1. Articles in category: Gynecology

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    1. Clinical applications of functional optical coherence tomography (Thesis)

      Clinical applications of functional optical coherence tomography (Thesis)

      The purpose of the work presented in this thesis is to show the potential of functional optical coherence tomography (OCT) to discriminate pathological from normal tissues in several clinical settings, by means of the attenuation coefficient. To that end, several fundamental studies were carried out to increase the fundamental understanding of the measured signals (in phantoms, during apoptosis) and both ex and in vivo investigations are performed in the urological and gynecological clinic.

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    2. Novel Advancements in Colposcopy: Historical Perspectives and a Systematic Review of Future Developments

      Novel Advancements in Colposcopy: Historical Perspectives and a Systematic Review of Future Developments

      Objective: To describe novel innovations and techniques for the detection of high-grade dysplasia. Materials and Methods: Studies were identified through the PubMed database, spanning the last 10 years. The key words (["computerized colposcopy" or "digital colposcopy" or "spectroscopy" or "multispectral digital colposcopy" or "dynamic spectral imaging", or "electrical impedance spectroscopy" or "confocal endomicroscopy" or "confocal microscopy"or "optical coherence tomography"] and ["cervical dysplasia" or cervical precancer" or "cervix" or "cervical"]) were used. The inclusion criteria were published articles of original research referring to noncolposcopic evaluation of the cervix for the detection of cervical dysplasia. Only English-language articles from the past ...

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    3. Picturing Cervical Cancer

      Picturing Cervical Cancer

      The Pap smear has been used to test women for cervical cancer since its invention in 1928. With a simple swipe and smear, doctors have been able to use microscopic observation to detect cancerous activity. Because cervical cancer is one of the most preventable forms of cancer, the Pap smear revolutionized how we deal with the disease. Yet, worldwide, 275 000 women ( 1 ) still die from cervical cancer each year. That's because although the Pap is an efficient test, it requires elements such as facilities, follow-up visits, and trained cytology technicians, making it difficult to use in low- to ...

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    4. Feature Of The Week 7/7/13: Visualization of Synthetic Mesh In Vaginal Walls Using OCT

      Feature Of The Week 7/7/13: Visualization of Synthetic Mesh In Vaginal Walls Using OCT

      Owing to the recent upsurge in adverse events reported after mesh-augmented pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repairs, our aim was to determine whether the location and depth of synthetic mesh can be measured postoperatively within the vaginal tissue microstructure using optical coherence tomography (OCT ). Seventeen patients with prior mesh-augmented repairs were recruited for participation. Patients were included if they had undergone an abdominal sacral colpopexy (ASC) or vaginal repair with mesh. Exclusion criteria were a postoperative period of <6 months, or the finding of mesh exposure on examination. OCT was used to image the vaginal wall at various POP-Q sites. If ...

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    5. Examination of Diagnostic Features in Multiphoton Microscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography Images of Ovarian Tumorigenesis in a Mouse Model (Thesis)

      Examination of Diagnostic Features in Multiphoton Microscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography Images of Ovarian Tumorigenesis in a Mouse Model (Thesis)

      Ovarian cancer is a deadly disease owing to the non-specific symptoms and suspected rapid progression, leading to frequent late stage detection and poor prognosis. Medical imaging methods such as CT, MRI and ultrasound as well as serum testing for cancer markers have had extremely poor performance for early disease detection. Due to the poor performance of available screening methods, and the impracticality and ineffectiveness of taking tissue biopsies from the ovary, women at high risk for developing ovarian cancer are often advised to undergo prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy. This surgery results in many side effects and is most often unnecessary since only ...

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    6. University of Arizona Receives NIH Grant for Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer by Confocal Microendoscopy.

      University of Arizona Receives NIH Grant for Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer by Confocal Microendoscopy.

      University of Arizona Received a 2013 NIH Grant for $65,063 for Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer by Confocal Microendoscopy. The principal investigator is Arthur Gmitro. The program started in 2005 and ends in 2014. Below is a summary of the proposed work. The objective of this research is to further develop and clinically validate a real-time multispectral confocal microendoscope for in vivo diagnosis of ovarian cancer. The confocal microendoscope is a new type of instrument for visualizing tissue at the cellular level and has shown great promise for performing optical biopsy. Confocal microendoscopy has the potential to provide a physician ...

