1. Articles in category: Developmental Biology

    1-24 of 347 1 2 3 4 ... 13 14 15 »
    1. Morphological characteristics of zebrafish's yolk sac for malformation based on orthogonal-polarization-gating optical coherence tomography

      Morphological characteristics of zebrafish's yolk sac for malformation based on orthogonal-polarization-gating optical coherence tomography

      In this study, an automatic algorithm combining an ellipsoid approximation and U-net has been presented for characterization of a zebrafish's yolk sac The polarization-difference-balanced-detection image of zebrafish was obtained based on orthogonal-polarization-gating optical coherence tomography and used to segment the yolk sac region. And ellipsoid can approximate the shape of the three-dimensional yolk sac, and the multiple parameters of volume and the three principal axes (k, l and m) can be used to quantify the yolk sac. In addition, the multiple parameters of two principal axes (l and m) and volume can distinguish the malformation from the normal controlled ...

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    2. University of Southern California Receives NIH Grant for Cochlear mechanics in the mouse

      University of Southern California Receives NIH Grant for Cochlear mechanics in the mouse

      University of Southern California Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $623,326 for Cochlear mechanics in the mouse. The principal investigator is John Oghalai. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Sound pressure produces force across the mammalian cochlear partition, ultimately creating a vibratory traveling wave that propagates longitudinally up the cochlear duct. The key feature distinguishing this process from the non-mammalian cochlea is amplification, whereby forces produced by thousands of outer hair cells (OHCs) sharpen and amplify the traveling wave. Our overarching objective is to understand how the complex biomechanics of the 3D multi-cellular and acellular arrangement that ...

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    3. Non-destructive characterization of adult zebrafish models using Jones matrix optical coherence tomography

      Non-destructive characterization of adult zebrafish models using Jones matrix optical coherence tomography

      The zebrafish is a valuable vertebrate animal model in pre-clinical cancer research. A Jones matrix optical coherence tomography (JM-OCT) prototype operating at 1310 nm and an intensity-based spectral-domain OCT setup at 840 nm were utilized to investigate adult wildtype and a tumor-developing zebrafish model. Various anatomical features were characterized based on their inherent scattering and polarization signature. A motorized translation stage in combination with the JM-OCT prototype enabled large field-of-view imaging to investigate adult zebrafish in a non-destructive way. The diseased animals exhibited tumor-related abnormalities in the brain and near the eye region. The scatter intensity, the attenuation coefficients and ...

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    4. These Miniature Human Hearts Could Help Solve the Organ Transplant Crisis

      These Miniature Human Hearts Could Help Solve the Organ Transplant Crisis

      If we could artificially grow a real, working organ with the complexity of a lung or heart outside of the lab and customize it to match someone’s very own tissues, we could completely turn around the organ transplant crisis that kills 17 people in the U.S. each day . One breakthrough that has inched us closer to this reality is the creation of miniature organs, called organoids, that resemble the brain , kidney, lungs, stomach, liver, and complex tissues.

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    5. Non-invasive examination of the cardiac properties of insect embryos enabled by optical coherence tomography

      Non-invasive examination of the cardiac properties of insect embryos enabled by optical coherence tomography

      Understanding the cardiac properties of insect embryos at different development stages is important, however, few works have been conducted probably due to the lack of effective tools. Using locust embryos as an example, here we show, for the first time, that optical coherence tomography (OCT) is capable of obtaining detailed information of embryos' heart activities and irregularities, such as the heart rate, cardiac cycle, diastolic and systolic diameters, hemolymph pumping rate and ejection fraction at different stages of embryonic development and at different temperatures. We develop algorithms and mathematical methods for extracting and analyzing cardiac behavior information of locust embryos ...

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    6. Soft-Tissue Material Properties and Mechanogenetics during Cardiovascular Development

      Soft-Tissue Material Properties and Mechanogenetics during Cardiovascular Development

      During embryonic development, changes in the cardiovascular microstructure and material properties are essential for an integrated biomechanical understanding. This knowledge also enables realistic predictive computational tools, specifically targeting the formation of congenital heart defects. Material characterization of cardiovascular embryonic tissue at consequent embryonic stages is critical to understand growth, remodeling, and hemodynamic functions. Two biomechanical loading modes, which are wall shear stress and blood pressure, are associated with distinct molecular pathways and govern vascular morphology through microstructural remodeling. Dynamic embryonic tissues have complex signaling networks integrated with mechanical factors such as stress, strain, and stiffness. While the multiscale interplay between ...

