1. Articles in category: Developmental Biology

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    1. A Better View of Blood-Vessel Development

      A Better View of Blood-Vessel Development

      A research team in China has exploited photoacoustic imaging to track development of the circulatory system in zebrafish embryos, without the use of labels or contrast agents that can gum up the view of sensitive biological processes (Biomed. Opt. Express, doi: 10.1364/BOE.8.002359 ). The researchers believe that this proof of concept in one of biomedicine’s central model organisms could open a path in the future toward using the technique to study human cardiovascular diseases, as well as brain diseases tied to blood-flow issues.

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    2. OHSU Receives NIH Grant for Dynamic Changes in the Chick Developing Heart in Response to Altered Hemodynamics

      OHSU Receives NIH Grant for Dynamic Changes in the Chick Developing Heart in Response to Altered Hemodynamics

      Oregon Health & Science University Receives a 2017 NIH Grant for $414,360 for Dynamic Changes in the Chick Developing Heart in Response to Altered Hemodynamics. The principal investigator is Sandra Rugonyi. The program began in 2008 and ends in 2018. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Project Summary About 1% newborn babies have congenital heart disease (CHD), the leading cause of death among children. The majority of CHD cases are believed not to have a genetic cause. Other factors, such as abnormal blood flow during embryonic and fetal stages can lead to heart malformations and thus CHD through ...

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    3. UCDavis Receives NIH Grant for Improving Penetration Depth and Spatial Resolution for In Vivo Deep Imaging of Mouse Brain Using 2200nm Optical Coherence Microscopy

      UCDavis Receives NIH Grant for Improving Penetration Depth and Spatial Resolution for In Vivo Deep Imaging of Mouse Brain Using 2200nm Optical Coherence Microscopy

      University of California at Davis Receives a 2017 NIH Grant for $78,500 for Improving Penetration Depth and Spatial Resolution for In Vivo Deep Imaging of Mouse Brain Using 2200nm Optical Coherence Microscopy. The principal investigator is Shau Chong. The program began in 20-17 and ends in 2-019. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Subcortical pathology is a common feature in aging, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia but has been challenging to study with micron resolution in vivo. Optical methods such as two-photon microscopy image the superficial cortex at the micron-scale, but the resolution of these conventional ...

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    4. Heart structural remodeling in a mouse model of Duchenne cardiomyopathy revealed using optical polarization tractography [Invited]

      Heart structural remodeling in a mouse model of Duchenne cardiomyopathy revealed using optical polarization tractography [Invited]

      We investigated the heart structural remodeling in the mdx4cv mouse model of Duchenne cardiomyopathy using optical polarization tractography. Whole heart tractography was obtained in freshly dissected hearts from six mdx4cv mice. Six hearts from C57BL/6J mice were also imaged as the normal control. The mdx4cv hearts were significantly larger than the control hearts and had significantly higher between–subject variations in myofiber organization. While both strains showed classic cross-helical fiber organization in the left ventricle, the rate of the myocardial fiber orientation change across the heart wall was significantly altered in the right ventricle of the mdx4cv heart.

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    5. OCT intensity and phase fluctuations correlated with activity-dependent neuronal calcium dynamics in the Drosophila CNS [Invited]

      OCT intensity and phase fluctuations correlated with activity-dependent neuronal calcium dynamics in the Drosophila CNS [Invited]

      Phase-resolved OCT and fluorescence microscopy were used simultaneously to examine stereotypic patterns of neural activity in the isolated Drosophila central nervous system. Both imaging modalities were focused on individually identified bursicon neurons known to be involved in a fixed action pattern initiated by ecdysis-triggering hormone. We observed clear correspondence of OCT intensity, phase fluctuations, and activity-dependent calcium-induced fluorescence.

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    6. Automated feature extraction for retinal vascular biometry in zebrafish using OCT angiography

      Automated feature extraction for retinal vascular biometry in zebrafish using OCT angiography

      Zebrafish have been identified as an ideal model for angiogenesis because of anatomical and functional similarities with other vertebrates. The scale and complexity of zebrafish assays are limited by the need to manually treat and serially screen animals, and recent technological advances have focused on automation and improving throughput. Here, we use optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCT-A) to perform noninvasive, in vivo imaging of retinal vasculature in zebrafish. OCT-A summed voxel projections were low pass filtered and skeletonized to create an en face vascular map prior to connectivity analysis. Vascular segmentation was referenced to the optic nerve ...