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    7. Visualization of synthetic mesh utilizing optical coherence tomography

      Visualization of synthetic mesh utilizing optical coherence tomography

      Introduction and hypothesis Owing to the recent upsurge in adverse events reported after mesh-augmented pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repairs, our aim was to determine whether the location and depth of synthetic mesh can be measured postoperatively within the vaginal tissue microstructure using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods Seventeen patients with prior mesh-augmented repairs were recruited for participation. Patients were included if they had undergone an abdominal sacral colpopexy (ASC) or vaginal repair with mesh. Exclusion criteria were a postoperative period of <6 months, or the finding of mesh exposure on examination. OCT was used to image the vaginal wall at ...

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    8. Duke University Receives NIH Grant for Novel Determination of Microbicide PK in Women's Reproductive Health

      Duke University Receives NIH Grant for Novel Determination of Microbicide PK in Women's Reproductive Health

      Duke University Received a 2013 NIH Grant for $410,399 for Novel Determination of Microbicide PK in Women's Reproductive Health. The principal investigator is David Katz. The program started in 2012 and ends in 2016. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Vaginal microbicides offer much promise to prevent sexual transmission of HIV. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of a product (active pharmaceutical ingredient + dosage form) is central to prophylactic functionality (PD). But our ability to measure and predict microbicide PK is currently limited. Further, microbicide PD depends on how product + dosage regimen accommodate a range of conditions of the ...

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    9. In vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and multiphoton microscopy in a mouse model of ovarian neoplasia

      In vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and multiphoton microscopy in a mouse model of ovarian neoplasia

      Our goal is to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) and multiphoton microscopy (MPM) to detect early tumor development in a mouse model of ovarian neoplasia. We hope to use information regarding early tumor development to create a diagnostic test for high-risk patients. In this study we collect in vivo images using OCT, second harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence from non-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD)-dosed and VCD-dosed mice. VCD causes follicular apoptosis (simulating menopause) and leads to tumor development. Using OCT and MPM we visualized the ovarian microstructure and were able to see differences between non-VCD-dosed and VCD-dosed animals. This leads ...

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    10. Feature Of The Week 2/3/13: Automated Segmentation Algorithm for Medical Image Processing using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Feature Of The Week 2/3/13: Automated Segmentation Algorithm for Medical Image Processing using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive optical imaging technique for in vivo and in situ imaging of microstructure in biological tissues. Improvements in identification, imaging, and visualization of biological microstructures are necessary before OCT clinical use. Using the proposed algorithm, OCT images of the prostate and cervicovaginal epithelium were segmented to differentiate the cavernous nerves from the prostate gland and to detect minute changes in the epithelial layer, respectively. To detect these nerves and epithelial layer changes, three image features were employed: Gabor filter, Daubechies wavelet, and Laws filter. The Gabor feature was applied with different standard deviations in ...

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    11. Monitoring Vaginal Epithelial Thickness Changes Noninvasively in Sheep Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Monitoring Vaginal Epithelial Thickness Changes Noninvasively in Sheep Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Objective High-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT), can be used noninvasively to evaluate vaginal morphologic features, including epithelial thickness, to assess this protective barrier in transmission of sexually transmitted infections and to monitor tissue response to topical medications and hormonal fluctuations. We examined the utility of OCT to measure epithelial thickness noninvasively before and after topical treatment with a drug that causes epithelial thinning. Study Design Twelve female sheep were treated with intravaginal placebo (n=4) or nonoxynol-9 (n=8). Vaginal OCT images were obtained before and 24 hours after treatment. Four sheep in the nonoxynol-9 group were also examined on ...

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    12. Cervical Epithelial Brightness by Optical Coherence Tomography Can Determine Histological Grades of Cervical Neoplasia

      Cervical Epithelial Brightness by Optical Coherence Tomography Can Determine Histological Grades of Cervical Neoplasia

      Objective: The study aimed to determine if the difference in cervical epithelium brightness, as measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT), has potential as a distinguishing characteristic of normal, low-grade, high-grade (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2+), and cancer histological findings. Materials and Methods: Information from 476 women was available for analysis. Demographic information was collected through in-person interview. All participants were human papillomavirus positive and/or had abnormal cytological finding and underwent colposcopy or unaided visual inspection and examination by OCT by quadrant. All women had a minimum of 4 OCT-matched cervical biopsies and endocervical curettage. Two sample t tests were used ...

