1. Articles in category: Gynecology

    1-24 of 68 1 2 3 »
    1. An automated 3D registration method for optical coherence tomography volumes

      An automated 3D registration method for optical coherence tomography volumes

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is able to provide high resolution volumetric data for biological tissues. However, the field of view (FOV) of OCT is sometimes smaller than the field of interest, which limits the clinical application of OCT. One way to overcome the drawback is to stitch multiple 3D volumes. In this paper, we propose a novel method to register multiple overlapped volumetric OCT data into a single volume. The relative positions of overlapped volumes were estimated on en face plane and at depth. On en face plane, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) was implemented to extract the keypoints in ...

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    2. The Value of Optical Coherence Tomography in Determining Surgical Margins in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Vulva: A Single-Center Prospective Study.

      The Value of Optical Coherence Tomography in Determining Surgical Margins in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Vulva: A Single-Center Prospective Study.

      Background: Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) is treated with wide local excision. The challenge is to remove as much skin as necessary to prevent recurrence, but meanwhile preserve genital skin to diminish morbidity. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging tool that produces cross-sectional images. Optical coherence tomography could be helpful in determining appropriate surgical margins during excision of VSCC. Objective: This study aimed to assess the value of OCT in determining appropriate surgical margins in patients operated for VSCC. We hypothesize that benign tissue will differ qualitatively (presence of clear epidermal layers) and quantitatively (epidermal layer thickness and ...

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    3. An overview of optical coherence tomography for ovarian tissue imaging and characterization

      An overview of optical coherence tomography for ovarian tissue imaging and characterization

      Ovarian cancer has the lowest survival rate among all the gynecologic cancers because it is predominantly diagnosed at late stages due to the lack of reliable symptoms and efficacious screening techniques. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging technique that provides high-resolution images of biological tissue in real time, and demonstrates great potential for imaging of ovarian tissue. In this article, we review OCT studies for visualization and diagnosis of human ovaries as well as quantitative extraction of ovarian tissue optical properties for classifying normal and malignant ovaries. OCT combined with other imaging modalities to further improve ovarian tissue diagnosis ...

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    4. Diagnostic potential of multimodal imaging of ovarian tissue using optical coherence tomography and second-harmonic generation microscopy

      Diagnostic potential of multimodal imaging of ovarian tissue using optical coherence tomography and second-harmonic generation microscopy

      Ovarian cancer is particularly deadly because it is usually diagnosed after it has metastasized. We have previously identified features of ovarian cancer using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy (targeting collagen). OCT provides an image of the ovarian microstructure, while SHG provides a high-resolution map of collagen fiber bundle arrangement. Here, we investigated the diagnostic potential of dual-modality OCT and SHG imaging. We conducted a fully crossed, multireader, multicase study using seven human observers. Each observer classified 44 ex vivo mouse ovaries (16 normal and 28 abnormal) as normal or abnormal from OCT, SHG, and simultaneously viewed ...

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    5. The handheld smartphone device which could spot cancer

      The handheld smartphone device which could spot cancer

      A £240 ($400) handheld device which can analyse potential tumours is being developed in Tel Aviv. The Mobile OCT device consists of a smartphone to take the images, a lens, some lights and a plastic handle. The images are assessed by the device's operator and are then uploaded for review by a professional. BBC Click's Spencer Kelly reports.

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    6. MobileOCT uses a 3D printed case to turn smartphones into cancer screening devices

      MobileOCT uses a 3D printed case to turn smartphones into cancer screening devices

      There are plenty of nifty smartphone accessories out there today, but how many of them can potentially save lives? MobileOCT is one of the latest startups to raise their hand to that question. The self-described “point-of-care diagnostics company” based in Tel Aviv, Israel, has developed a 3D printed smartphone accessory that leverages a mobile phone’s camera to detect cancer. MobileOCT (pronounced “Mobile Oh-See-Tee” – the “OCT” stands for optical coherence tomography) is starting out by pushing its mobile colposcope, which is a magnifying device used to take images of the vagina or cervix. The company’s first target is cervical ...

