1. Articles in category: Dentistry

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    1. Modifications of the Dental Hard Tissues in the Cervical Area of Occlusally Overloaded Teeth Identified Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Modifications of the Dental Hard Tissues in the Cervical Area of Occlusally Overloaded Teeth Identified Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Background and objectives : Occlusal overloads produce a series of manifestations in teeth, especially attrition and non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL). Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) can highlight and evaluate tooth lesions. The aim of this study was to examine the changes of dental hard tissues in the cervical area because of occlusal overload by macroscopic examination and using in vitro Swept Source OCT examination. Materials and Methods : The study was performed on 21 extracted teeth with occlusal trauma. After macroscopic and OCT examination, the 2D OCT images were transformed into 3D images using ImageJ software. Statistical analysis of macroscopic and OCT images ...

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    2. Dental diagnosis for inlay restoration using an intraoral optical coherence tomography system: A case report

      Dental diagnosis for inlay restoration using an intraoral optical coherence tomography system: A case report

      Patients: The patient was a 32-year-old man who underwent amalgam restoration of the mandibular right second molar. An amalgam restoration fracture was diagnosed by intraoral optical coherence tomography (OCT), and pulp exposure was examined during cavity preparation. Subsequently, a definitive ceramic restoration was fabricated, and the marginal fit in the oral cavity was evaluated using the OCT system. Discussion: The existing OCT system cannot acquire images inside the oral cavity because of the large probe size. However, the proposed intraoral OCT system can access the prostheses in the mandibular right second molar. Therefore, dental diagnosis for restoration treatment with dental ...

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    3. Intraoral optical coherence tomography and angiography combined with autofluorescence for dental assessment

      Intraoral optical coherence tomography and angiography combined with autofluorescence for dental assessment

      There remains a clinical need for an accurate and non-invasive imaging tool for intraoral evaluation of dental conditions. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a potential candidate to meet this need, but the design of current OCT systems limits their utility in the intraoral examinations. The inclusion of light-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) can expedite the image collection process and provides a large field of view for viewing the condition of oral tissues. This study describes a novel LIAF-OCT system equipped with a handheld probe designed for intraoral examination of microstructural (via OCT) and microvascular information (via OCT angiography, OCTA). The handheld probe ...

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    4. Oral Cancer Screening by Artificial Intelligence-Oriented Interpretation of Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Oral Cancer Screening by Artificial Intelligence-Oriented Interpretation of Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Early diagnosis of oral cancer is critical to improve the survival rate of patients. The current strategies for screening of patients for oral premalignant and malignant lesions unfortunately miss a significant number of involved patients. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging modality that has been widely investigated in the field of oncology for identification of cancerous entities. Since the interpretation of OCT images requires professional training and OCT images contain information that cannot be inferred visually, artificial intelligence (AI) with trained algorithms has the ability to quantify visually undetectable variations, thus overcoming the barriers that have postponed the ...

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    5. The response of dual-species bacterial biofilm to 2% and 5% NaOCl mixed with etidronic acid: a laboratory real-time evaluation using optical coherence tomography

      The response of dual-species bacterial biofilm to 2% and 5% NaOCl mixed with etidronic acid: a laboratory real-time evaluation using optical coherence tomography

      Aim: The addition of etidronic acid (HEDP) to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) could increase the antibiofilm potency of the irrigant, while maintaining the benefits of continuous chelation. Studies conducted so far have shown that mixing HEDP with NaOCl solutions of relatively low concentration does not compromise the antibiofilm efficacy of the irrigant. However, the working lifespan of NaOCl may decrease resulting in a reduction of its antibiofilm efficacy over time (efficiency). In this regard, continuous irrigant replenishment needs to be examined. This study investigated the response of a dual-species biofilm when challenged with 2% and 5% NaOCl mixed with HEDP for ...

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    6. OCT Evaluation of Marginal and Internal Interface Integrity of Class V Composite Restorations after 36 to 48 Months

      OCT Evaluation of Marginal and Internal Interface Integrity of Class V Composite Restorations after 36 to 48 Months

      Purpose: To compare a self-etch and a two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive in terms of internal and marginal composite-tooth bond failure separately on enamel and dentin/cement at 36-48 months after restoration placement using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Materials and methods: Twenty-seven patients with two or three class V composite restorations of noncarious cervical lesions 36-48 months after placement were included. The one-step self-etch adhesive Futurabond M ([Voco] group SE, n = 25) and the two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive Solobond M ([Voco] group ER, n = 20) combined with the nanohybrid composite Amaris (Voco) were evaluated. The four-step etch-and-rinse adhesive Syntac classic combined with Tetric ...