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    13. New Study Shows Promise For Women Needing Mesh-Augmented Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) Repair

      New Study Shows Promise For Women Needing Mesh-Augmented Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) Repair

      Imalux Press Release - Imalux® Corporation , manufacturer of the Niris ® Imaging System announces that the Niris 1300e has been successfully used to help physicians evaluate women for their suitability and response to mesh-augmented pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair. The Imalux Niris 1300e Imaging System was used by researchers at North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System. They were able to image previously placed mesh located in the vaginal epithelium, and were able to measure the thickness of the epithelial tissue. These studies have generated valuable information relative to the success of the vaginal mesh placement procedures. Both studies were presented at ...

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    14. Optical coherence tomography in vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia

      Optical coherence tomography in vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia

      Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) is a gynecological cancer with an incidence of two to three per 100,000 women. VSCC arises from vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), which is diagnosed through painful punch biopsy. In this study, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used to differentiate between normal and VIN tissue. We hypothesize that (a) epidermal layer thickness measured in OCT images is different in normal tissue and VIN, and (b) quantitative analysis of the attenuation coefficient ( μ oct ) extracted from OCT data differentiates VIN from normal vulvar tissue. Twenty lesions from 16 patients are imaged with OCT. Directly after data acquisition ...

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    15. Automated segmentation algorithm for detection of changes in vaginal epithelial morphology using optical coherence tomography

      Automated segmentation algorithm for detection of changes in vaginal epithelial morphology using optical coherence tomography

      We have explored the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a noninvasive tool for assessing the toxicity of topical microbicides, products used to prevent HIV, by monitoring the integrity of the vaginal epithelium. A novel feature-based segmentation algorithm using a nearest-neighbor classifier was developed to monitor changes in the morphology of vaginal epithelium. The two-step automated algorithm yielded OCT images with a clearly defined epithelial layer, enabling differentiation of normal and damaged tissue. The algorithm was robust in that it was able to discriminate the epithelial layer from underlying stroma as well as residual microbicide product on the surface ...

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    16. BioTex Incorporated Win SBIR Phase II NIH Grant for 3D Tracking For OCT Image Fusion in Gynecological Diagnosis

      BioTex Incorporated Win SBIR Phase II NIH Grant for 3D Tracking For OCT Image Fusion in Gynecological Diagnosis

      BioTex Incorporated received a 2012 NIH Grant for $606,172 to develop 3D Tracking For OCT Image Fusion in Gynecological Diagnosis. The principal investigator is Roger McNichols and the grant started in 2009 and ends in 2014. Below is a summary of the work. The goal of this Phase II SBIR project is to continue development of an exciting platform based on integration of optical coherence tomography acquisition with real-time 3D spatial localization. In Phase I, in the context of gynecological diagnostic imaging, we demonstrated hardware and software for prototype image fusion between colposcopic/intravaginal imaging and OCT images of ...

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    17. Feature Of The Week 9/16/12: Institute of Applied Physics/Russian Academy of Sciences Investigates Criteria for Pathology Recognition in Optical Coherence Tomography of Fallopian Tubes

      Feature Of The Week 9/16/12: Institute of Applied Physics/Russian Academy of Sciences Investigates Criteria for Pathology Recognition in Optical Coherence Tomography of Fallopian Tubes

      The problems of revealing causes of infertility and chronic pelvic pains are currently of great significance. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports on the level of infertile marriages which grew up to 12-18% worldwide in the recent 2-3 decades and its classification includes “unexplained infertility”, when there are no visible objective causes of impairment of reproductive function. On the one hand, “unexplained infertility” is associated with prevalence of asymptomatic and subclinical forms of female pelvic diseases while on the other hand it can be explained by imperfection of traditional diagnostic techniques. Currently invasive laparoscopic examination is considered as the preferred ...

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    18. Quantitative analysis of angle-resolved scattering properties of ovarian tissue using optical coherence tomography

      Quantitative analysis of angle-resolved scattering properties of ovarian tissue using optical coherence tomography

      Angle-resolved optical scattering properties of ovarian tissue, on different optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging planes, were quantitatively measured by fitting the compounded OCT A-lines into a single scattering model. Higher cross correlation value of angle-resolved scattering coefficients between different OCT imaging planes was found in normal ovaries than was present in malignant ovaries. The mean cross correlation coefficient (MCC) was introduced in this pilot study to characterize and differentiate normal, n=6 , and malignant, n=4 , ovaries. A specificity of 100 percent and a sensitivity of 100 percent were achieved by setting MCC threshold at 0.6. Collagen properties, within ...