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    7. Optical and Photoacoustic Imaging for Ovarian Cancer Detection (Thesis)

      Optical and Photoacoustic Imaging for Ovarian Cancer Detection (Thesis)

      Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cancer among women and has the highest mortality rate of all gynecologic cancers. Current clinical imaging modalities are limited by poor sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop effective tools to detect ovarian cancer. In this dissertation, two imaging modalities, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and photoacoustic imaging have been investigated for ovarian cancer detection and characterization. In the first modality, optical scattering coefficient, phase retardation and phase retardation rate were quantitatively extracted from polarization-sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) images. A highly positive correlation was found between those three parameters and collagen ...

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    8. Epithelial stem cells as mucosal antigen-delivering cells: a novel preventive approach

      Epithelial stem cells as mucosal antigen-delivering cells: a novel preventive approach

      Introduction HIV transmission occurs predominantly across mucosal surfaces. An ideal preventive strategy would be to target HIV at mucosal entry sites to prevent infection. We developed a novel epithelial stem cells-based AIDS preventive approach in female macaques. This approach is based on the ability of therapeutic lentiviral vectors integrated in mucosal epithelial stem cells to induce virus-specific cellular immune responses at mucosal sites of viral entry. We first intended to expose the cervicovaginal tract to conditions used for intravaginal vaccine delivery and non-invasively image local tissues to determine the vaccination effects on epithelial integrity and generation of antigen-specific mucosal immune ...

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    9. Effect of acetic acid on optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of cervical epithelium

      Effect of acetic acid on optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of cervical epithelium

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used as an adjunct to colposcopy in the identification of precancerous and cancerous cervical lesions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acetic acid on OCT imaging. OCT images were taken from unsuspicious and suspicious areas of fresh conization specimens immediately after resection and 3 and 10 min after application of 6 % acetic acid. A corresponding histology was obtained from all sites. The images taken 3 and 10 min after application of acetic acid were compared to the initial images with respect to changes in brightness, contrast, and scanning depth ...

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    10. Clinical applications of functional optical coherence tomography (Thesis)

      Clinical applications of functional optical coherence tomography (Thesis)

      The purpose of the work presented in this thesis is to show the potential of functional optical coherence tomography (OCT) to discriminate pathological from normal tissues in several clinical settings, by means of the attenuation coefficient. To that end, several fundamental studies were carried out to increase the fundamental understanding of the measured signals (in phantoms, during apoptosis) and both ex and in vivo investigations are performed in the urological and gynecological clinic.

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    11. Novel Advancements in Colposcopy: Historical Perspectives and a Systematic Review of Future Developments

      Novel Advancements in Colposcopy: Historical Perspectives and a Systematic Review of Future Developments

      Objective: To describe novel innovations and techniques for the detection of high-grade dysplasia. Materials and Methods: Studies were identified through the PubMed database, spanning the last 10 years. The key words (["computerized colposcopy" or "digital colposcopy" or "spectroscopy" or "multispectral digital colposcopy" or "dynamic spectral imaging", or "electrical impedance spectroscopy" or "confocal endomicroscopy" or "confocal microscopy"or "optical coherence tomography"] and ["cervical dysplasia" or cervical precancer" or "cervix" or "cervical"]) were used. The inclusion criteria were published articles of original research referring to noncolposcopic evaluation of the cervix for the detection of cervical dysplasia. Only English-language articles from the past ...

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    12. Picturing Cervical Cancer

      Picturing Cervical Cancer

      The Pap smear has been used to test women for cervical cancer since its invention in 1928. With a simple swipe and smear, doctors have been able to use microscopic observation to detect cancerous activity. Because cervical cancer is one of the most preventable forms of cancer, the Pap smear revolutionized how we deal with the disease. Yet, worldwide, 275 000 women ( 1 ) still die from cervical cancer each year. That's because although the Pap is an efficient test, it requires elements such as facilities, follow-up visits, and trained cytology technicians, making it difficult to use in low- to ...

