1. Articles in category: Developmental Biology

    1-24 of 360 1 2 3 4 ... 13 14 15 »
    1. OCT Meets micro-CT: A Subject-Specific Correlative Multimodal Imaging Workflow for Early Chick Heart Development Modeling

      OCT Meets micro-CT: A Subject-Specific Correlative Multimodal Imaging Workflow for Early Chick Heart Development Modeling

      Structural and Doppler velocity data collected from optical coherence tomography have already provided crucial insights into cardiac morphogenesis. X-ray microtomography and other ex vivo methods have elucidated structural details of developing hearts. However, by itself, no single imaging modality can provide comprehensive information allowing to fully decipher the inner workings of an entire developing organ. Hence, we introduce a specimen-specific correlative multimodal imaging workflow combining OCT and micro-CT imaging which is applicable for modeling of early chick heart development-a valuable model organism in cardiovascular development research. The image acquisition and processing employ common reagents, lab-based micro-CT imaging, and software that ...

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    2. In vivo morphological study of obese development in mice model guided by swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT)

      In vivo morphological study of obese development in mice model guided by swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT)

      This article shows the adequacy of the custom-built optical imaging system in the advancement investigation of obese mice. Obesity is defined as increased adipose/fatty mass resulting from a chronic imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. The in vivo investigation was performed for the tissue characterization of obese mice utilizing swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) for in situ examination and histology of delicate tissues in mice skin. It provides a noninvasive, painless visualization of the subsurface in life systems. Our SSOCT system's data is comparable to the regular invasive histology. Cross-assessment is done in various skin layers in obese ...

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    3. An in-vivo depth-resolved imaging of developing zebrafish microstructure and microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography

      An in-vivo depth-resolved imaging of developing zebrafish microstructure and microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography

      Zebrafish as vertebrate model has applications in the fields of embryology, oncology, toxicology, molecular genetics and drug discovery due to its high homology with the human genome. The zebrafish embryogenesis presents a propitious model for concurrent visualization of developmental stages in vivo owing to transparency and ex-utero development of the embryo. Developments in imaging tools and techniques focus on providing real-time quantitative imaging. The present work demonstrates depth-resolved imaging of developing zebrafish using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT). The SSOCT system provides an axial resolution of 4.5 µm and an imaging depth of 3.26 mm. The paper also ...

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    4. Automated endocardial cushion segmentation and cellularization quantification in developing hearts using optical coherence tomography

      Automated endocardial cushion segmentation and cellularization quantification in developing hearts using optical coherence tomography

      Of all congenital heart defects (CHDs), anomalies in heart valves and septa are among the most common and contribute about fifty percent to the total burden of CHDs. Progenitors to heart valves and septa are endocardial cushions formed in looping hearts through a multi-step process that includes localized expansion of cardiac jelly, endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cell migration and proliferation. To characterize the development of endocardial cushions, previous studies manually measured cushion size or cushion cell density from images obtained using histology, immunohistochemistry, or optical coherence tomography (OCT). Manual methods are time-consuming and labor-intensive, impeding their applications in cohort studies that require ...

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    5. Mouse embryo phenotyping with optical coherence tomography

      Mouse embryo phenotyping with optical coherence tomography

      With the explosion of gene editing tools in recent years, there has been a much greater demand for mouse embryo phenotyping, and traditional methods such as histology and histochemistry experienced a methodological renaissance as they became the principal tools for phenotyping. However, it is important to explore alternative phenotyping options to maximize time and resources and implement volumetric structural analysis for enhanced investigation of phenotypes. Cardiovascular phenotyping, in particular, is important to perform in vivo due to the dramatic structural and functional changes that occur in heart development over relatively short periods of time. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is one ...

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    6. Regenerative hallmarks of aging: Insights through the lens of Pleurodeles waltl

      Regenerative hallmarks of aging: Insights through the lens of Pleurodeles waltl

      Background: Aging and regeneration are heavily linked processes. While it is generally accepted that regenerative capacity declines with age, some vertebrates, such as newts, can bypass the deleterious effects of aging and successfully regenerate a lens throughout their lifetime. Results: Here, we used Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to monitor the lens regeneration process of larvae, juvenile, and adult newts. While all three life stages were able to regenerate a lens through transdifferentiation of the dorsal iris pigment epithelial cells (iPECs), an age-related decline in the kinetics of the regeneration process was observed. Consistent with these findings, iPECs from older animals ...

