1. Articles in category: Dentistry

    1-24 of 619 1 2 3 4 ... 24 25 26 »
    1. Automatic and quantitative measurement of alveolar bone level in OCT images using deep learning

      Automatic and quantitative measurement of alveolar bone level in OCT images using deep learning

      We propose a method to automatically segment the periodontal structures of the tooth enamel and the alveolar bone using convolutional neural network (CNN) and to measure quantitatively and automatically the alveolar bone level (ABL) by detecting the cemento-enamel junction and the alveolar bone crest in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. The tooth enamel and the alveolar bone regions were automatically segmented using U-Net, Dense-UNet, and U 2 -Net, and the ABL was quantitatively measured as the distance between the cemento-enamel junction and the alveolar bone crest using image processing. The mean distance difference (MDD) measured by our suggested method ranged ...

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    2. Optimal Surface Pre-Reacted Glass Filler Ratio in a Dental Varnish Effective for Inhibition of Biofilm-Induced Root Dentin Demineralization

      Optimal Surface Pre-Reacted Glass Filler Ratio in a Dental Varnish Effective for Inhibition of Biofilm-Induced Root Dentin Demineralization

      Abstract A unique type of dental varnish (DV) containing surface pre-reacted glass (S-PRG) fillers of different concentrations was evaluated to determine the unpresented optimal ratio for inhibiting root dentin bio-demineralization. S-PRG DVs (10% to 40%)— 10%-S , 20%-S , 30%-S , and 40%-S —were applied to bovine root dentin blocks and compared with controls— 0%-f (no S-PRG) and 5%-NaF (5%-NaF). The Streptococcus mutans biofilm challenge was executed inside and outside an oral biofilm reactor for 7 days. The specimens were examined using a confocal laser scanning microscope and swept-source optical coherence tomography. Furthermore, they were observed ...

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    3. Optical Attenuation Coefficients of Moist and Dry Tooth Determinate by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Optical Attenuation Coefficients of Moist and Dry Tooth Determinate by Optical Coherence Tomography

      We investigated cross-sectional optical coherence tomography (OCT) images to determine the attenuation coefficients of moist and dry sound bovine teeth under near-infrared laser illumination. We acquired OCT images of the samples using a commercial swept-source OCT equipment, with a central wavelength of 1300 nm. In order to determine the attenuation coefficient of the samples, we studied the attenuation of light as it traveled through the dental tissue. The method considers only backscattered light, which restricts the contributions of speckles and reflective dispersion. To minimize errors related to the OCT equipment and because the operation influences the measurements, we revised various ...

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    4. Bioinspired Anti-demineralization Enamel Coating for Orthodontics

      Bioinspired Anti-demineralization Enamel Coating for Orthodontics

      White spot lesions and enamel cracks are the 2 most prominent diseases that occur after orthodontic treatment and are caused by enamel demineralization from accumulated bacterial biofilms and/or enamel damage caused by the removal of residual adhesive after bracket debonding. Inspired by the self-assembled amelogenin nanoribbons in enamel, we developed an enamel coating with a self-assembling antimicrobial peptide, D-GL13K, to simultaneously reduce demineralization and residual adhesive. The self-assembled amphiphilic nanoribbons significantly increased the hydrophobicity of the etched enamel, which reduced the permeability of the coated enamel surfaces as desired. The antimicrobial activity of this coating was evaluated against Streptococcus ...

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    5. Optical coherence tomography systems for evaluation of marginal and internal fit of ceramic reconstructions

      Optical coherence tomography systems for evaluation of marginal and internal fit of ceramic reconstructions

      Purpose: To evaluate the marginal and internal fit of lithium disilicate and zirconia crowns using two optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems in order to estimate inter-system variations. Materials and methods: Ten lithium disilicate and 10 cubic stabilized zirconia crowns were placed on prepared artificial teeth without cement. Marginal discrepancy and internal cement gap of the crowns were assessed on images obtained using a swept source OCT (SS-OCT) and a spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT). Medians and interquartile ranges were calculated for both materials and OCT systems. Thereafter, Wilcoxon signed rank test was carried out. Results: No significant difference was found between ...