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    13. Feature Of The Week 7/7/13: Visualization of Synthetic Mesh In Vaginal Walls Using OCT

      Feature Of The Week 7/7/13: Visualization of Synthetic Mesh In Vaginal Walls Using OCT

      Owing to the recent upsurge in adverse events reported after mesh-augmented pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repairs, our aim was to determine whether the location and depth of synthetic mesh can be measured postoperatively within the vaginal tissue microstructure using optical coherence tomography (OCT ). Seventeen patients with prior mesh-augmented repairs were recruited for participation. Patients were included if they had undergone an abdominal sacral colpopexy (ASC) or vaginal repair with mesh. Exclusion criteria were a postoperative period of <6 months, or the finding of mesh exposure on examination. OCT was used to image the vaginal wall at various POP-Q sites. If ...

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    14. Examination of Diagnostic Features in Multiphoton Microscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography Images of Ovarian Tumorigenesis in a Mouse Model (Thesis)

      Examination of Diagnostic Features in Multiphoton Microscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography Images of Ovarian Tumorigenesis in a Mouse Model (Thesis)

      Ovarian cancer is a deadly disease owing to the non-specific symptoms and suspected rapid progression, leading to frequent late stage detection and poor prognosis. Medical imaging methods such as CT, MRI and ultrasound as well as serum testing for cancer markers have had extremely poor performance for early disease detection. Due to the poor performance of available screening methods, and the impracticality and ineffectiveness of taking tissue biopsies from the ovary, women at high risk for developing ovarian cancer are often advised to undergo prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy. This surgery results in many side effects and is most often unnecessary since only ...

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    15. University of Arizona Receives NIH Grant for Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer by Confocal Microendoscopy.

      University of Arizona Receives NIH Grant for Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer by Confocal Microendoscopy.

      University of Arizona Received a 2013 NIH Grant for $65,063 for Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer by Confocal Microendoscopy. The principal investigator is Arthur Gmitro. The program started in 2005 and ends in 2014. Below is a summary of the proposed work. The objective of this research is to further develop and clinically validate a real-time multispectral confocal microendoscope for in vivo diagnosis of ovarian cancer. The confocal microendoscope is a new type of instrument for visualizing tissue at the cellular level and has shown great promise for performing optical biopsy. Confocal microendoscopy has the potential to provide a physician ...

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    16. Visualization of synthetic mesh utilizing optical coherence tomography

      Visualization of synthetic mesh utilizing optical coherence tomography

      Introduction and hypothesis Owing to the recent upsurge in adverse events reported after mesh-augmented pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repairs, our aim was to determine whether the location and depth of synthetic mesh can be measured postoperatively within the vaginal tissue microstructure using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods Seventeen patients with prior mesh-augmented repairs were recruited for participation. Patients were included if they had undergone an abdominal sacral colpopexy (ASC) or vaginal repair with mesh. Exclusion criteria were a postoperative period of <6 months, or the finding of mesh exposure on examination. OCT was used to image the vaginal wall at ...

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    17. Duke University Receives NIH Grant for Novel Determination of Microbicide PK in Women's Reproductive Health

      Duke University Receives NIH Grant for Novel Determination of Microbicide PK in Women's Reproductive Health

      Duke University Received a 2013 NIH Grant for $410,399 for Novel Determination of Microbicide PK in Women's Reproductive Health. The principal investigator is David Katz. The program started in 2012 and ends in 2016. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Vaginal microbicides offer much promise to prevent sexual transmission of HIV. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of a product (active pharmaceutical ingredient + dosage form) is central to prophylactic functionality (PD). But our ability to measure and predict microbicide PK is currently limited. Further, microbicide PD depends on how product + dosage regimen accommodate a range of conditions of the ...

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    18. In vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and multiphoton microscopy in a mouse model of ovarian neoplasia

      In vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and multiphoton microscopy in a mouse model of ovarian neoplasia

      Our goal is to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) and multiphoton microscopy (MPM) to detect early tumor development in a mouse model of ovarian neoplasia. We hope to use information regarding early tumor development to create a diagnostic test for high-risk patients. In this study we collect in vivo images using OCT, second harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence from non-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD)-dosed and VCD-dosed mice. VCD causes follicular apoptosis (simulating menopause) and leads to tumor development. Using OCT and MPM we visualized the ovarian microstructure and were able to see differences between non-VCD-dosed and VCD-dosed animals. This leads ...