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    7. Longitudinal investigation of a xenograft tumor zebrafish model using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Longitudinal investigation of a xenograft tumor zebrafish model using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Breast cancer is a leading cause of death in female patients worldwide. Further research is needed to get a deeper insight into the mechanisms involved in the development of this devastating disease and to find new therapy strategies. The zebrafish is an established animal model, especially in the field of oncology, which has shown to be a promising candidate for pre-clinical research and precision-based medicine. To investigate cancer growth in vivo in zebrafish, one approach is to explore xenograft tumor models. In this article, we present the investigation of a juvenile xenograft zebrafish model using a Jones matrix optical coherence ...

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    8. Stevens Institute of Technology Receives NIH Grant for Multi-contrast dynamic optical imaging to advance live developmental biology

      Stevens Institute of Technology Receives NIH Grant for Multi-contrast dynamic optical imaging to advance live developmental biology

      Stevens Institute of Technology Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $385,500 for Multi-contrast dynamic optical imaging to advance live developmental biology. The principal investigator is Shang Wang. Below is a summary of the proposed study. Imaging is essential for the study of developmental biology. In particular, optical imaging, with its high resolution, has been making revolutionary impacts on our understanding of biological development. To a large degree, the imaging capability defines what can be studied in developmental biology. From 2D to 3D, from static to dynamic, advancements in optical imaging have enabled us to connect molecular genetics with volumetric ...

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    9. Developing Drosophila melanogaster Models for Imaging and Optogenetic Control of Cardiac Function

      Developing Drosophila melanogaster Models for Imaging and Optogenetic Control of Cardiac Function

      Using Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) as a model organism has ensured significant progress in many areas of biological science, from cellular organization and genomic investigations to behavioral studies. Due to the accumulated scientific knowledge, in recent years, Drosophila was brought to the field of modeling human diseases, including heart disorders. The presented work describes the experimental system for monitoring and manipulating the heart function in the context of a whole live organism using red light (617 nm) and without invasive procedures. Control over the heart was achieved using optogenetic tools. Optogenetics combines the expression of light-sensitive transgenic opsins and their ...

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    10. Zebrafish brain and skull imaging based on polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Zebrafish brain and skull imaging based on polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Zebrafish brain imaging is very important for the study of brain disease and regeneration. We scanned the adult zebrafish brain before and after skull removal and monitored the recovery process of a head wound by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) in this paper. We analyzed the structure and polarization characteristics of the brain and skull in PS-OCT images, and found their internal microstructure can be clearly identified with the polarization information. Further, we estimated the pigment distribution of the skull area and found that the density of pigment in skull is a critical factor of affecting zebrafish brain in vivo ...

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    11. Following the Beat: Imaging the Valveless Pumping Function in the Early Embryonic Heart

      Following the Beat: Imaging the Valveless Pumping Function in the Early Embryonic Heart

      In vertebrates, the coordinated beat of the early heart tube drives cardiogenesis and supports embryonic growth. How the heart pumps at this valveless stage marks a fascinating problem that is of vital significance for understanding cardiac development and defects. The developing heart achieves its function at the same time as continuous and dramatic morphological changes, which in turn modify its pumping dynamics. The beauty of this muti-time-scale process also highlights its complexity that requires interdisciplinary approaches to study. High-resolution optical imaging, particularly fast, four-dimensional (4D) imaging, plays a critical role in revealing the process of pumping, instructing numerical modeling, and ...

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    12. Intravital 3D visualization and segmentation of murine neural networks at micron resolution

      Intravital 3D visualization and segmentation of murine neural networks at micron resolution

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows label-free, micron-scale 3D imaging of biological tissues’ fine structures with significant depth and large field-of-view. Here we introduce a novel OCT-based neuroimaging setting, accompanied by a feature segmentation algorithm, which enables rapid, accurate, and high-resolution in vivo imaging of 700 μm depth across the mouse cortex. Using a commercial OCT device, we demonstrate 3D reconstruction of microarchitectural elements through a cortical column. Our system is sensitive to structural and cellular changes at micron-scale resolution in vivo, such as those from injury or disease. Therefore, it can serve as a tool to visualize and quantify spatiotemporal ...

