1. Articles in category: Developmental Biology

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    1. Baylor College of Medicine Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for Biomechanics of Early Mammalian Cardiogenesis

      Baylor College of Medicine Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for Biomechanics of Early Mammalian Cardiogenesis

      Baylor College of Medicine Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $554,542 for Biomechanics of Early Mammalian Cardiogenesis. The principal investigator is Irina Larina. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Human congenital heart defects (CHD) are very common, occurring in nearly 1% of live births. Moreover, cardiovascular (CV) failures are the leading cause of birth defect- related deaths in infants. It is well established that biomechanical stimuli are important regulators of CV development. Thus, defining how mechanical factors are integrated with genetic pathways to coordinate mammalian heart tube function and morphogenesis is critically important for understanding CHD and ...

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    2. Methotrexate impaired in-vivo matured mouse oocyte quality and the possible mechanisms

      Methotrexate impaired in-vivo matured mouse oocyte quality and the possible mechanisms

      Background Methotrexate (MTX) is an antifolate agent which is widely used in clinic for treating malignancies, rheumatoid arthritis and ectopic pregnancy. As reported, MTX has side effects on gastrointestinal system, nervous system and reproductive system, while its potential damages on oocyte quality are still unclear. It is known that oocyte quality is essential for healthy conception and the forthcoming embryo development. Thus, this work studied the effects of MTX on the oocyte quality. Results We established MTX model mice by single treatment with 5 mg/Kg MTX. Both morphological and molecular biology studies were performed to assess the in-vivo matured ...

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    3. Imaging of Atrioventricular Nodal Conduction Tissue in Porcine Hearts Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Imaging of Atrioventricular Nodal Conduction Tissue in Porcine Hearts Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) employs near-infrared light to image the microstructure of different tissues. Clinically, it has been used to image the walls of coronary arteries. In research settings, one of the applications for OCT is visualizing endocardial and subendocardial structures. The present experiment sought to determine whether OCT can identify native conduction tissues in adult porcine hearts. During the study, the right atrial endocardial surfaces of excised adult porcine hearts were exposed. The triangle of Koch was imaged with the OCT system and the conduction tissue was identified. The area was then prepared for histologic examination with Masson’s ...

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    4. Does cannabis use amplify the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure and vice versa?

      Does cannabis use amplify the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure and vice versa?

      An unforeseen consequence of normalization of marijuana use is that adolescents and adults of childbearing age are increasingly engaged in a practice of Simultaneous Alcohol and Cannabinoid (SAC) use, or co-ingestion. A recent U.S. hospital-based assessment revealed that at the time of birth, about 22% of assessed umbilical cords were positive for marijuana. "It is likely, given the documented synergy between ethanol and cannabinoids, that their combined ingestion will, as hypothesized, result in increased neurogenic and neurovascular deficits in exposed offspring," said Kirill Larin, University of Houston professor of biomedical engineering. Larin and collaborator Rajesh Miranda of Texas A ...

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    5. Long‐term and in vivo assessment of Aβ protein induced brain atrophy in a zebrafish model by optical coherence tomography

      Long‐term and in vivo assessment of Aβ protein induced brain atrophy in a zebrafish model by optical coherence tomography

      In this study, a neurotoxicity model of zebrafish induced by Aβ protein was developed and evaluated in vivo by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Aβ protein and PBS were separately injected into the head of two groups of adult zebrafish (n = 6 per group). Congo‐red staining results confirmed that Aβ protein had penetrated into brain tissue. All zebrafish were imaged with OCT on the 0th, 5th, 10th, 15th, and 20th day post‐injection. OCT images showed that PBS is not toxic to brain tissue. However, significant brain atrophy could be seen in the OCT images of zebrafish injected with A ...

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    6. Methods for three dimensional reconstruction and determining the quality of an embryo

      Methods for three dimensional reconstruction and determining the quality of an embryo

      The present invention relates generally to the fields of reproductive medicine. More specifically, the present invention relates to methods and devices for determining the quality of an embryo. More specifically, the present invention relates to the use of three dimensional reconstructions for determining the quality of an embryo.