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    7. Optical coherence tomography as an alternative tool for evaluating the effects of glyphosate on hybrid catfish ( Clarias gariepinus × Clarias macrocephalus)

      Optical coherence tomography as an alternative tool for evaluating the effects of glyphosate on hybrid catfish ( Clarias gariepinus × Clarias macrocephalus)

      Glyphosate contamination in fresh water is a major problem in agricultural countries. It affects many vital organs in freshwater organisms that are important in the food chain. Hence, the effects of glyphosate on living organism organs are of particular interest. However, several existing techniques for evaluating the effect of glyphosate on aquatic organisms require stained tissue. To study organ tissue with minimal processing, alternative technique is demanded. Here, we investigated the used of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an alternative tool for ex vivo evaluation of the effect of glyphosate on organ tissues of aquatic organisms, i.e., hybrid catfish ...

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    8. Non-destructive morphological observation of anatomical growth process in Haemaphysalis Longicornis tick specimens using optical coherence tomography

      Non-destructive morphological observation of anatomical growth process in Haemaphysalis Longicornis tick specimens using optical coherence tomography

      Background: Ticks are known as the representatives of hematophagous arachnids. They cause various tick-borne diseases, such as severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and Lyme disease. To understand the mechanism of virus infection caused by ticks, morphology for the anatomical characteristics of crucial organs has been widely studied in acarological fields. The conventional methods used for tick observation have inevitable limitations. Dissection is the standard method to obtain the morphological information, and complex microscopy methods were utilized alternatively. Objective: The study goal is to obtain the morphological information of ticks in different growth stages non-invasively. Methods: Optical coherence tomography (OCT ...

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    9. Absolute flow measurement in chicken embryo based on optical coherence tomography with direct Doppler angle measuring

      Absolute flow measurement in chicken embryo based on optical coherence tomography with direct Doppler angle measuring

      Abnormal blood flow in the early stage of embryonic heart can lead to cardiac defects. Thus, accurate flow measurement in the embryonic heart is important for related studies. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging approach which can provide flow velocity distribution information with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, OCT is only sensitive to velocity components parallel to the probing beam. To measure absolute flow velocity, additional information, such as Doppler angle, is required. Here, we propose a practical method to measure Doppler angle by introducing a dividing head to probe the arm of OCT. The incident angle ...

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    10. Multicontrast investigation of in vivo wildtype zebrafish in three development stages using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Multicontrast investigation of in vivo wildtype zebrafish in three development stages using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Significance: The scattering and polarization characteristics of various organs of in vivo wildtype zebrafish in three development stages were investigated using a non-destructive and label-free approach. The presented results showed a promising first step for the usability of Jones-matrix optical coherence tomography (JM-OCT) in zebrafish-based research. Aim: We aim to visualize and quantify the scatter and polarization signatures of various zebrafish organs for larvae, juvenile, and young adult animals in vivo in a non-invasive and label-free way. Approach: A custom-built polarization-sensitive JM-OCT setup in combination with a motorized translation stage was utilized to investigate live zebrafish. Depth-resolved scattering (intensity and ...

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    11. Study on promoting regeneration of zebrafish skull by phycocyanin characterized by in vivo optical coherence tomography

      Study on promoting regeneration of zebrafish skull by phycocyanin characterized by in vivo optical coherence tomography

      In this study, the efficacy of phycocyanin in bone defect repairing was tested on a zebrafish skull defect model, and the evaluating process was monitored in vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Thirty zebrafish were randomly divided into three groups, which were immersed in water and phycocyanin solution (50 mg/L and 100 mg/L) after skull defect creating. All zebrafish were examined by OCT immediately after craniotomy, and on the 10th and 20th days of phycocyanin treatment. All the model fish were euthanized to enable a histological evaluation of skull after 20 days recovery. OCT images demonstrated that phycocyanin ...

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    12. Washington University Receives NIH Grant for High-throughput integrated live imaging and optogenetic pacing platform to assess hypoxia responsiveness in the fly heart

      Washington University Receives NIH Grant for High-throughput integrated live imaging and optogenetic pacing platform to assess hypoxia responsiveness in the fly heart

      Washington University Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $492,557 for High-throughput integrated live imaging and optogenetic pacing platform to assess hypoxia responsiveness in the fly heart. The principal investigator is Chao Zhou. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Ischemic preconditioning is a well-established phenomenon, in which a brief episode(s) of controlled ischemia and reperfusion renders cardioprotection from a subsequent sustained episode of ischemia. An emerging body of evidence demonstrated that neural regulated heart rate modulation confers cardiac preconditioning responses. Understanding the mechanism through model systems of preconditioning would help us identify the genes and proteins when ...

