes the phase of OHC stereocilia motion be appropriate to produce cochlear amplification, i.e. so that the OHC force that pushes the basilar membrane (BM) is in the same direction as BM velocity. Evidence for and against the TM-resonance hypothesis are considered, including new cochlear-motion measurements using optical coherence tomography, and it is concluded that there is no such TM resonance. The evidence points to there being an ...

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    6. Non-invasive optical screening of Streptococcus Pneumonia based inflammatory changes of the tympanic membrane and mastoid mucosa in guinea pig otitis media using optical coherence tomography

      Non-invasive optical screening of Streptococcus Pneumonia based inflammatory changes of the tympanic membrane and mastoid mucosa in guinea pig otitis media using optical coherence tomography

      Abstract: The accurate screening of otitis media (OM) lies in clarifying the numerous confounding and quantitative factors that are discovered during primary inspections. Increased awareness about bacterial biofilms and inflammation has allowed researchers to develop a better understanding of the bacterial infections that occur in the middle ear. In this study, four live guinea pigs were inoculated with Streptococcus pneumonia to induce OM-related inflammatory changes. Since optical techniques have been effectively used for diagnosis in medicine, low-coherence interferometry-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) was employed for depth-resolved high-resolution data screening. Multiple locations of the tympanic membrane (TM), mastoid mucosa, and round ...

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    7. Live imaging and functional changes of the inner ear in an animal model of Meniere’s disease

      Live imaging and functional changes of the inner ear in an animal model of Meniere’s disease

      The symptoms of Meniere’s disease (MD) are generally considered to be related to endolymphatic hydrops (EH). There are many recent reports supporting the possibility that vasopressin (VP) is closely linked to the formation of EH in Meniere’s disease. Based on this, we developed a clinically relevant animal model of Meniere’s disease in which a VP type 2 receptor agonist was administered after electrocauterization of the endolymphatic sac. We report live imaging of the internal structure, and functional changes of the inner ear after electrocauterization of the endolymphatic sac and administration of a VP type 2 receptor agonist ...

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    8. Coupling Pressure Sensing with Optical Coherence Tomography to Evaluate the Internal Nasal Valve

      Coupling Pressure Sensing with Optical Coherence Tomography to Evaluate the Internal Nasal Valve

      Purpose: To evaluate endoscopic long-range optical coherence tomography system combined with a pressure sensor to concurrently measure internal nasal valve cross-sectional area and intraluminal pressure. Methods: A pressure sensor was constructed using an Arduino platform and calibrated using a limiter-controlled vacuum system and industrial absolute pressure gauge. Long-range optical coherence tomography imaging and pressure transduction were performed concurrently in the naris of eight healthy adult subjects during normal respiration and forced inspiration. The internal nasal valve was manually segmented using Mimics software and cross-sectional area was measured. Internal nasal valve cross-sectional area measurements were correlated with pressure recordings. Results: Mean ...

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    9. Optical coherence tomography for thyroid pathology: 3D analysis of tissue microstructure

      Optical coherence tomography for thyroid pathology: 3D analysis of tissue microstructure

      To investigate the potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to distinguish between normal and pathologic thyroid tissue, 3D OCT images were acquired on ex vivo thyroid samples from adult subjects (n=22) diagnosed with a variety of pathologies. The follicular structure was analyzed in terms of count, size, density and sphericity. Results showed that OCT images highly agreed with the corresponding histopatology and the calculated parameters were representative of the follicular structure variation. The analysis of OCT volumes provides quantitative information that could make automatic classification possible. Thus, OCT can be beneficial for intraoperative surgical guidance or in the pathology ...

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    10. Mathematical Analysis of Texture Indicators for the Segmentation of Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Mathematical Analysis of Texture Indicators for the Segmentation of Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technology which facilitates the process of capturing images from light-scattering organs like retina. Retina is a layered structure each layer of which has its own morphological properties. The segmentation of retinal layers helps to identify retinal diseases. In this paper, a novel mathematical model is proposed which can extract boundary pixels located on the borders between layers. The new model uses texture properties of pixels to extract distinguishing characteristics for boundary pixels. It is explored that boundary pixels provide certain values for texture indicators leading to the existence of special relation between neighbor ...