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    7. Deep Learning for Caries Detection: A Systematic Review: DL for Caries Detection

      Deep Learning for Caries Detection: A Systematic Review: DL for Caries Detection

      Objectives Detecting caries lesions is challenging for dentists, and deep learning models may help practitioners to increase accuracy and reliability. We aimed to systematically review deep learning studies on caries detection. Data We selected diagnostic accuracy studies that used deep learning models on dental imagery (including radiographs, photographs, optical coherence tomography images, near-infrared light transillumination images). The latest version of the quality assessment tool for diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS-2) tool was used for risk of bias assessment. Meta-analysis was not performed due to heterogeneity in the studies methods and their performance measurements. Sources Databases (Medline via PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus ...

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    8. Raman microspectroscopy/micro-optical coherence tomography approach for chairside diagnosis of periodontal diseases - A pilot study

      Raman microspectroscopy/micro-optical coherence tomography approach for chairside diagnosis of periodontal diseases - A pilot study

      Background: Our objective was to develop and test a combined Raman microspectroscopy (RMS) and micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT) approach for chairside quantification of gingival collagen, DNA, epithelium and connective tissue. We hypothesized that a high-resolution RMS/μOCT can characterize healthy and inflamed periodontal tissues for diagnosis and disease activity monitoring. Methods: A prototype instrument was developed, tested ex-vivo on gingival specimens and optimized for in-vivo intraoral use. The primary outcome measures were the ratios of oral epithelium to connective tissue thickness (OE:CT) and the amount of DNA to collagen type I (DNA/Col), and the thickness of sulcular epithelium ...

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    9. Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography in the Diagnosis of Enamel Defects

      Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography in the Diagnosis of Enamel Defects

      Developmental defects of enamel (DDEs) are deviations from the normal appearance in terms of the quantity and quality of tooth enamel. They may be genetic or acquired. The most important DDEs are hypomineralization and hypoplasia. The aim of this study was to produce "in vivo" DDE in Wistar rats by administering amoxicillin to pregnant females and to highlight these lesions after sacrifice of the pups by macroscopic and microscopic examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Amoxicillin (100 mg/kg) was administered to two pregnant Wistar female rats for the production of DDEs. When the pups were 2 months old, they ...

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    10. Endodontic fillings evaluated using en face OCT, microCT and SEM

      Endodontic fillings evaluated using en face OCT, microCT and SEM

      Objectives: The goal of endodontic therapy is mechanically cleaning and shaping the root canal system, the removal of organic and inorganic debris followed by sealing with permanent filling materials. Materials and methods: Therefore, the aim of this in vitro study was to engage three imagistic methods: (i) en face (ef) time domain (TD) optical coherence tomography (OCT), (ii) micro-computed tomography (μCT), and (iii) scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in terms of their efficiency in assessing the quality of endodontic fillings. So far, is settled that efOCT images can identify defects∕voids in several of the investigated root canal fillings and identify ...

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    11. Monitoring silver diamine fluoride application with optical coherence tomography and thermal imaging: An in vitro proof of concept study

      Monitoring silver diamine fluoride application with optical coherence tomography and thermal imaging: An in vitro proof of concept study

      Objectives: The purpose of this study was to show that optical coherence tomography (OCT) and thermal imaging can be used to monitor changes in the structure and activity of caries lesions over time after treatment with silver diamine fluoride (SDF). Methods: Artificial caries lesions were formed on enamel and dentin bovine blocks. Each block was partitioned into five windows with the central three windows exposed to a demineralization solution to create lesions: one sound window served as a sound control (SC), one sound window was exposed to SDF to serve as a test control (SCT), one lesion window served as ...

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      Mentions: UCSF
    12. The effect of dental water jet application on softened human enamel surfaces: A preliminary in vitro study using swept-source optical coherence tomography

      The effect of dental water jet application on softened human enamel surfaces: A preliminary in vitro study using swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Objectives: To evaluate the surface loss of enamel, following water jet application, on acid-induced soft - ened human enamel surfaces. Methods: Ninety enamel windows of 2×4 mm 2 were prepared on 45 extracted hu - man premolar teeth. The specimens were divided into 2 groups: Group 1 (n=45) exposed to distilled water; Group 2 (n=45) exposed to citric acid (pH 3.2) for 30 minutes. All specimens were then subjected to a water jet for 20 seconds. Surface microhardness (SMH) and enamel thickness measurements were taken at baseline (t 1 ), post- distilled water/post-erosion (t 2 ) and post-water jet ...