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    7. Functional optical coherence tomography and photoacoustic microscopy imaging for zebrafish larvae

      Functional optical coherence tomography and photoacoustic microscopy imaging for zebrafish larvae

      We present a dual modality functional optical coherence tomography and photoacoustic microscopy (OCT-PAM) system. The photoacoustic modality employs an akinetic optical sensor with a large imaging window. This imaging window enables direct reflection mode operation, and a seamless integration of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a second imaging modality. Functional extensions to the OCT-PAM system include Doppler OCT (DOCT) and spectroscopic PAM (sPAM). This functional and non-invasive imaging system is applied to image zebrafish larvae, demonstrating its capability to extract both morphological and hemodynamic parameters in vivo in small animals, which are essential and critical in preclinical imaging for physiological ...

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    8. In vivo characterization of chick embryo mesoderm by optical coherence tomography assisted microindentation

      In vivo characterization of chick embryo mesoderm by optical coherence tomography assisted microindentation

      Embryos are growing organisms with highly heterogeneous properties in space and time. Understanding the mechanical properties is a crucial prerequisite for the investigation of morphogenesis. During the last ten years, new techniques have been developed to evaluate the mechanical properties of biological tissues in vivo . To address this need, we employed a new instrument that, via the combination of micro-indentation with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), allows us to determine both, the spatial distribution of mechanical properties of chick embryos and the structural changes in real-time provided by OCT. We report here the stiffness measurements on live chicken mesoderm during somite ...

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    9. Optical coherence tomography as a noninvasive 3D real time imaging tool for the rapid evaluation of phenotypic variations in insect embryonic development

      Optical coherence tomography as a noninvasive 3D real time imaging tool for the rapid evaluation of phenotypic variations in insect embryonic development

      Noninvasive visualization of embryos at different development stages is crucial for the understanding of the basic developmental biology. It is therefore desirable to have an imaging tool capable of rapidly evaluating the effects of gene manipulation or genome editing in developing embryos for the studies of gene functions and genetic engineering. Here, we propose and demonstrate a novel use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to noninvasively exam the embryonic development of the migratory locusts in real time with 3‐dimensional (3D) view capability. In particular, we obtain the sufficiently high spatial resolution tomographic 2D and 3D images of live locust ...

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    10. Biophotonic Investigation of Cardiac Structure and Hemodynamics During Embryogenesis Using Optical Coherence Tomography (Thesis)

      Biophotonic Investigation of Cardiac Structure and Hemodynamics During Embryogenesis Using Optical Coherence Tomography (Thesis)

      Congenital heart disease/defects (CHDs) account for approximately one-third of all birth defects globally. Many of these will require invasive treatment within the first year of life, subsequent interventions, and a lifetime of monitoring. Alcohol has been known as a teratogen for several decades, and prenatal exposure alone is a significant cause of worldwide CHDs. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has been used as an imaging modality for nearly three decades and is especially suited to the non-invasive imaging of small, semi-transparent tissue structures. Doppler OCT (DOCT) adds the ability to visualize and measure fluid flow and movement of reflective components ...

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    11. University of Alabama at Birmingham Receives NIH Grant for Functional Categorization of Ciliary motion in PCD

      University of Alabama at Birmingham Receives NIH Grant for Functional Categorization of Ciliary motion in PCD

      University of Alabama at Birmingham Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $159,882 for Functional Categorization of Ciliary motion in PCD. The principal investigator is George Solomon. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder of motile cilia that results in progressive lung disease due to abrogated mucociliary clearance. While new understandings of the genetics have been helpful for clinical diagnostics, functional testing of cilia are needed to understand and predict phenotypic variation and response to therapy. Recent work in our laboratory has identified a link between ciliary genetics and novel ...

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    12. Baylor College of Medicine Receives NIH Grant for In Vivo Analysis of Mammalian Fertilization

      Baylor College of Medicine Receives NIH Grant for In Vivo Analysis of Mammalian Fertilization

      Baylor College of Medicine Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $541,789 for In Vivo Analysis of Mammalian Fertilization. The principal investigator is Irina Larina. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Estrous cycle, ovulation, fertilization, and pre-implantation pregnancy are fundamental reproductive processes of clinical importance. While research has shed light on the cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating these events, much of these data are derived from static histological analysis, low-resolution visualizations, and studies of invertebrate models (e.g. sea urchin). Therefore, any conclusions regarding mammalian fertilization, which takes place deep inside the body, are extrapolated and do not ...