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    13. Case Western Reserve University ReceivesNIH Grant for Identifying and protecting alcohol-sensitive epigenetic changes in congenital heart disease

      Case Western Reserve University ReceivesNIH Grant for Identifying and protecting alcohol-sensitive epigenetic changes in congenital heart disease

      Case Western Reserve University Receives a 2021 NIH Grant for $193,063 for Identifying and protecting alcohol-sensitive epigenetic changes in congenital heart disease. The principal investigator is Stephanie Ford. Below is a summary of the proposed work. This proposal describes a five-year mentored research and training plan that will facilitate the development of Dr. Stephanie Ford, MD as an independent investigator in the pathogenesis of congenital heart disease. Building upon Dr. Ford’s background as a clinical neonatologist and a basic scientist, she will attain expertise in design of mouse studies, RNA-FISH, and epigenetic mechanisms. She will gain skills through ...

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    14. Quantitative evaluation of the dynamic activity of HeLa cells in different viability states using dynamic full-field optical coherence microscopy

      Quantitative evaluation of the dynamic activity of HeLa cells in different viability states using dynamic full-field optical coherence microscopy

      Dynamic full-field optical coherence microscopy (DFFOCM) was used to characterize the intracellular dynamic activities and cytoskeleton of HeLa cells in different viability states. HeLa cell samples were continuously monitored for 24 hours and compared with histological examination to confirm the cell viability states. The averaged mean frequency and magnitude observed in healthy cells were 4.79±0.5 Hz and 2.44±1.06, respectively. In dead cells, the averaged mean frequency was shifted to 8.57±0.71 Hz, whereas the magnitude was significantly decreased to 0.53±0.25. This cell dynamic activity analysis using DFFOCM is expected ...

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    15. In vivo dynamic 3D imaging of oocytes and embryos in the mouse oviduct

      In vivo dynamic 3D imaging of oocytes and embryos in the mouse oviduct

      Developmental biologists have always relied on imaging to shed light on dynamic cellular events. However, processes such as mammalian fertilization and embryogenesis are generally inaccessible for direct imaging. In consequence, how the oviduct (fallopian tube) facilitates the transport of gametes and preimplantation embryos continues to be unanswered. Here we present a combination of intravital window and optical coherence tomography for dynamic, volumetric, in vivo imaging of oocytes and embryos as they are transported through the mouse oviduct. We observed location-dependent circling, oscillating, and long-distance bi-directional movements of oocytes and embryos that suggest regulatory mechanisms driving transport and question established views ...

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    16. The unexpected journey of the egg and the embryo through the fallopian tube

      The unexpected journey of the egg and the embryo through the fallopian tube

      The journey of the egg and the embryo through the fallopian tube or oviduct toward the uterus is not well understood, mainly because it is inaccessible for direct imaging. Looking to shed new light on the dynamics of the eggs prior to fertilization and embryo transport preceding implantation, researchers at Baylor College of Medicine and Stevens Institute of Technology developed a novel imaging approach that has allowed them to see eggs and embryos as they move along the fallopian tube in a live animal.

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    17. Prenatal ethanol exposure impairs the conduction delay at the atrioventricular junction in the looping heart

      Prenatal ethanol exposure impairs the conduction delay at the atrioventricular junction in the looping heart

      The etiology of ethanol-related congenital heart defects has been the focus of much study, but most research has concentrated on cellular and molecular mechanisms. We have shown with optical coherence tomography (OCT) that ethanol exposure led to increased retrograde flow and smaller atrioventricular (AV) cushions compared to controls. Since AV cushions play a role in patterning the conduction delay at the atrioventricular junction (AVJ), this study aims to investigate whether ethanol exposure alters the AVJ conduction in early looping hearts and whether this alteration is related to the decreased cushion size. Quail embryos were exposed to a single dose of ...

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    18. Xenopus Tadpole Craniocardiac Imaging Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Xenopus Tadpole Craniocardiac Imaging Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging can be used to visualize craniocardiac structures in the Xenopus model system. OCT is analogous to ultrasound, utilizing light instead of sound to create a gray-scale image from the echo time delay of infrared light reflected from the specimen. OCT is a high-speed, cross-sectional, label-free imaging modality, which can outline dynamic in vivo morphology at resolutions approaching histological detail. OCT imaging can acquire 2D and 3D data in real time to assess cardiac and facial structures. Additionally, during cardiac imaging, Doppler imaging can be used to assess the blood flow pattern in relation to the ...

