1. Articles in category: Gynecology

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    1. Duke University Receives NIH Grant for Novel Determination of Microbicide PK in Women's Reproductive Health

      Duke University Receives NIH Grant for Novel Determination of Microbicide PK in Women's Reproductive Health

      Duke University Receives a 2015 NIH Grant for Novel Determination of Microbicide PK in Women's Reproductive Health. The principal investigator is David Katz. The program began in 2012 and ends in 2016. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Vaginal microbicides offer much promise to prevent sexual transmission of HIV. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of a product (active pharmaceutical ingredient + dosage form) is central to prophylactic functionality (PD). But our ability to measure and predict microbicide PK is currently limited. Further, microbicide PD depends on how product + dosage regimen accommodate a range of conditions of the vaginal environment. These ...

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      Mentions: Duke University
    2. Integrated Ultrasound, OCT, PA AND/OR Florescence Imaging Endoscope For Diagnosing Cancers In Gastrointestinal, Respiratory, And Urogenital Tracts

      Integrated Ultrasound, OCT, PA AND/OR Florescence Imaging Endoscope For Diagnosing Cancers In Gastrointestinal, Respiratory, And Urogenital Tracts

      A multimodality imaging system including ultrasound, optical coherence tomography (OCT), photoacoustic (PA) imaging, florescence imaging and endoscopic catheter for imaging inside the gastrointestinal tract with real-time automatic image co-registration capability, including: an ultrasound subsystem for imaging; an optical coherence tomography (OCT) subsystem for imaging, a PA microscopy or tomography subsystem for imaging and a florescence imaging subsystem for imaging. An invasive interventional imaging device is included with an instrumentality to take a tissue biopsy from a location visible on the ultrasound subsystem for imaging, on the optical coherence tomography (OCT) subsystem for imaging, photoacoustic (PA) subsystem for imaging and florescence ...

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    3. A Continuous Fiber Distribution Material Model for Human Cervical Tissue

      A Continuous Fiber Distribution Material Model for Human Cervical Tissue

      The uterine cervix during pregnancy is the vital mechanical barrier which resists compressive and tensile loads generated from a growing fetus. Premature cervical remodeling and softening is hypothesized to result in the shortening of the cervix, which is known to increase a womans risk of preterm birth. To understand the role of cervical material properties in preventing preterm birth, we derive a cervical material model based on previous mechanical, biochemical and histological experiments conducted on nonpregnant and pregnant human hysterectomy cervical tissue samples. In this study we present a three-dimensional fiber composite model that captures the equilibrium material behavior of ...

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    4. Estimation of elastic parameters of ovarian tissue using phase stabilized swept source optical-coherence tomography

      Estimation of elastic parameters of ovarian tissue using phase stabilized swept source optical-coherence tomography

      We have estimated the micro-mechanical properties of ovarian tissue using phase-sensitive swept source optical coherence tomography. Ovary samples were mechanically excited by periodical vibration of an ultrasound transducer. The displacement and strain of the tissues were calculated during loading. Significant difference in strain was observed between the normal and malignant ovary groups, which indicates much softer and heterogeneous tissue structure for malignant ovaries. The initial results show that the phase sensitive swept source optical coherence elastography (OCE) can be an effective tool for characterization of stiffness and other micro-mechanical properties of normal and malignant ovarian tissue.

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    5. Analyzing three-dimensional ultrastructure of human cervical tissue using optical coherence tomography

      Analyzing three-dimensional ultrastructure of human cervical tissue using optical coherence tomography

      During pregnancy, the uterine cervix is the mechanical barrier that prevents delivery of a fetus. The underlying cervical collagen ultrastructure, which influences the overall mechanical properties of the cervix, plays a role in maintaining a successful pregnancy until term. Yet, not much is known about this collagen ultrastructure in pregnant and nonpregnant human tissue. We used optical coherence tomography to investigate the directionality and dispersion of collagen fiber bundles in the human cervix. An image analysis tool has been developed, combining a stitching method with a fiber orientation measurement, to study axially sliced cervix samples. This tool was used to ...