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    13. Flexible method for generating needle-shaped beams and its application in optical coherence tomography

      Flexible method for generating needle-shaped beams and its application in optical coherence tomography

      Needle-shaped beams (NBs) featuring a long depth-of-focus (DOF) can drastically improve the resolution of microscopy systems. However, thus far, the implementation of a specific NB has been onerous due to the lack of a common, flexible generation method. Here we develop a spatially multiplexed phase pattern that creates many axially closely spaced foci as a universal platform for customizing various NBs, allowing flexible manipulations of beam length and diameter, uniform axial intensity, and sub-diffraction-limit beams. NBs designed via this method successfully extended the DOF of our optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. It revealed clear individual epidermal cells of the entire ...

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    14. Morphological characteristics of zebrafish's yolk sac for malformation based on orthogonal-polarization-gating optical coherence tomography

      Morphological characteristics of zebrafish's yolk sac for malformation based on orthogonal-polarization-gating optical coherence tomography

      In this study, an automatic algorithm combining an ellipsoid approximation and U-net has been presented for characterization of a zebrafish's yolk sac The polarization-difference-balanced-detection image of zebrafish was obtained based on orthogonal-polarization-gating optical coherence tomography and used to segment the yolk sac region. And ellipsoid can approximate the shape of the three-dimensional yolk sac, and the multiple parameters of volume and the three principal axes (k, l and m) can be used to quantify the yolk sac. In addition, the multiple parameters of two principal axes (l and m) and volume can distinguish the malformation from the normal controlled ...

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    15. University of Southern California Receives NIH Grant for Cochlear mechanics in the mouse

      University of Southern California Receives NIH Grant for Cochlear mechanics in the mouse

      University of Southern California Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $623,326 for Cochlear mechanics in the mouse. The principal investigator is John Oghalai. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Sound pressure produces force across the mammalian cochlear partition, ultimately creating a vibratory traveling wave that propagates longitudinally up the cochlear duct. The key feature distinguishing this process from the non-mammalian cochlea is amplification, whereby forces produced by thousands of outer hair cells (OHCs) sharpen and amplify the traveling wave. Our overarching objective is to understand how the complex biomechanics of the 3D multi-cellular and acellular arrangement that ...

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    16. Non-destructive characterization of adult zebrafish models using Jones matrix optical coherence tomography

      Non-destructive characterization of adult zebrafish models using Jones matrix optical coherence tomography

      The zebrafish is a valuable vertebrate animal model in pre-clinical cancer research. A Jones matrix optical coherence tomography (JM-OCT) prototype operating at 1310 nm and an intensity-based spectral-domain OCT setup at 840 nm were utilized to investigate adult wildtype and a tumor-developing zebrafish model. Various anatomical features were characterized based on their inherent scattering and polarization signature. A motorized translation stage in combination with the JM-OCT prototype enabled large field-of-view imaging to investigate adult zebrafish in a non-destructive way. The diseased animals exhibited tumor-related abnormalities in the brain and near the eye region. The scatter intensity, the attenuation coefficients and ...

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    17. These Miniature Human Hearts Could Help Solve the Organ Transplant Crisis

      These Miniature Human Hearts Could Help Solve the Organ Transplant Crisis

      If we could artificially grow a real, working organ with the complexity of a lung or heart outside of the lab and customize it to match someone’s very own tissues, we could completely turn around the organ transplant crisis that kills 17 people in the U.S. each day . One breakthrough that has inched us closer to this reality is the creation of miniature organs, called organoids, that resemble the brain , kidney, lungs, stomach, liver, and complex tissues.

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    18. Non-invasive examination of the cardiac properties of insect embryos enabled by optical coherence tomography

      Non-invasive examination of the cardiac properties of insect embryos enabled by optical coherence tomography

      Understanding the cardiac properties of insect embryos at different development stages is important, however, few works have been conducted probably due to the lack of effective tools. Using locust embryos as an example, here we show, for the first time, that optical coherence tomography (OCT) is capable of obtaining detailed information of embryos' heart activities and irregularities, such as the heart rate, cardiac cycle, diastolic and systolic diameters, hemolymph pumping rate and ejection fraction at different stages of embryonic development and at different temperatures. We develop algorithms and mathematical methods for extracting and analyzing cardiac behavior information of locust embryos ...