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    11. Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography for Evaluation of Success of Tympanoplasty

      Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography for Evaluation of Success of Tympanoplasty

      Objective: After tympanoplasty , it is often challenging to differentiate between different causes of a remaining air bone gap (ABG). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) offers a new approach for combined morphologic and functional measurements of the tympanic membrane and adjacent parts of the middle ear. Thus, it provides valuable diagnostic information in patients with a reduced sound transfer after middle ear surgery. Patient and intervention: A patient with history of tympanoplasty and a persistent ABG was investigated with endoscopic OCT before revision surgery. Main Outcome Measures: The oscillation behavior and the thickness of the reconstructed tympanic membrane was determined. The oscillation ...

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    12. UC Irvine Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for In Vivo Imaging and Quantification of Cilia Beating Dynamics Using Phase-Resolved Optical Imaging Technology

      UC Irvine Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for In Vivo Imaging and Quantification of Cilia Beating Dynamics Using Phase-Resolved Optical Imaging Technology

      University of California at Irvine Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $593,557 for In Vivo Imaging and Quantification of Cilia Beating Dynamics Using Phase-Resolved Optical Imaging Technology. The principal investigator is Zhongping Chen. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Each year, 50M Americans suffer from chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and allergic rhinitis (AR). The economic impact accounts for over $35B/year in health care expenditures alone, with over 3.5M work and 2M school days lost each year. Accordingly, over 600K operations per year are performed to treat sinonasal disease. The disease burden is immense with a profound ...

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    13. Evaluation of middle ear reconstruction by endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography

      Evaluation of middle ear reconstruction by endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography

      Introduction Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography (eOCT) allows high-resolution 3-dimensional imaging of the tympanic membrane and the adjacent areas of the middle ear. Doppler-OCT enables oscillation measurement. Thus, the postoperative outcome of tympanoplasty can be evaluated. Material and Methods 5 Patients were examined after tympanoplasty using eOCT. The system utilizes a near infrared laser with a central wavelength of 1300 nm and a working range of 8 mm. The thickness of the tympanic membrane and of the reconstruction were determined as well as the coupling of the prostheses. Furthermore, the oscillation of the reconstructed tympanic membrane and of the prostheses was ...

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    14. Device and system for doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the human middle ear

      Device and system for doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the human middle ear

      A device for Doppler optical coherence tomography (Doppler OCT), preferably of the human middle ear, is proposed. The device has an endoscope unit for at least partial insertion into the auditory canal. A sound source, a sound receiver, and OCT optics are integrated in the endoscope unit.

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    15. University of Wisconsin Receives NIH Grant for The Interactions Between Vocal Fold Hydration and Vibratory Biomechanics

      University of Wisconsin Receives NIH Grant for The Interactions Between Vocal Fold Hydration and Vibratory Biomechanics

      University of Wisconsin Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $368,084 for The Interactions Between Vocal Fold Hydration and Vibratory Biomechanics. The principal investigator is Jack Jiang. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Voice disorders affect millions of people worldwide. Patients have reported many negative social economic impacts of dysphonia. Proper fluid homeostasis is critical to normal vocal fold function. Maintenance of normal fluid levels in vocal fold tissue ensures normal biomechanical and vibratory parameters. Potential disturbances to this homeostasis include overuse, misuse, systemic or surface dehydration, trauma, and inflammation. The results of these disturbances can lead to ...

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    16. Future Directions of Optical Coherence Tomography in Otology: A Morphological and Functional Approach

      Future Directions of Optical Coherence Tomography in Otology: A Morphological and Functional Approach

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a real-time optical imaging modality that enables tomographic imaging at the submicron scale. Basic research into applications of OCT systems in the field of otology has been conducted. For instance, Oh et al. [1] recently reported that OCT provided noninvasive, nondestructive two-dimensional cross-sectional and three-dimensional volumetric images of middle-ear and inner ear structures in rodents. Anatomical depth-resolved imaging has shown promising potential for morphological measurements of the middle and inner ear in chinchillas [2] and mice with blast trauma [3]. Moreover, OCT has demonstrated its capability as a functional analytical tool by characterizing the vibration ...

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    17. Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Receives NIH Grant for Human Cochlear Structure & Function

      Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Receives NIH Grant for Human Cochlear Structure & Function

      Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $544,982 for Human Cochlear Structure & Function. The principal investigator is Hideko Nakajima . Below is a summary of the proposed work. Although the inner workings of the cochlea are responsible for the most fundamental aspects of hearing, including hearing sensitivity and frequency tuning, our direct knowledge of human cochlear mechanics is limited. This lack of information has forced researchers to rely on animal experiments to make inferences about cochlear behavior in humans, under the assumption that the motions of the cochlear partition (CP), including the basilar membrane (BM) and ...