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    6. Praevium Research Inc Receives NIH Grant for Next generation MEMS-VCSEL technology for ultra-low-cost dental and periodontal swept source optical coherence tomography imaging

      Praevium Research Inc Receives NIH Grant for Next generation MEMS-VCSEL technology for ultra-low-cost dental and periodontal swept source optical coherence tomography imaging

      Praevium Research Inc Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $275,001 for Next generation MEMS-VCSEL technology for ultra-low-cost dental and periodontal swept source optical coherence tomography imaging. The principal investigator is Vijaysekhar Jayaraman. Below is a summary of the proposed study. This proposal aims to enable a new generation of high-speed, low-cost, wavelength-flexible swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) imaging device technology targeting applications in dental imaging and based on microelectromechanical systems vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (MEMS-VCSELs) and planar lightwave circuits (PLCs). MEMS-VCSELs provide an unmatched combination of high and variable axial scan rate, dynamic single mode operation enabling ...

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    7. Evaluation of Incipient Enamel Caries at Smooth Tooth Surfaces Using SS-OCT

      Evaluation of Incipient Enamel Caries at Smooth Tooth Surfaces Using SS-OCT

      (1) Background: Dental caries, if diagnosed at the initial stage, can be arrested and remineralized by a non-operative therapeutic approach preserving tooth structure. Accurate and reproducible diagnostic procedure is required for the successful management of incipient caries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 3D swept-source optical coherence tomography (3D SS-OCT) for enamel caries at smooth tooth surface if the lesion was with remineralization. (2) Methods: Forty-seven tooth surfaces of 24 extracted human teeth visibly with/without enamel caries (ICDAS code 0-3) were selected and used in this study. The tooth surfaces of investigation site ...

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    8. Quantitative Assessment Methods of Early Enamel Caries with Optical Coherence Tomography: A Review

      Quantitative Assessment Methods of Early Enamel Caries with Optical Coherence Tomography: A Review

      Early detection of caries is an urgent problem in the dental clinic. Current caries detection methods do not detect early enamel caries accurately, and do not show microstructural changes in the teeth. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can provide imaging of tiny, demineralized regions of teeth in real time and noninvasively detect dynamic changes in lesions with high resolution and high sensitivity. Over the last 20 years, researchers have investigated different methods for quantitative assessment of early caries using OCT. This review provides an overview of the principles of enamel caries detection with OCT, the methods of characterizing caries lesion severity ...

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    9. Local axis orientation mapped by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography provides a unique contrast to identify caries lesions in enamel

      Local axis orientation mapped by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography provides a unique contrast to identify caries lesions in enamel

      Due to rod-like hydroxyapatite crystal organizations, dental enamel is optically anisotropic, i.e., birefringent. Healthy enamel is known to be intrinsically negatively birefringent. However, when demineralization of enamel occurs, a considerable number of inter-crystallite spaces would be created between the crystallites in the enamel, which could lead to a sign reversion in birefringence of the enamel structure. We propose that this sign reversion can be leveraged in polarization sensitive OCT (PSOCT) imaging to differentiate early caries lesions from healthy enamel. In this study using PSOCT, we first confirm that the change in birefringence sign (negative to positive) can lead to ...

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    10. Recent Advances in the Diagnosis of Enamel Cracks: A Narrative Review

      Recent Advances in the Diagnosis of Enamel Cracks: A Narrative Review

      racked teeth can pose a diagnostic dilemma for a clinician as they can mimic several other conditions. The constant physiological stress along with any pathological strain like trauma or iatrogenic causes can lead to the development of microcracks in the teeth. Constant exposure to immense stress can cause the progression of these often-undiagnosed tooth cracks to cause tooth fractures. This review aims to outline the etiology of tooth cracks, their classification, and recent advances in the diagnosis of enamel cracks. Diagnosing a cracked tooth can be an arduous task as symptoms differ according to the location and extension of the ...

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    11. Scalable optical coherence tomography imaging device

      Scalable optical coherence tomography imaging device

      An optical coherence tomography imaging device (OCT device) splits laser light emitted from a light source into measurement light for irradiating an object and reference light for irradiating a reference mirror, then analyze the interference light formed by combining scattered measurement light reflected back from the object and reflected reference light reflected from the reference mirror in order to generate tomographic images. An OCT device includes a probe, which is used for irradiating the object with measurement light and collecting scattered measurement light that is reflected back from the object, and an OCT main unit, which includes a light source ...

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    12. Assessment of the Accuracy in Measuring the Enamel Thickness of Maxillary Incisors with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Assessment of the Accuracy in Measuring the Enamel Thickness of Maxillary Incisors with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Although the clinical assessment of enamel thickness is important, hardly any tools exist for accurate measurements. The purpose of this study was to verify the precision of enamel thickness measurements using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Human extracted maxillary central and lateral incisors were used as specimens. Twenty-eight sites were measured in each specimen. The optical path length (OPL) at each measurement site was measured on the OCT images, and enamel thickness ( e1 ) was calculated by dividing OPL by the mean refractive index of enamel, 1.63. The specimens were then sectioned, and a light microscope was used to measure ...