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    19. Soft-Tissue Material Properties and Mechanogenetics during Cardiovascular Development

      Soft-Tissue Material Properties and Mechanogenetics during Cardiovascular Development

      During embryonic development, changes in the cardiovascular microstructure and material properties are essential for an integrated biomechanical understanding. This knowledge also enables realistic predictive computational tools, specifically targeting the formation of congenital heart defects. Material characterization of cardiovascular embryonic tissue at consequent embryonic stages is critical to understand growth, remodeling, and hemodynamic functions. Two biomechanical loading modes, which are wall shear stress and blood pressure, are associated with distinct molecular pathways and govern vascular morphology through microstructural remodeling. Dynamic embryonic tissues have complex signaling networks integrated with mechanical factors such as stress, strain, and stiffness. While the multiscale interplay between ...

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    20. Optical coherence tomography as an alternative tool for evaluating the effects of glyphosate on hybrid catfish ( Clarias gariepinus × Clarias macrocephalus)

      Optical coherence tomography as an alternative tool for evaluating the effects of glyphosate on hybrid catfish ( Clarias gariepinus × Clarias macrocephalus)

      Glyphosate contamination in fresh water is a major problem in agricultural countries. It affects many vital organs in freshwater organisms that are important in the food chain. Hence, the effects of glyphosate on living organism organs are of particular interest. However, several existing techniques for evaluating the effect of glyphosate on aquatic organisms require stained tissue. To study organ tissue with minimal processing, alternative technique is demanded. Here, we investigated the used of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an alternative tool for ex vivo evaluation of the effect of glyphosate on organ tissues of aquatic organisms, i.e., hybrid catfish ...

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    21. Non-destructive morphological observation of anatomical growth process in Haemaphysalis Longicornis tick specimens using optical coherence tomography

      Non-destructive morphological observation of anatomical growth process in Haemaphysalis Longicornis tick specimens using optical coherence tomography

      Background: Ticks are known as the representatives of hematophagous arachnids. They cause various tick-borne diseases, such as severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and Lyme disease. To understand the mechanism of virus infection caused by ticks, morphology for the anatomical characteristics of crucial organs has been widely studied in acarological fields. The conventional methods used for tick observation have inevitable limitations. Dissection is the standard method to obtain the morphological information, and complex microscopy methods were utilized alternatively. Objective: The study goal is to obtain the morphological information of ticks in different growth stages non-invasively. Methods: Optical coherence tomography (OCT ...

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    22. Absolute flow measurement in chicken embryo based on optical coherence tomography with direct Doppler angle measuring

      Absolute flow measurement in chicken embryo based on optical coherence tomography with direct Doppler angle measuring

      Abnormal blood flow in the early stage of embryonic heart can lead to cardiac defects. Thus, accurate flow measurement in the embryonic heart is important for related studies. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging approach which can provide flow velocity distribution information with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, OCT is only sensitive to velocity components parallel to the probing beam. To measure absolute flow velocity, additional information, such as Doppler angle, is required. Here, we propose a practical method to measure Doppler angle by introducing a dividing head to probe the arm of OCT. The incident angle ...

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    23. Multicontrast investigation of in vivo wildtype zebrafish in three development stages using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Multicontrast investigation of in vivo wildtype zebrafish in three development stages using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Significance: The scattering and polarization characteristics of various organs of in vivo wildtype zebrafish in three development stages were investigated using a non-destructive and label-free approach. The presented results showed a promising first step for the usability of Jones-matrix optical coherence tomography (JM-OCT) in zebrafish-based research. Aim: We aim to visualize and quantify the scatter and polarization signatures of various zebrafish organs for larvae, juvenile, and young adult animals in vivo in a non-invasive and label-free way. Approach: A custom-built polarization-sensitive JM-OCT setup in combination with a motorized translation stage was utilized to investigate live zebrafish. Depth-resolved scattering (intensity and ...

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    24. Study on promoting regeneration of zebrafish skull by phycocyanin characterized by in vivo optical coherence tomography

      Study on promoting regeneration of zebrafish skull by phycocyanin characterized by in vivo optical coherence tomography

      In this study, the efficacy of phycocyanin in bone defect repairing was tested on a zebrafish skull defect model, and the evaluating process was monitored in vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Thirty zebrafish were randomly divided into three groups, which were immersed in water and phycocyanin solution (50 mg/L and 100 mg/L) after skull defect creating. All zebrafish were examined by OCT immediately after craniotomy, and on the 10th and 20th days of phycocyanin treatment. All the model fish were euthanized to enable a histological evaluation of skull after 20 days recovery. OCT images demonstrated that phycocyanin ...

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    1-24 of 360 1 2 3 4 ... 13 14 15 »
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