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    19. Feature Of The Week 2/3/13: Automated Segmentation Algorithm for Medical Image Processing using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Feature Of The Week 2/3/13: Automated Segmentation Algorithm for Medical Image Processing using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive optical imaging technique for in vivo and in situ imaging of microstructure in biological tissues. Improvements in identification, imaging, and visualization of biological microstructures are necessary before OCT clinical use. Using the proposed algorithm, OCT images of the prostate and cervicovaginal epithelium were segmented to differentiate the cavernous nerves from the prostate gland and to detect minute changes in the epithelial layer, respectively. To detect these nerves and epithelial layer changes, three image features were employed: Gabor filter, Daubechies wavelet, and Laws filter. The Gabor feature was applied with different standard deviations in ...

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    20. Monitoring Vaginal Epithelial Thickness Changes Noninvasively in Sheep Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Monitoring Vaginal Epithelial Thickness Changes Noninvasively in Sheep Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Objective High-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT), can be used noninvasively to evaluate vaginal morphologic features, including epithelial thickness, to assess this protective barrier in transmission of sexually transmitted infections and to monitor tissue response to topical medications and hormonal fluctuations. We examined the utility of OCT to measure epithelial thickness noninvasively before and after topical treatment with a drug that causes epithelial thinning. Study Design Twelve female sheep were treated with intravaginal placebo (n=4) or nonoxynol-9 (n=8). Vaginal OCT images were obtained before and 24 hours after treatment. Four sheep in the nonoxynol-9 group were also examined on ...

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    21. Cervical Epithelial Brightness by Optical Coherence Tomography Can Determine Histological Grades of Cervical Neoplasia

      Cervical Epithelial Brightness by Optical Coherence Tomography Can Determine Histological Grades of Cervical Neoplasia

      Objective: The study aimed to determine if the difference in cervical epithelium brightness, as measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT), has potential as a distinguishing characteristic of normal, low-grade, high-grade (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2+), and cancer histological findings. Materials and Methods: Information from 476 women was available for analysis. Demographic information was collected through in-person interview. All participants were human papillomavirus positive and/or had abnormal cytological finding and underwent colposcopy or unaided visual inspection and examination by OCT by quadrant. All women had a minimum of 4 OCT-matched cervical biopsies and endocervical curettage. Two sample t tests were used ...

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    22. New Study Shows Promise For Women Needing Mesh-Augmented Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) Repair

      New Study Shows Promise For Women Needing Mesh-Augmented Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) Repair

      Imalux Press Release - Imalux® Corporation , manufacturer of the Niris ® Imaging System announces that the Niris 1300e has been successfully used to help physicians evaluate women for their suitability and response to mesh-augmented pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair. The Imalux Niris 1300e Imaging System was used by researchers at North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System. They were able to image previously placed mesh located in the vaginal epithelium, and were able to measure the thickness of the epithelial tissue. These studies have generated valuable information relative to the success of the vaginal mesh placement procedures. Both studies were presented at ...

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    23. Optical coherence tomography in vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia

      Optical coherence tomography in vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia

      Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) is a gynecological cancer with an incidence of two to three per 100,000 women. VSCC arises from vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), which is diagnosed through painful punch biopsy. In this study, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used to differentiate between normal and VIN tissue. We hypothesize that (a) epidermal layer thickness measured in OCT images is different in normal tissue and VIN, and (b) quantitative analysis of the attenuation coefficient ( μ oct ) extracted from OCT data differentiates VIN from normal vulvar tissue. Twenty lesions from 16 patients are imaged with OCT. Directly after data acquisition ...

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    24. Automated segmentation algorithm for detection of changes in vaginal epithelial morphology using optical coherence tomography

      Automated segmentation algorithm for detection of changes in vaginal epithelial morphology using optical coherence tomography

      We have explored the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a noninvasive tool for assessing the toxicity of topical microbicides, products used to prevent HIV, by monitoring the integrity of the vaginal epithelium. A novel feature-based segmentation algorithm using a nearest-neighbor classifier was developed to monitor changes in the morphology of vaginal epithelium. The two-step automated algorithm yielded OCT images with a clearly defined epithelial layer, enabling differentiation of normal and damaged tissue. The algorithm was robust in that it was able to discriminate the epithelial layer from underlying stroma as well as residual microbicide product on the surface ...

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    1-24 of 68 1 2 3 »
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