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    13. Intra-oral scanning device with integrated optical coherence tomography (OCT)

      Intra-oral scanning device with integrated optical coherence tomography (OCT)

      An intra-oral scanning device includes a light source and an optical system, and communicates with a display system. The device provides for more efficient transmission and capture of images. It integrates OCT scanning with RGB-based scanning. In operation, the device is used for recording topological characteristics of teeth, dental impressions, or stone models by digital methods and for use in CAD/CAM of dental restorative prosthetic devices. To that end, the RGB-based scan obtains surface data (e.g., a margin), while the OCT scan penetrates the surface. The two scanners operate from within the same physical housing and preferably at ...

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      Mentions: D4D Technologies
    14. Intraoral optical coherence tomography and angiography combined with autofluorescence for dental assessment

      Intraoral optical coherence tomography and angiography combined with autofluorescence for dental assessment

      There remains a clinical need for an accurate and non-invasive imaging tool for intraoral evaluation of dental conditions. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a potential candidate to meet this need, but the design of current OCT systems limits their utility in the intraoral examinations. The inclusion of light-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) can expedite the image collection process and provides a large field of view for viewing the condition of oral tissues. This study describes a novel LIAF-OCT system equipped with a handheld probe designed for intraoral examination of microstructural (via OCT) and microvascular information (via OCT angiography, OCTA). The handheld probe ...

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    15. Modifications of the Dental Hard Tissues in the Cervical Area of Occlusally Overloaded Teeth Identified Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Modifications of the Dental Hard Tissues in the Cervical Area of Occlusally Overloaded Teeth Identified Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Background and objectives : Occlusal overloads produce a series of manifestations in teeth, especially attrition and non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL). Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) can highlight and evaluate tooth lesions. The aim of this study was to examine the changes of dental hard tissues in the cervical area because of occlusal overload by macroscopic examination and using in vitro Swept Source OCT examination. Materials and Methods : The study was performed on 21 extracted teeth with occlusal trauma. After macroscopic and OCT examination, the 2D OCT images were transformed into 3D images using ImageJ software. Statistical analysis of macroscopic and OCT images ...

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    16. Dental diagnosis for inlay restoration using an intraoral optical coherence tomography system: A case report

      Dental diagnosis for inlay restoration using an intraoral optical coherence tomography system: A case report

      Patients: The patient was a 32-year-old man who underwent amalgam restoration of the mandibular right second molar. An amalgam restoration fracture was diagnosed by intraoral optical coherence tomography (OCT), and pulp exposure was examined during cavity preparation. Subsequently, a definitive ceramic restoration was fabricated, and the marginal fit in the oral cavity was evaluated using the OCT system. Discussion: The existing OCT system cannot acquire images inside the oral cavity because of the large probe size. However, the proposed intraoral OCT system can access the prostheses in the mandibular right second molar. Therefore, dental diagnosis for restoration treatment with dental ...

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    17. Intraoral optical coherence tomography and angiography combined with autofluorescence for dental assessment

      Intraoral optical coherence tomography and angiography combined with autofluorescence for dental assessment

      There remains a clinical need for an accurate and non-invasive imaging tool for intraoral evaluation of dental conditions. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a potential candidate to meet this need, but the design of current OCT systems limits their utility in the intraoral examinations. The inclusion of light-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) can expedite the image collection process and provides a large field of view for viewing the condition of oral tissues. This study describes a novel LIAF-OCT system equipped with a handheld probe designed for intraoral examination of microstructural (via OCT) and microvascular information (via OCT angiography, OCTA). The handheld probe ...

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    18. Oral Cancer Screening by Artificial Intelligence-Oriented Interpretation of Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Oral Cancer Screening by Artificial Intelligence-Oriented Interpretation of Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Early diagnosis of oral cancer is critical to improve the survival rate of patients. The current strategies for screening of patients for oral premalignant and malignant lesions unfortunately miss a significant number of involved patients. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging modality that has been widely investigated in the field of oncology for identification of cancerous entities. Since the interpretation of OCT images requires professional training and OCT images contain information that cannot be inferred visually, artificial intelligence (AI) with trained algorithms has the ability to quantify visually undetectable variations, thus overcoming the barriers that have postponed the ...