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    19. Criteria for pathology recognition in optical coherence tomography of fallopian tubes

      Criteria for pathology recognition in optical coherence tomography of fallopian tubes

      An increase of infertility and chronic pelvic pains syndrome, a growing level of latent diseases of this group, as well as a stably high percentage (up to 25% for infertility and up to 60% for the chronic pelvic pains syndrome) of undetermined origin raises the requirement for novel introscopic diagnostic techniques. We demonstrate abilities of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a complementary technique to laparoscopy in diagnostics of fallopian tubes pathologies. We have acquired OCT images of different parts of fallopian tubes in norm and with morphologically proven pathology. Based on comparative analysis of the OCT data and the results ...

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    20. University of Arizona wins NIH Grant to on Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer by Confocal Microendoscopy

      University of Arizona wins NIH Grant to on Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer by Confocal Microendoscopy

      The University of Arizona received a $276,708 2012 NIH grant to study diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer by Confocal Microendoscopy. The principal Investigator is Arthur Gmitro. This grant is part of a multi-year project that started in 2005 and ends in 2014. Below is a summary of the work. The objective of this research is to further develop and clinically validate a real-time multispectral confocal microendoscope for in vivo diagnosis of ovarian cancer. The confocal microendoscope is a new type of instrument for visualizing tissue at the cellular level and has shown great promise for performing optical biopsy. Confocal microendoscopy ...

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    21. Multi-Mode Imaging Probe Could Detect Ovarian Cancer

      Multi-Mode Imaging Probe Could Detect Ovarian Cancer

      Ovarian cancer is difficult to diagnose in its early stages because symptoms often don’t manifest themselves until the disease has spread, and also because there is no effective screening method. Researchers at the University of Connecticut and the University of Southern California (U.S.A.) have developed a multi-mode imaging probe that could examine ovarian tissue via minimally invasive surgery (Biomed. Opt. Exp. 2, 2551; doi: 10.1364/ BOE.2.002551). The device built by Quing Zhu and her colleagues integrates optical coherence tomography (OCT), photoacoustic imaging and ultrasound

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    22. Assessment of collagen changes in ovarian tissue by extracting optical scattering coefficient from OCT images

      Assessment of collagen changes in ovarian tissue by extracting optical scattering coefficient from OCT images

      Optical scattering coefficient from ex-vivo unfixed normal and malignant ovarian tissue was quantitatively extracted by fitting optical coherence tomography (OCT) A-line signals to a single scattering model. 1097 average A-line measurements at a wavelength of 1310nm were performed at 108 sites obtained from 18 ovaries. The average scattering coefficient obtained from normal group consisted of 833 measurements from 88 sites was 2.41 mm-1 (±0.59), while the average coefficient obtained from malignant group consisted of 264 measurements from 20 sites was 1.55 mm-1 (±0.46). Using a threshold of 2 mm-1 for each ovary, a sensitivity of 100 ...

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    23. Validation of an ex vivo human cervical tissue model for optical imaging studies

      Validation of an ex vivo human cervical tissue model for optical imaging studies
      Objective To establish and validate an ex vivo human cervical tissue model for optical coherence tomography (OCT) studies with special emphasis on investigating time dependent structural changes of the epithelium. Methods Four hundred OCT images were taken from 80 unsuspicious and suspicious areas of 18 fresh conisation specimens immediately after resection (0 hour) and 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours, referred to as waiting times in the following, postoperatively and compared to the corresponding histology. For each 2D-OCT-image, a 1D-intensity profile was generated. The profiles were analyzed with respect to systematic differences which may result from different waiting times, employing ...
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    24. Diagnostic efficacy of backscattering intensity measurements in optical coherence tomography of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia

      Diagnostic efficacy of backscattering intensity measurements in optical coherence tomography of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia
      Background and Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic efficacy of backscattering intensity measurements in optical coherence tomography in identifying different grades of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia. Study Design/Materials and Methods OCT images were taken from 153 unsuspicious and suspicious areas of 30 fresh conisation and hysterectomy specimens, evaluated by two blinded investigators using a six-grade classification (normal, inflammation, CIN1, CIN2, CIN3, squamous carcinoma) and later compared to the corresponding histology. Differences between judgments based on either the histology or the OCT images were investigated employing Correspondence Analysis (CA). Further, we explored the extent as to ...
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    1-24 of 59 1 2 3 »
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