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    13. University of Houston Receives NIH Grant for Artificial Intelligence for Optical Coherence Tomography To Study Effects of Poly-Drug Exposure on Fetal Brain Development

      University of Houston Receives NIH Grant for Artificial Intelligence for Optical Coherence Tomography To Study Effects of Poly-Drug Exposure on Fetal Brain Development

      University of Houston Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $311,241 for Artificial Intelligence for Optical Coherence Tomography To Study Effects of Poly-Drug Exposure on Fetal Brain Development. The principal investigator is Kirill Larin. Below is a summary of the proposed work. The overall objective of this study is to develop an optical coherence tomography (OCT) based high- resolution mouse embryonic brain imaging and analysis approach, and to use this method in correlation with molecular analysis to understand the interplay between ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine (NIC) effects on embryonic brain development. Maternal exposures to these substances are linked to fetal ...

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    14. Spectral domain - Optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) as a monitoring tool for alterations in mouse lenses

      Spectral domain - Optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) as a monitoring tool for alterations in mouse lenses

      The eye lens displayes a variety of phenotypes in the wake of genetical modifications or environmental influences. Therefore, a high-resolution in vivo imaging method for the lens is desirable. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become a powerful imaging tool in ophthalmology, especially for retinal imaging in small animal models such as mice. Here, we demonstrate an optimized approach specifically for anterior eye segment imaging with spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) on several known murine lens cataract mutants. Scheimpflug and histological section images on the same eye were used in parallel to assess the observed pathologies. With SD-OCT images, we obtained detailed ...

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    15. Optical coherence tomography for in vivo imaging of endocardial to mesenchymal transition during avian heart development

      Optical coherence tomography for in vivo imaging of endocardial to mesenchymal transition during avian heart development

      The endocardial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) that occurs in endocardial cushions during heart development is critical for proper heart septation and formation of the heart’s valves. In EndMT, cells delaminate from the endocardium and migrate into the previously acellular endocardial cushions. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging uses the optical properties of tissues for contrast, and during early development OCT can differentiate cellular versus acellular tissues. Here we show that OCT can be used to non-invasively track EndMT progression in vivo in the outflow tract cushions of chicken embryos. This enables in vivo studies to elucidate factors leading to cardiac ...

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    16. Longitudinal deep-brain imaging in mouse using visible-light optical coherence tomography through chronic microprism cranial window

      Longitudinal deep-brain imaging in mouse using visible-light optical coherence tomography through chronic microprism cranial window

      We longitudinally imaged both the superficial and deep cortical microvascular networks in brains of healthy mice and in a mouse model of stroke in vivo using visible-light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT). We surgically implanted a microprism in mouse brains sealed by a chronic cranial window. The microprism enabled vis-OCT to image the entire depth of the mouse cortex. Following microprism implantation, we imaged the mice for 28 days and found that that it took around 15 days for both the superficial and deep cortical microvessels to recover from the implantation surgery. After the brains recovered, we introduced ischemic strokes by ...

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    17. In vivo monitoring the dynamic process of acute retinal hemorrhage and repair in zebrafish with spectral‐domain optical coherence tomography

      In vivo monitoring the dynamic process of acute retinal hemorrhage and repair in zebrafish with spectral‐domain optical coherence tomography

      Retina, the only light sensor in the human eye, is hidden and extremely fragile. Optimized animal models and efficient imaging techniques are very important for the study of retinopathy. In this work, the rapid retinal injury process and the long‐terms retinal repair process were in vivo continuously evaluated with a novel imaging technology spectral‐domain optical coherence tomography (SD‐OCT) in a unique animal model zebrafish. Acute retinal injury was constructed on adult zebrafish by needle injection surgery. SD‐OCT imaging was carried out immediately after the mechanical injury. The retinal hemorrhage, which lasted only 5 seconds, could be ...

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    18. Baylor College of Medicine Receives NIH Grant for Biomechanics of Early Cardiogenesis

      Baylor College of Medicine Receives NIH Grant for Biomechanics of Early Cardiogenesis

      Baylor College of Medicine Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for $554,542 for Biomechanics of Early Cardiogenesis. The principal investigator is Irina Larina. The program began in 2018 and ends in 2023. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Human congenital heart defects (CHD) are very common, occurring in nearly 1% of live births. Moreover, cardiovascular (CV) failures are the leading cause of birth defect- related deaths in infants. It is well established that biomechanical stimuli are important regulators of CV development. Thus, defining how mechanical factors are integrated with genetic pathways to coordinate mammalian heart tube function and ...