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    6. Imaging endocervical mucus anatomy and dynamics in macaque female reproductive track using optical coherence tomography

      Imaging endocervical mucus anatomy and dynamics in macaque female reproductive track using optical coherence tomography

      Background: Endocervical mucus acts as an important barrier to block human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Disruption of the mucus layer increases the risk of infection for females. An effective method to image the mucus properties can serve as a pre-screening step to risk-stratify the susceptible population. Methods: We proposed to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to quantitatively measure the thickness of endocervical mucus. We used a home-built bench-top OCT system to monitor the dynamic change in mucus thickness of a cultivated sample. We also fabricated a prototype endoscopic OCT probe to demonstrate potential in ...

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    7. Optical design of an optical coherence tomography and multispectral fluorescence imaging endoscope to detect early stage ovarian cancer

      Optical design of an optical coherence tomography and multispectral fluorescence imaging endoscope to detect early stage ovarian cancer

      The five year survival rate for ovarian cancer is over 90% if early detection occurs, yet no effective early screening method exists. We have designed and are constructing a dual modality Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging (MFI) endoscope to optically screen the Fallopian tube and ovary for early stage cancer. The endoscope reaches the ovary via the natural pathway of the vagina, cervix, uterus and Fallopian tube. In order to navigate the Fallopian tube the endoscope must have an outer diameter of 600 μm, be highly flexible, steerable, tracking and nonperforating. The imaging systems consists of six ...

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    8. Effect of optical clearing agents on optical coherence tomography images of cervical epithelium

      Effect of optical clearing agents on optical coherence tomography images of cervical epithelium

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used as an adjunct to colposcopy in order to detect precancerous and cancerous cervical lesions. Optical clearing agents (OCAs) temporarily reduce the optical scattering of biological tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate their influence on OCT imaging. OCT images were taken from unsuspicious and suspicious areas of fresh conization specimens immediately after resection and 5, 10, and 20 min after application of dimethyl sulfoxide ( DMSO ) or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Corresponding histologies were obtained from all sites. The images taken 5, 10, and 20 min after application of OCA were compared to ...

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    9. An automated 3D registration method for optical coherence tomography volumes

      An automated 3D registration method for optical coherence tomography volumes

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is able to provide high resolution volumetric data for biological tissues. However, the field of view (FOV) of OCT is sometimes smaller than the field of interest, which limits the clinical application of OCT. One way to overcome the drawback is to stitch multiple 3D volumes. In this paper, we propose a novel method to register multiple overlapped volumetric OCT data into a single volume. The relative positions of overlapped volumes were estimated on en face plane and at depth. On en face plane, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) was implemented to extract the keypoints in ...

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    10. The Value of Optical Coherence Tomography in Determining Surgical Margins in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Vulva: A Single-Center Prospective Study.

      The Value of Optical Coherence Tomography in Determining Surgical Margins in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Vulva: A Single-Center Prospective Study.

      Background: Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) is treated with wide local excision. The challenge is to remove as much skin as necessary to prevent recurrence, but meanwhile preserve genital skin to diminish morbidity. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging tool that produces cross-sectional images. Optical coherence tomography could be helpful in determining appropriate surgical margins during excision of VSCC. Objective: This study aimed to assess the value of OCT in determining appropriate surgical margins in patients operated for VSCC. We hypothesize that benign tissue will differ qualitatively (presence of clear epidermal layers) and quantitatively (epidermal layer thickness and ...

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    11. An overview of optical coherence tomography for ovarian tissue imaging and characterization

      An overview of optical coherence tomography for ovarian tissue imaging and characterization

      Ovarian cancer has the lowest survival rate among all the gynecologic cancers because it is predominantly diagnosed at late stages due to the lack of reliable symptoms and efficacious screening techniques. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging technique that provides high-resolution images of biological tissue in real time, and demonstrates great potential for imaging of ovarian tissue. In this article, we review OCT studies for visualization and diagnosis of human ovaries as well as quantitative extraction of ovarian tissue optical properties for classifying normal and malignant ovaries. OCT combined with other imaging modalities to further improve ovarian tissue diagnosis ...