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      Mentions: Yale University
    19. Cornell University Receives a NIH Grant for Real-time Aberration Sensor for Large-Scale Microscopy Deep in the Mouse and Adult Zebrafish Brain

      Cornell University Receives a NIH Grant for Real-time Aberration Sensor for Large-Scale Microscopy Deep in the Mouse and Adult Zebrafish Brain

      Cornell University Receives a 2021 NIH Grant for $1,982,304 for Real-time Aberration Sensor for Large-Scale Microscopy Deep in the Mouse and Adult Zebrafish Brain. The principal investigator is Steven Adie. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Optical imaging holds tremendous promise in our endeavor to understand brain functions. The major challenges for optical brain imaging are depth and speed. Due to optical aberrations and tissue scattering, the penetration depth and imaging speed of optical microscopy in the brains (e.g., mouse) is limited. The constraints in depth and speed make large-scale, deep imaging of mouse brain ...

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    20. 4-D Imaging of Beating Tissues using Optical Coherence Tomography

      4-D Imaging of Beating Tissues using Optical Coherence Tomography

      An imaging technique which reconstructs structure and flow in tissue with repetitive motion was developed using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). The demonstrated technique is able to accurately image both host tissue and flow at different time points during a cyclic motion, such as a cardiac cycle. Using tissue-mimicking phantoms, a phase-sensitive spectral-domain OCT system was combined with a cyclic-motion simulator to demonstrate the feasibility of the method. 3-D flow information at different time points in the cyclical motion was reconstructed in the temporal domain thus generating the 4-D imaging of the target tissue. This method could expand OCT-based studies such ...

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    21. Heartbeat optical coherence elastography: corneal biomechanics in vivo

      Heartbeat optical coherence elastography: corneal biomechanics in vivo

      Significance: Mechanical assessment of the cornea can provide important structural and functional information regarding its health. Current clinically available tools are limited in their efficacy at measuring corneal mechanical properties. Elastography allows for the direct estimation of mechanical properties of tissues in vivo but is generally performed using external excitation force. Aim: To show that heartbeat optical coherence elastography (Hb-OCE) can be used to assess the mechanical properties of the cornea in vivo. Approach: Hb-OCE was utilized to detect Hb-induced deformations in the rabbit cornea in vivo without the need for external excitation. Furthermore, we demonstrate how this technique can ...

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    22. On the Nature of Murine Radiation-Induced Subcapsular Cataracts: Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Fine Classification, In Vivo Dynamics and Impact on Visual Acuity

      On the Nature of Murine Radiation-Induced Subcapsular Cataracts: Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Fine Classification, In Vivo Dynamics and Impact on Visual Acuity

      Ionizing radiation is widely known to induce various kinds of lens cataracts, of which posterior subcapsular cataracts (PSCs) have the highest prevalence. Despite some studies regarding the epidemiology and biology of radiation-induced PSCs, the mechanism underscoring the formation of this type of lesions and their dose dependency remain uncertain. Within the current study, our team investigated the in vivo characteristics of PSCs in B6C3F1 mice (F1-hybrids of BL6 × C3H) that received 0.5–2 Gy γ-ray irradiation after postnatal day 70. For purposes of assessing lenticular damages, spectral domain optical coherence tomography was utilized, and the visual acuity of the ...

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    23. Interactive effect of photoperiod and temperature on the induction and termination of embryonic diapause in the migratory locust

      Interactive effect of photoperiod and temperature on the induction and termination of embryonic diapause in the migratory locust

      Background Diapause plays a vital role in the survival and population reproduction of the migratory locust in temperate regions. Although some studies have suggested that photoperiod and temperature are two important environmental factors involved in the induction and termination of embryonic diapause in locusts, the independent or synergetic roles of these two factors are still unclear. Results We designed crossover experiments to investigate the effects of photoperiod, temperature and treatment time on the induction and termination of embryonic diapause in locusts by optical coherence tomography (OCT), which can track the entire embryonic developmental process via noninvasive 3D real‐time imaging ...

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    24. Three-dimensional live imaging of bovine embryos by optical coherence tomography

      Three-dimensional live imaging of bovine embryos by optical coherence tomography

      While embryo transfer (ET) is widely practiced, many of the transferred embryos fail to develop in cattle. To establish a more effective method for selecting bovine embryos for ET, here we quantified morphological parameters of living embryos using three-dimensional (3D) images non-invasively captured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Seven Japanese Black embryos produced by in vitro fertilization that had reached the expanded blastocyst stage after 7 days of culture were transferred after imaged by OCT. Twenty-two parameters, including thickness and volumes of the inner cell mass, trophectoderm, and zona pellucida, and volumes of blastocoel and whole embryo, were quantified from ...

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