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    7. Optical coherence microscopy with extended focus for in vivo embryonic imaging

      Optical coherence microscopy with extended focus for in vivo embryonic imaging

      Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) has unique advantages of high-resolution volumetric imaging without relying on exogenous labels or dyes. It combines the coherence-gated depth discrimination of optical coherence tomography (OCT) with the high lateral resolution of confocal microscopy, offering an excellent balance between the resolutions and imaging depth. However, as the lateral resolution becomes higher, the imaging depth of OCM decreases and its three-dimensional imaging capability is greatly degraded. To overcome this limitation, we used amplitude apodization to create quasi-Bessel beam illumination in order to extend the depth of focus. The lateral and axial resolutions of our OCM system were measured ...

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    8. Dynamic multimodal full-field optical coherence tomography and fluorescence structured illumination microscopy

      Dynamic multimodal full-field optical coherence tomography and fluorescence structured illumination microscopy

      We report on the development of a configuration of a multimodal full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT) and fluorescence microscope. Our system can simultaneously acquire FF-OCT and structured illumination microscopy images. Dynamic parallel evolution of tissue microstructures and biochemical environments can be visualized. We use high numerical aperture objectives to optimize the combination of the two modalities. We imaged the propagation of mechanical waves initiated by calcium waves in a heart wall to illustrate the interest of simultaneous recording of mechanical and biochemical information.

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    9. A dual-modality optical coherence tomography and selective plane illumination microscopy system for mouse embryonic imaging

      A dual-modality optical coherence tomography and selective plane illumination microscopy system for mouse embryonic imaging

      Both optical coherence tomography (OCT) and selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) are frequently used in mouse embryonic research for high-resolution three-dimensional imaging. However, each of these imaging methods provide a unique and independent advantage: SPIM provides morpho-functional information through immunofluorescence and OCT provides a method for whole-embryo 3D imaging. In this study, we have combined rotational imaging OCT and SPIM into a single, dual-modality device to image E9.5 mouse embryos. The results demonstrate that the dual-modality setup is able to provide both anatomical and functional information simultaneously for more comprehensive tissue characterization

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    10. Live dynamic analysis of the developing cardiovascular system in mice

      Live dynamic analysis of the developing cardiovascular system in mice

      The study of the developing cardiovascular system in mice is important for understanding human cardiogenesis and congenital heart defects. Our research focuses on imaging early development in the mouse embryo to specifically understand cardiovascular development under the regulation of dynamic factors like contractile force and blood flow using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We have previously developed an OCT based approach that combines static embryo culture and advanced image processing with computational modeling to live-image mouse embryos and obtain 4D (3D+time) cardiodynamic datasets. Here we present live 4D dynamic blood flow imaging of the early embryonic mouse heart in correlation ...

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    11. Analysis of Craniocardiac Malformations in Xenopus using Optical Coherence Tomography : Scientific Reports

      Analysis of Craniocardiac Malformations in Xenopus using Optical Coherence Tomography : Scientific Reports

      Birth defects affect 3% of children in the United States. Among the birth defects, congenital heart disease and craniofacial malformations are major causes of mortality and morbidity. Unfortunately, the genetic mechanisms underlying craniocardiac malformations remain largely uncharacterized. To address this, human genomic studies are identifying sequence variations in patients, resulting in numerous candidate genes. However, the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis for most candidate genes are unknown. Therefore, there is a need for functional analyses in rapid and efficient animal models of human disease. Here, we coupled the frog Xenopus tropicalis with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to create a fast and ...

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    12. Stanford faculty named in first cohort of Chan Zuckerberg Biohub investigators

      Stanford faculty named in first cohort of Chan Zuckerberg Biohub investigators

      The Chan Zuckerberg Biohub committed more than $50 million to support 47 of the best investigators from Bay Area universities, including 19 from Stanford University. The investigators each receive five-year appointments worth up to $1.5 million to carry out non-conventional scientific exploration and to invent new tools to accelerate the pace of discovery. De la Zerda’s goal is to image 100 million cells in living tissues at single-cell resolution by using optical coherence tomography. One of the potential uses of his technique will be to visualize cancer markers to delineate the margins of tumors.