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    13. Clinical and OCT assessment of application modes of a universal adhesive in a 12-month RCT

      Clinical and OCT assessment of application modes of a universal adhesive in a 12-month RCT

      Objectives: To evaluate a universal adhesive clinically using FDI criteria and by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: In 50 patients, three or four non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL) were restored with composite (Venus® Diamond Flow, Kulzer) using iBond® Universal (iBU, Kulzer) applied in self-etch (iBU-SE, n=50), selective-enamel-etch (iBU-SEE, n=29) or etch-and-rinse mode (iBU-ER, n=50) and the reference OptiBond™ FL (OFL, Kerr, n=50). Restorations were imaged by SD-OCT. The weighted mean length of interfacial adhesive defects (AD, %) was quantified per restoration immediately after placement (t 0 ), simultaneously with clinical assessment (FDI criteria) after 14 days (t 1 ), 6 ...

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    14. Identification of venular capillary remodelling: a possible link to the development of periodontitis?

      Identification of venular capillary remodelling: a possible link to the development of periodontitis?

      Purpose The present study measured changes in arteriolar and venular capillary flow and structure in the gingival tissues during the development of plaque-induced gingival inflammation by combining dynamic optical coherence tomography (OCT), laser perfusion, and capillaroscopic video imaging. Methods Gingival inflammation was induced in 21 healthy volunteers over a 3-week period. Gingival blood flow and capillary morphology were measured by dynamic OCT, laser perfusion imaging, and capillaroscopy, including a baseline assessment of capillary glycocalyx thickness. Venular capillary flow was estimated by analysis of the perfusion images and mean blood velocity/acceleration in the capillaroscopic images. Readings were recorded at baseline ...

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    15. Emerging Technologies for Dentin Caries Detection—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

      Emerging Technologies for Dentin Caries Detection—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

      This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at assessing the diagnostic accuracy of emerging technologies, such as laser fluorescence (LF), transillumination, light-emitting diode devices, optical coherence tomography (OCT), alternating current impedance spectroscopy, fluorescence cameras (FC), photo-thermal radiometry, and modulated luminescence technology. In vivo and in vitro results of such non-ionizing, non-invasive, and non-destructive methods’ effectiveness in non-cavitated dentin caries detection are sometimes ambiguous. Following the PRISMA guidelines, 34 relevant research articles published between 2011–2021 were selected. The risk of bias was assessed with a tool tailored for caries diagnostic studies, and subsequent quantitative uni- and bi-variate meta-analysis was carried out ...

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    16. Optical Imaging in the Diagnosis of OPMDs Malignant Transformation

      Optical Imaging in the Diagnosis of OPMDs Malignant Transformation

      Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) are a heterogeneous group of oral lesions with a variable risk of malignant transformation to oral squamous cell carcinoma. The current OPMDs malignant transformation screening depends on conventional oral examination (COE) and is confirmed by biopsy and histologic examination. However, early malignant lesions with subtle mucosal changes are easily unnoticed by COE based on visual inspection and palpation. Optical techniques have been used to determine the biological structure, composition, and function of cells and tissues noninvasively by analyzing the changes in their optical properties. The oral epithelium and stroma undergo persistent structural, functional, and biochemical ...

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    17. 4 year funded PhD studentship in Dental OCT at University College London

      4 year funded PhD studentship in Dental OCT at University College London

      Transforming Dental Imaging using Optical Coherence Tomography Primary Supervisor: Dr Peter Munro Clinical Supervisor : Prof Francesco D'Aiuto A 4 year PhD studentship funded by the Royal Society and Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering is available jointly in the UCL Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering and the UCL Eastman Dental Institute . Funding will be at least the UCL minimum (£17,609). Ideally, the successful applicant would start as soon as possible. The intended start date is 1st May 2022. The successful candidate will join the UCL CDT in Intelligent, Integrated Imaging in Healthcare (i4health) cohort and ...

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    18. Microtensile bond strength to sealer-contaminated dentin after using different cleaning protocols

      Microtensile bond strength to sealer-contaminated dentin after using different cleaning protocols

      Background/purpose Sealer residues on dentin may affect bonding to restorative materials. This study aimed to evaluate the bond strength to sealer-contaminated dentin after using different cleaning protocols. Materials and methods Freshly extracted bovine incisors were prepared and exposed the buccal pulp chamber dentin, obtaining segments measuring 5 mm × 5 mm with a height of 3 mm. The segments were randomly distributed into 4 groups (n = 7) according to different protocols. Control group : no contamination was performed. In the three experimental groups, the segments were contaminated with epoxy resin-based sealer for 5 min, and different cleaning protocols were performed. Acetone ...