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    19. University of Washington Receives NIH Grant for Biomechanics of Neural Tube Development Using Brillouin-OCT Multimodality

      University of Washington Receives NIH Grant for Biomechanics of Neural Tube Development Using Brillouin-OCT Multimodality

      University of Washington Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for $663,429 for Biomechanics of Neural Tube Development Using Brillouin-OCT Multimodality. The principal investigator is Kirill Larin. The program began in 2018 and ends in 2023. Below is a summary of the proposed work. The objective of this proposal is to develop a non-contact, all-optical imaging technology to map elastic moduli and forces involved in critical aspects of embryonic development with high 3D resolution. The proposed technology is based on combined Brillouin spectroscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), which will be used to gain fundamental understanding of biomechanical factors involved during ...

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    20. Case Western Reserve University Receives NIH Grant for Optical Tools to Assess the Role of Hemodynamics in the Development of Congenital Heart Defects

      Case Western Reserve University Receives NIH Grant for Optical Tools to Assess the Role of Hemodynamics in the Development of Congenital Heart Defects

      Case Western Reserve University Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for $493,857 for Optical Tools to Assess the Role of Hemodynamics in the Development of Congenital Heart Defects. The principal investigator is Michael Jenkins. The program began in 2015 and ends in 2020. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are one of the most common and devastating birth defects, afflicting 32,000 babies born in the United States each year, and over 1 million Americans alive today. Altered hemodynamics during development has been shown to be a contributing factor to CHDs, regardless of whether ...

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    21. Visualizing flow in an intact CSF network using optical coherence tomography: implications for human congenital hydrocephalus

      Visualizing flow in an intact CSF network using optical coherence tomography: implications for human congenital hydrocephalus

      Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow in the brain ventricles is critical for brain development. Altered CSF flow dynamics have been implicated in congenital hydrocephalus (CH) characterized by the potentially lethal expansion of cerebral ventricles if not treated. CH is the most common neurosurgical indication in children effecting 1 per 1000 infants. Current treatment modalities are limited to antiquated brain surgery techniques, mostly because of our poor understanding of the CH pathophysiology. We lack model systems where the interplay between ependymal cilia, embryonic CSF flow dynamics and brain development can be analyzed in depth. This is in part due to the poor ...

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      Mentions: Yale University
    22. Automated drosophila heartbeat counting based on image segmentation technique on optical coherence tomography

      Automated drosophila heartbeat counting based on image segmentation technique on optical coherence tomography

      Drosophila and human cardiac genes are very similar. Biological parametric studies on drosophila cardiac have improved our understanding of human cardiovascular disease. Drosophila cardiac consist of five circular chambers: a conical chamber (CC) and four ostia sections (O1–O4). Due to noise and grayscale discontinuity on optical coherence tomography (OCT) images, previous researches used manual counting or M-mode to analyze heartbeats, which are inefficient and time-consuming. An automated drosophila heartbeat counting algorithm based on the chamber segmentation is developed for OCT in this study. This algorithm has two parts: automated chamber segmentation and heartbeat counting. In addition, this study proposes ...

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    23. University of Houston Receives NIH Grant for Structural and Molecular Phenotyping of Embryonic Development Through Multi-Modal Optical Imaging

      University of Houston Receives NIH Grant for Structural and Molecular Phenotyping of Embryonic Development Through Multi-Modal Optical Imaging

      University of Houston Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for $676,224 for Structural and Molecular Phenotyping of Embryonic Development Through Multi-Modal Optical Imaging. The principal investigator is David Mayerich The program began in 2019 and ends in 2024. Below is a summary of the proposed work. The ability to correlate between large-scale developmental milestones and micro-scale cellular and protein- specific changes is a significant unmet need in the study of developmental biology. The overall objective of this work is to develop a multi-modality imaging platform that can provide time resolved three-dimensional images of tissue development, with high temporal and spatial ...

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    24. Micro-indentation and optical coherence tomography for the mechanical characterization of embryos: Experimental setup and measurements on fixed chicken embryos.

      Micro-indentation and optical coherence tomography for the mechanical characterization of embryos: Experimental setup and measurements on fixed chicken embryos.

      The investigation of the mechanical properties of embryos is expected to provide valuable information on the phenomenology of morphogenesis. It is thus believed that, by mapping the viscoelastic features of an embryo at different stages of growth, it may be possible to shed light on the role of mechanics in embryonic development. To contribute to this field, we present a new instrument that can determine spatiotemporal distributions of mechanical properties of embryos over a wide area and with unprecedented accuracy. The method relies on combining ferrule-top micro-indentation, which provides local measurements of viscoelasticity, with Optical Coherence Tomography, which can reveal ...

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