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    13. The University of Houston Receives NIH Grant for Optical Coherence Tomography to Study Effect of Poly-Drug Exposure on Fetal Brain Development

      The University of Houston Receives NIH Grant for Optical Coherence Tomography to Study Effect of Poly-Drug Exposure on Fetal Brain Development

      The University of Houston Receives a 2017 NIH Grant for $311,241 for Optical Coherence Tomography to Study Effect of Poly-Drug Exposure on Fetal Brain Development. The principal investigator is Kirll Larin. The program began in 2016 and ends in 2020. Below is a summary of the proposed work. The overall objective of this study is to develop an optical coherence tomography (OCT) based high- resolution mouse embryonic brain imaging and analysis approach, and to use this method in correlation with molecular analysis to understand the interplay between ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine (NIC) effects on embryonic brain development. Maternal exposures ...

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    14. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography: An In Vivo Imaging Protocol for Assessing Retinal Morphology in Adult Zebrafish

      Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography: An In Vivo Imaging Protocol for Assessing Retinal Morphology in Adult Zebrafish

      The present study outlines a protocol for examining retinal structure in zebrafish, a popular model organism for ocular studies, using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We demonstrate how this live imaging modality can be used to obtain high quality images of several retinal features, including the optic nerve, retinal vasculature, and the cone photoreceptor mosaic. Retinal histology sections were obtained from imaged fish for comparison with SD-OCT cross-sectional B-scans. Voronoi domain analysis was used to assess cone photoreceptor packing regularity at 3, 6, and 12 months. SD-OCT is an effective in vivo technique for studying the adult zebrafish retina ...

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    15. Phase variance optical coherence microscopy for label-free imaging of the developing vasculature in zebrafish embryos

      Phase variance optical coherence microscopy for label-free imaging of the developing vasculature in zebrafish embryos

      A phase variance optical coherence microscope (pvOCM) has been created to image blood flow in the microvasculature of zebrafish embryos, without the use of exogenous labels. The pvOCM imaging system has axial and lateral resolutions of 2.8    μ m 2.8  μm in tissue and imaging depth of more than 100    μ m 100  μm . Images of 2 to 5 days postfertilization zebrafish embryos identified the detailed anatomical structure based on OCM intensity contrast. Phase variance contrast offered visualization of blood flow in the arteries, veins, and capillaries. The pvOCM images of the vasculature were confirmed by direct comparisons with fluorescence ...

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    16. Dynamic imaging and quantitative analysis of cranial neural tube closure in the mouse embryo using optical coherence tomography

      Dynamic imaging and quantitative analysis of cranial neural tube closure in the mouse embryo using optical coherence tomography

      Neural tube closure is a critical feature of central nervous system morphogenesis during embryonic development. Failure of this process leads to neural tube defects, one of the most common forms of human congenital defects. Although molecular and genetic studies in model organisms have provided insights into the genes and proteins that are required for normal neural tube development, complications associated with live imaging of neural tube closure in mammals limit efficient morphological analyses. Here, we report the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for dynamic imaging and quantitative assessment of cranial neural tube closure in live mouse embryos in culture ...

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    17. In Vivo Detection of the Effect of Electroacupuncture on “Zusanli” Acupoint in Rats with Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis through Optical Coherence Tomography

      In Vivo Detection of the Effect of Electroacupuncture on “Zusanli” Acupoint in Rats with Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis through Optical Coherence Tomography

      This study aimed to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) treatment through optical coherence tomography (OCT) in vivo on rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. OCT images were obtained from the ankle of the right hind paws of the rats in control, model, and EA groups before modelling and 1 day, 8 days, 15 days, 22 days, and 29 days after modelling. Results demonstrated that the OCT signal of the ankle of the right hind paws of the rats was indistinct compared to 1 day after modelling and before modelling in the EA group. In the EA group, the light averaged attenuation ...

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    18. Optical Modalities for Embryonic Imaging

      Optical Modalities for Embryonic Imaging

      tudies of disease etiology often rely on the murine (mouse) model, which provides valuable genotypic information. Yet associated phenotypic information from murine embryos is often lacking. Of the various techniques that have been proposed for imaging such embryos, optical modalities may provide the best compromise among speed, penetration depth and resolution. This year, we developed approaches to improve embryonic imaging with optical coherence tomography (OCT), 1 and also provided a detailed comparison of OCT and another modality, optical projection tomography (OPT), in murine-embryo studies. 2 Most commonly used for ophthalmological imaging, 3 OCT has proved a powerful embryonic-imaging modality as ...