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    18. Columbia University Receives NIH Grant for Auditory Mechanics and Cochlear Amplification

      Columbia University Receives NIH Grant for Auditory Mechanics and Cochlear Amplification

      Columbia University Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $428,832 for Auditory Mechanics and Cochlear Amplification. The principal investigator is Elizabeth Olson. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Sound input to the inner ear (cochlea) causes a frequency-segregated wave-pattern of sensory tissue motion that conveys sound information to the auditory neurons, leading to hearing. A currently untreatable aspect of hearing impairment is the deterioration of the cochlea's ability to sharply segregate sound by frequency. The cochlea's healthy frequency tuning is largely provided by the cochlear amplifier, an outer-hair-cell-driven, place-frequency-localized electromechanical engine that is both powerful and ...

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    19. Optical coherence tomography device for otitis media

      Optical coherence tomography device for otitis media

      An OCT apparatus and method for characterization of a fluid adjacent to a tympanic membrane has a low coherence source which is coupled to a splitter which has a measurement path and a reference path. The reference path is temporally modulated for length, and the combined signals from the reference path and the measurement path are applied to a detector. The detector examines the width of the response and the time variation when an optional excitation source is applied to the tympanic membrane, the width of the response and the time variation forming a metric indicating the viscosity of a ...

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    20. PhotoniCare's TOMi Scope takes Top Prize at SPIE and Photonics Media Prism Awards

      PhotoniCare's TOMi Scope takes Top Prize at SPIE and Photonics Media Prism Awards

      PhotoniCare, Inc., a company dedicated to revolutionizing healthcare by providing physicians with better diagnostic tools, today announced the company’s TOMi ™ Scope was awarded best healthcare product at the 12th Annual Prism Awards in San Francisco. The Prism Awards is an annual international competition that honors the best new optics and photonics products on the market. Since 2008, SPIE, along with media partner Photonics Media, has presented awards to companies and individuals that are creating products that make a difference, solve problems, and improve life through photonics. The Prism Awards reflect the exponential growth, exciting developments, and rich technical innovations ...

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    21. Low-scattering volumes visualisation from optical coherence tomography data and its applications in otolaryngology

      Low-scattering volumes visualisation from optical coherence tomography data and its applications in otolaryngology

      The method for visualization of the low-scattering objects inside the bulk of the high-scattering tissue is presented. The method can contrast the low-scattering object of interest not only from the high scattering surroundings but from the noise region below the tissue image as well. The proposed method was applied for the visualization of the rodent and human cochlea volume.

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    22. Otitis Media Middle Ear Effusion Identification and Characterization Using an Optical Coherence Tomography Otoscope

      Otitis Media Middle Ear Effusion Identification and Characterization Using an Optical Coherence Tomography Otoscope

      Objective To determine the feasibility of detecting and differentiating middle ear effusions (MEEs) using an optical coherence tomography (OCT) otoscope. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting US tertiary care children’s hospital. Subjects and Methods Seventy pediatric patients undergoing tympanostomy tube placement were preoperatively imaged using an OCT otoscope. A blinded reader quiz was conducted using 24 readers from 4 groups of tiered medical expertise. The primary outcome assessed was reader ability to detect presence/absence of MEE. A secondary outcome assessed was reader ability to differentiate serous vs nonserous MEE. Results OCT image data sets were analyzed from 45 of ...

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    23. USC Receives NIH Grant for Optical Imaging Technologies to Identify Residual Cholesteatoma and Improve Ossiculoplasty Outcomes

      USC Receives NIH Grant for Optical Imaging Technologies to Identify Residual Cholesteatoma and Improve Ossiculoplasty Outcomes

      University of Southern California Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $672,471 for Optical Imaging Technologies to Identify Residual Cholesteatoma and Improve Ossiculoplasty Outcomes. The principal investigator is Brian Applegate. Below is a summary of the proposed work. There are a number of diseases and conditions in the middle ear that cause hearing loss in both children and adults. In children it is particularly important to expedite interventions to restore hearing since it negatively impacts language development and academic performance. An example is cholesteatoma, a benign lesion due to abnormal skin growth in the middle ear which facilitates erosion of ...

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    1-24 of 369 1 2 3 4 ... 14 15 16 »
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