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    12. Diagnostic potential of multimodal imaging of ovarian tissue using optical coherence tomography and second-harmonic generation microscopy

      Diagnostic potential of multimodal imaging of ovarian tissue using optical coherence tomography and second-harmonic generation microscopy

      Ovarian cancer is particularly deadly because it is usually diagnosed after it has metastasized. We have previously identified features of ovarian cancer using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy (targeting collagen). OCT provides an image of the ovarian microstructure, while SHG provides a high-resolution map of collagen fiber bundle arrangement. Here, we investigated the diagnostic potential of dual-modality OCT and SHG imaging. We conducted a fully crossed, multireader, multicase study using seven human observers. Each observer classified 44 ex vivo mouse ovaries (16 normal and 28 abnormal) as normal or abnormal from OCT, SHG, and simultaneously viewed ...

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    13. The handheld smartphone device which could spot cancer

      The handheld smartphone device which could spot cancer

      A £240 ($400) handheld device which can analyse potential tumours is being developed in Tel Aviv. The Mobile OCT device consists of a smartphone to take the images, a lens, some lights and a plastic handle. The images are assessed by the device's operator and are then uploaded for review by a professional. BBC Click's Spencer Kelly reports.

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    14. MobileOCT uses a 3D printed case to turn smartphones into cancer screening devices

      MobileOCT uses a 3D printed case to turn smartphones into cancer screening devices

      There are plenty of nifty smartphone accessories out there today, but how many of them can potentially save lives? MobileOCT is one of the latest startups to raise their hand to that question. The self-described “point-of-care diagnostics company” based in Tel Aviv, Israel, has developed a 3D printed smartphone accessory that leverages a mobile phone’s camera to detect cancer. MobileOCT (pronounced “Mobile Oh-See-Tee” – the “OCT” stands for optical coherence tomography) is starting out by pushing its mobile colposcope, which is a magnifying device used to take images of the vagina or cervix. The company’s first target is cervical ...

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    15. Optical and Photoacoustic Imaging for Ovarian Cancer Detection (Thesis)

      Optical and Photoacoustic Imaging for Ovarian Cancer Detection (Thesis)

      Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cancer among women and has the highest mortality rate of all gynecologic cancers. Current clinical imaging modalities are limited by poor sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop effective tools to detect ovarian cancer. In this dissertation, two imaging modalities, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and photoacoustic imaging have been investigated for ovarian cancer detection and characterization. In the first modality, optical scattering coefficient, phase retardation and phase retardation rate were quantitatively extracted from polarization-sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) images. A highly positive correlation was found between those three parameters and collagen ...

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    16. Epithelial stem cells as mucosal antigen-delivering cells: a novel preventive approach

      Epithelial stem cells as mucosal antigen-delivering cells: a novel preventive approach

      Introduction HIV transmission occurs predominantly across mucosal surfaces. An ideal preventive strategy would be to target HIV at mucosal entry sites to prevent infection. We developed a novel epithelial stem cells-based AIDS preventive approach in female macaques. This approach is based on the ability of therapeutic lentiviral vectors integrated in mucosal epithelial stem cells to induce virus-specific cellular immune responses at mucosal sites of viral entry. We first intended to expose the cervicovaginal tract to conditions used for intravaginal vaccine delivery and non-invasively image local tissues to determine the vaccination effects on epithelial integrity and generation of antigen-specific mucosal immune ...

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    17. Effect of acetic acid on optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of cervical epithelium

      Effect of acetic acid on optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of cervical epithelium

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used as an adjunct to colposcopy in the identification of precancerous and cancerous cervical lesions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acetic acid on OCT imaging. OCT images were taken from unsuspicious and suspicious areas of fresh conization specimens immediately after resection and 3 and 10 min after application of 6 % acetic acid. A corresponding histology was obtained from all sites. The images taken 3 and 10 min after application of acetic acid were compared to the initial images with respect to changes in brightness, contrast, and scanning depth ...

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    18. Clinical applications of functional optical coherence tomography (Thesis)

      Clinical applications of functional optical coherence tomography (Thesis)

      The purpose of the work presented in this thesis is to show the potential of functional optical coherence tomography (OCT) to discriminate pathological from normal tissues in several clinical settings, by means of the attenuation coefficient. To that end, several fundamental studies were carried out to increase the fundamental understanding of the measured signals (in phantoms, during apoptosis) and both ex and in vivo investigations are performed in the urological and gynecological clinic.