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    19. Impact of Resin Composite Viscosity and Fill-technique on Internal Gap in Class I Restorations: An OCT Evaluation

      Impact of Resin Composite Viscosity and Fill-technique on Internal Gap in Class I Restorations: An OCT Evaluation

      The aim of this in vitro study was to quantitatively evaluate the internal gap of resin composites of high-and low-viscosity used in single- and incremental-fill techniques in Class I cavities exposed to thermal cycling (TC) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Cavities of 4-mm depth and 3-mm diameter were prepared in 36 third molars randomly distributed into four groups, according to viscosity of restorative resin-based composite (high or low viscosity, all from 3M Oral Care) and technique application (bulk or incremental fill) used (n=9): RC, high-viscosity, incremental-fill, resin-based composite (Filtek Z350 XT Universal Restorative); BF, high-viscosity, bulk-fill, resin-based composite (Filtek ...

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    20. Progression of Enamel Demineralisation Around Fissure Sealants: Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Progression of Enamel Demineralisation Around Fissure Sealants: Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Purpose: To evaluate the progression of enamel demineralisation around fissure sealants using cross-polarisation optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT). Materials and methods: Three fissure sealants; Fuji Triage (FJ, GC), Beautisealant (BT, Shofu) and Helioseal resin sealant (HL, Ivoclar Vivadent) were placed in cavities (3 × 0.5 × 1 mm) prepared in bovine enamel blocks (n = 5). After 7-day artificial saliva incubation, specimens were subjected to demineralisation for 4 weeks (pH 4.5). CP-OCT scans (Santec) were acquired for each specimen after 1, 2 and 4 weeks of demineralisation and lesions were quantitatively measured to analyse lesion progression. Results: Repeated-measures ANOVA demonstrated that lesion ...

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      Mentions: Santec
    21. Progression of Enamel Demineralisation Around Fissure Sealants: Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Progression of Enamel Demineralisation Around Fissure Sealants: Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Purpose: To evaluate the progression of enamel demineralisation around fissure sealants using cross-polarisation optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT). Materials and Methods: Three fissure sealants; Fuji Triage (FJ, GC), Beautisealant (BT, Shofu) and Helioseal resin sealant (HL, Ivoclar Vivadent) were placed in cavities (3 × 0.5 × 1 mm) prepared in bovine enamel blocks (n = 5). After 7-day artificial saliva incubation, specimens were subjected to demineralisation for 4 weeks (pH 4.5). CP-OCT scans (Santec) were acquired for each specimen after 1, 2 and 4 weeks of demineralisation and lesions were quantitatively measured to analyse lesion progression. Results: Repeated-measures ANOVA demonstrated that lesion ...

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    22. Optical Coherence Tomography for Patients with Developmental Disabilities: A Preliminary Study

      Optical Coherence Tomography for Patients with Developmental Disabilities: A Preliminary Study

      Dental radiographs are essential for diagnosis and treatment planning, but are sometimes difficult to acquire for patients with developmental disabilities (PDD). Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-ionizing imaging modality that has the potential application as an alternative to dental radiographs for PDD. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of intraoral OCT imaging for PDD. Ten participants were recruited in the Dental Education in the Care of Persons with Disabilities (DECOD) Clinic to explore the utility of dental OCT. The prototype system (Yoshida Dental) creates in-depth and three-dimensional images of teeth. The participants indicated their degree of pain during ...

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    23. In Vivo Assessment of the Tooth-Resin Composite Interface Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      In Vivo Assessment of the Tooth-Resin Composite Interface Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      A recent review on clinical studies published on the performance of posterior composite restorations that were recalled at least up to 24-months reported that the overall failure rates for studies conducted between 2006-2016 was 13.13% and the two main reasons for failure in these two decades remained the same, i.e. secondary caries (25.68% - 29.47%) and composite fracture (28.84% - 39.07%). In in vitro studies, secondary caries has been attributed to interfacial gap or marginal defect both of which are consequences of polymerization contraction stresses. However, to date no clinical study has been able to directly ...

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    24. Methods and systems for imaging orthodontic aligners

      Methods and systems for imaging orthodontic aligners

      Methods and apparatuses for 3D imaging to measure the shape of orthodontic aligners, teeth, and other oral structures simultaneously, in-vivo or in-vitro. These methods and apparatuses may be used to determine contact locations of aligners with teeth and/or teeth with other teeth with very high precision, including determining the size of gaps where they are not in contact. These measurements may be used design, modify or replace an aligner and/or to verify aligner fit.

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