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    19. The response of dual-species bacterial biofilm to 2% and 5% NaOCl mixed with etidronic acid: a laboratory real-time evaluation using optical coherence tomography

      The response of dual-species bacterial biofilm to 2% and 5% NaOCl mixed with etidronic acid: a laboratory real-time evaluation using optical coherence tomography

      Aim: The addition of etidronic acid (HEDP) to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) could increase the antibiofilm potency of the irrigant, while maintaining the benefits of continuous chelation. Studies conducted so far have shown that mixing HEDP with NaOCl solutions of relatively low concentration does not compromise the antibiofilm efficacy of the irrigant. However, the working lifespan of NaOCl may decrease resulting in a reduction of its antibiofilm efficacy over time (efficiency). In this regard, continuous irrigant replenishment needs to be examined. This study investigated the response of a dual-species biofilm when challenged with 2% and 5% NaOCl mixed with HEDP for ...

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    20. OCT Evaluation of Marginal and Internal Interface Integrity of Class V Composite Restorations after 36 to 48 Months

      OCT Evaluation of Marginal and Internal Interface Integrity of Class V Composite Restorations after 36 to 48 Months

      Purpose: To compare a self-etch and a two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive in terms of internal and marginal composite-tooth bond failure separately on enamel and dentin/cement at 36-48 months after restoration placement using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Materials and methods: Twenty-seven patients with two or three class V composite restorations of noncarious cervical lesions 36-48 months after placement were included. The one-step self-etch adhesive Futurabond M ([Voco] group SE, n = 25) and the two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive Solobond M ([Voco] group ER, n = 20) combined with the nanohybrid composite Amaris (Voco) were evaluated. The four-step etch-and-rinse adhesive Syntac classic combined with Tetric ...

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    21. Deep Learning for Caries Detection: A Systematic Review: DL for Caries Detection

      Deep Learning for Caries Detection: A Systematic Review: DL for Caries Detection

      Objectives Detecting caries lesions is challenging for dentists, and deep learning models may help practitioners to increase accuracy and reliability. We aimed to systematically review deep learning studies on caries detection. Data We selected diagnostic accuracy studies that used deep learning models on dental imagery (including radiographs, photographs, optical coherence tomography images, near-infrared light transillumination images). The latest version of the quality assessment tool for diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS-2) tool was used for risk of bias assessment. Meta-analysis was not performed due to heterogeneity in the studies methods and their performance measurements. Sources Databases (Medline via PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus ...

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    22. Raman microspectroscopy/micro-optical coherence tomography approach for chairside diagnosis of periodontal diseases - A pilot study

      Raman microspectroscopy/micro-optical coherence tomography approach for chairside diagnosis of periodontal diseases - A pilot study

      Background: Our objective was to develop and test a combined Raman microspectroscopy (RMS) and micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT) approach for chairside quantification of gingival collagen, DNA, epithelium and connective tissue. We hypothesized that a high-resolution RMS/μOCT can characterize healthy and inflamed periodontal tissues for diagnosis and disease activity monitoring. Methods: A prototype instrument was developed, tested ex-vivo on gingival specimens and optimized for in-vivo intraoral use. The primary outcome measures were the ratios of oral epithelium to connective tissue thickness (OE:CT) and the amount of DNA to collagen type I (DNA/Col), and the thickness of sulcular epithelium ...

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    23. Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography in the Diagnosis of Enamel Defects

      Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography in the Diagnosis of Enamel Defects

      Developmental defects of enamel (DDEs) are deviations from the normal appearance in terms of the quantity and quality of tooth enamel. They may be genetic or acquired. The most important DDEs are hypomineralization and hypoplasia. The aim of this study was to produce "in vivo" DDE in Wistar rats by administering amoxicillin to pregnant females and to highlight these lesions after sacrifice of the pups by macroscopic and microscopic examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Amoxicillin (100 mg/kg) was administered to two pregnant Wistar female rats for the production of DDEs. When the pups were 2 months old, they ...

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    24. Endodontic fillings evaluated using en face OCT, microCT and SEM

      Endodontic fillings evaluated using en face OCT, microCT and SEM

      Objectives: The goal of endodontic therapy is mechanically cleaning and shaping the root canal system, the removal of organic and inorganic debris followed by sealing with permanent filling materials. Materials and methods: Therefore, the aim of this in vitro study was to engage three imagistic methods: (i) en face (ef) time domain (TD) optical coherence tomography (OCT), (ii) micro-computed tomography (μCT), and (iii) scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in terms of their efficiency in assessing the quality of endodontic fillings. So far, is settled that efOCT images can identify defects∕voids in several of the investigated root canal fillings and identify ...

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