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    19. Novel Advancements in Colposcopy: Historical Perspectives and a Systematic Review of Future Developments

      Novel Advancements in Colposcopy: Historical Perspectives and a Systematic Review of Future Developments

      Objective: To describe novel innovations and techniques for the detection of high-grade dysplasia. Materials and Methods: Studies were identified through the PubMed database, spanning the last 10 years. The key words (["computerized colposcopy" or "digital colposcopy" or "spectroscopy" or "multispectral digital colposcopy" or "dynamic spectral imaging", or "electrical impedance spectroscopy" or "confocal endomicroscopy" or "confocal microscopy"or "optical coherence tomography"] and ["cervical dysplasia" or cervical precancer" or "cervix" or "cervical"]) were used. The inclusion criteria were published articles of original research referring to noncolposcopic evaluation of the cervix for the detection of cervical dysplasia. Only English-language articles from the past ...

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    20. Picturing Cervical Cancer

      Picturing Cervical Cancer

      The Pap smear has been used to test women for cervical cancer since its invention in 1928. With a simple swipe and smear, doctors have been able to use microscopic observation to detect cancerous activity. Because cervical cancer is one of the most preventable forms of cancer, the Pap smear revolutionized how we deal with the disease. Yet, worldwide, 275 000 women ( 1 ) still die from cervical cancer each year. That's because although the Pap is an efficient test, it requires elements such as facilities, follow-up visits, and trained cytology technicians, making it difficult to use in low- to ...

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    21. Feature Of The Week 7/7/13: Visualization of Synthetic Mesh In Vaginal Walls Using OCT

      Feature Of The Week 7/7/13: Visualization of Synthetic Mesh In Vaginal Walls Using OCT

      Owing to the recent upsurge in adverse events reported after mesh-augmented pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repairs, our aim was to determine whether the location and depth of synthetic mesh can be measured postoperatively within the vaginal tissue microstructure using optical coherence tomography (OCT ). Seventeen patients with prior mesh-augmented repairs were recruited for participation. Patients were included if they had undergone an abdominal sacral colpopexy (ASC) or vaginal repair with mesh. Exclusion criteria were a postoperative period of <6 months, or the finding of mesh exposure on examination. OCT was used to image the vaginal wall at various POP-Q sites. If ...

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    22. Examination of Diagnostic Features in Multiphoton Microscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography Images of Ovarian Tumorigenesis in a Mouse Model (Thesis)

      Examination of Diagnostic Features in Multiphoton Microscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography Images of Ovarian Tumorigenesis in a Mouse Model (Thesis)

      Ovarian cancer is a deadly disease owing to the non-specific symptoms and suspected rapid progression, leading to frequent late stage detection and poor prognosis. Medical imaging methods such as CT, MRI and ultrasound as well as serum testing for cancer markers have had extremely poor performance for early disease detection. Due to the poor performance of available screening methods, and the impracticality and ineffectiveness of taking tissue biopsies from the ovary, women at high risk for developing ovarian cancer are often advised to undergo prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy. This surgery results in many side effects and is most often unnecessary since only ...

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    23. University of Arizona Receives NIH Grant for Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer by Confocal Microendoscopy.

      University of Arizona Receives NIH Grant for Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer by Confocal Microendoscopy.

      University of Arizona Received a 2013 NIH Grant for $65,063 for Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer by Confocal Microendoscopy. The principal investigator is Arthur Gmitro. The program started in 2005 and ends in 2014. Below is a summary of the proposed work. The objective of this research is to further develop and clinically validate a real-time multispectral confocal microendoscope for in vivo diagnosis of ovarian cancer. The confocal microendoscope is a new type of instrument for visualizing tissue at the cellular level and has shown great promise for performing optical biopsy. Confocal microendoscopy has the potential to provide a physician ...

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    24. Visualization of synthetic mesh utilizing optical coherence tomography

      Visualization of synthetic mesh utilizing optical coherence tomography

      Introduction and hypothesis Owing to the recent upsurge in adverse events reported after mesh-augmented pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repairs, our aim was to determine whether the location and depth of synthetic mesh can be measured postoperatively within the vaginal tissue microstructure using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods Seventeen patients with prior mesh-augmented repairs were recruited for participation. Patients were included if they had undergone an abdominal sacral colpopexy (ASC) or vaginal repair with mesh. Exclusion criteria were a postoperative period of <6 months, or the finding of mesh exposure on examination. OCT was used to image the vaginal wall at ...

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