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    19. A method to study the hemodynamics of chicken embryo's aortic arches using optical coherence tomography

      A method to study the hemodynamics of chicken embryo's aortic arches using optical coherence tomography

      Congenital cardiovascular defects are the leading cause of birth defect related death. It has been hypothesized that fluid mechanical forces of embryonic blood flow affect cardiovascular development and play a role in congenital malformations. Studies in small animal embryos can improve our understanding of congenital malformations and can lead to better treatment. We present a feasibility study in which high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are combined to provide quantitative analysis of the embryonic flow mechanics and the associated anatomy in a small animal model.

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    20. Imaging the adult zebrafish cone mosaic using optical coherence tomography

      Imaging the adult zebrafish cone mosaic using optical coherence tomography

      Zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) provide many advantages as a model organism for studying ocular disease and development, and there is great interest in the ability to non-invasively assess their photoreceptor mosaic. Despite recent applications of scanning light ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography, and gonioscopy to in vivo imaging of the adult zebrafish eye, current techniques either lack accurate scaling information (limiting quantitative analyses) or require euthanizing the fish (precluding longitudinal analyses). Here we describe improved methods for imaging the adult zebrafish retina using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Transgenic fli1:eGFP zebrafish were imaged using the Bioptigen Envisu R2200 broadband source OCT ...

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    21. Extended-focus optical coherence microscopy for high-resolution imaging of the murine brain

      Extended-focus optical coherence microscopy for high-resolution imaging of the murine brain

      We propose a new method and optical instrumentation for mouse brain imaging based on extended-focus optical coherence microscopy. This in vivo imaging technique allows the evaluation of the cytoarchitecture at cellular level and the circulation system dynamics in three dimensions. This minimally invasive and non-contact approach is performed without the application of contrasting agents. The optical design achieved a resolution of 2.2 μm over a distance of 800 μm, which was sufficient to obtain a detailed three-dimensional image of a wild-type mouse’s brain down to the layer III of the cortex. Intrinsically contrasted microvessels and structures similar to ...

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    22. The adult zebrafish retina: In vivo optical sectioning with Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy and Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      The adult zebrafish retina: In vivo optical sectioning with Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy and Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Non-invasive imaging is an invaluable diagnostic tool in ophthalmology. Two imaging devices, the scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT), emerged from the clinical realm to provide research scientists with a real-time view of ocular morphology in living animals. We utilized these two independent imaging modalities in a complementary manner to perform in vivo optical sectioning of the adult zebrafish retina. Due to the very high optical power of the zebrafish lens, the confocal depth of field is narrow, allowing for detailed en face views of specific retinal layers, including the cone mosaic. Moreover, we demonstrate ...

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    23. Optical Coherence Tomography for Brain Imaging and Developmental Biology

      Optical Coherence Tomography for Brain Imaging and Developmental Biology

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising research tool for brain imaging and developmental biology. Serving as a three-dimensional optical biopsy technique, OCT provides volumetric reconstruction of brain tissues and embryonic structures with micrometer resolution and video rate imaging speed. Functional OCT enables label-free monitoring of hemodynamic and metabolic changes in the brain in vitro and in vivo in animal models. Due to its noninvasiveness nature, OCT enables longitudinal imaging of developing specimens in vivo without potential damage from surgical operation, tissue fixation and processing, and staining with exogenous contrast agents. In this paper, various OCT applications in brain imaging ...

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    24. Time-Series Interactions of Gene Expression, Vascular Growth and Hemodynamics during Early Embryonic Arterial Development

      Time-Series Interactions of Gene Expression, Vascular Growth and Hemodynamics during Early Embryonic Arterial Development

      The role of hemodynamic forces within the embryo as biomechanical regulators for cardiovascular morphogenesis, growth, and remodeling is well supported through the experimental studies. Furthermore, clinical experience suggests that perturbed flow disrupts the normal vascular growth process as one etiology for congenital heart diseases (CHD) and for fetal adaptation to CHD. However, the relationships between hemodynamics, gene expression and embryonic vascular growth are poorly defined due to the lack of concurrent, sequential in vivo data. In this study, a long-term, time-lapse optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging campaign was conducted to acquire simultaneous blood velocity, pulsatile micro-pressure and morphometric data for ...

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      Mentions: Thorlabs
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