1. Articles in category: Art

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    1. Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for the Non-Invasive Investigation of the Pigment Layers of Tang Dynasty Tomb Murals Exhibited in Museums

      Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for the Non-Invasive Investigation of the Pigment Layers of Tang Dynasty Tomb Murals Exhibited in Museums

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive subsurface three-dimensional imaging technique based on the Michelson interferometer. Due to the nature of non-invasive detection and high-speed acquisition, OCT is efficient for imaging intact objects to generate a complete overview of their microstructure. This paper presents the investigation of the pigment layer and ground layer of three Tang dynasty tomb murals exhibited in museums with Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The investigation results demonstrated that SD-OCT system can obtain clear images of the subsurface microstructure and preservation status of ancient murals and can precisely locate and measure the location of the mural ...

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    2. Laser cleaning of paintings: in situ optimization of operative parameters through non-invasive assessment by optical coherence tomography (OCT), reflection FT-IR spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIF)

      Laser cleaning of paintings: in situ optimization of operative parameters through non-invasive assessment by optical coherence tomography (OCT), reflection FT-IR spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIF)

      Nowadays the use of laser technology as a highly precise tool for the cleaning of paintings is gaining ground. The development of a non-invasive analytical protocol aimed at thorough assessment of the treated surfaces and real time monitoring of the laser cleaning action is thus becoming imperative. This ensures that no side effects (e.g. discoloration, darkening, blackening) will occur on the painting surfaces due to laser ablation. In the present study the potential of the combined use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflection FT-IR spectroscopy for in situ non-invasive assessment of laser cleaning procedures has been investigated on ...

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    3. A non-invasive investigation of Egyptian faience using a long wavelength optical coherence tomography (OCT) at 2um

      A non-invasive investigation of Egyptian faience using a long wavelength optical coherence tomography (OCT) at 2um

      Egyptian faience is a non-clay ceramic semi-transparent material, formed of a quartz core and alkalilime glaze with some cases exhibiting an interaction layer between them. Several possible glazing methods have been identified. Previous investigations have tried to identify the glazing technique by using the microstructure images obtained from polished sections using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Such techniques require sampling which is not feasible on museum collections. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive 3D imaging technique, that produces virtual crosssections of transparent and semi-transparent materials. Liang et al. (2012a) investigated the feasibility of using OCT to non-invasively investigate microstructures of ...

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      Mentions: Haida Liang
    4. Toward a multimodal fusion of layered cultural object images: complementarity of optical coherence tomography and terahertz time-domain imaging in the heritage field

      Toward a multimodal fusion of layered cultural object images: complementarity of optical coherence tomography and terahertz time-domain imaging in the heritage field

      Terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) are two techniques capable of providing 3D datasets from which depth profiles and cross-sectional images of an object can be derived. They are novel photonics technologies of particular relevance to the field of heritage science, for which the comprehension of the stratigraphic structure of a cultural heritage object may help in the understanding of its artistic technology and state of preservation. The differences in imaging depth, field of view, and axial/lateral resolutions of the two imaging techniques provide different but complementary information of the same scene. Through the use ...

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    5. A Micro-Tomographic Insight into the Coating Systems of Historical Bowed String Instruments

      A Micro-Tomographic Insight into the Coating Systems of Historical Bowed String Instruments

      Musical instruments are tools for playing music, but for some of them—made by the most important historical violin makers—the myths hide the physical artwork. Ancient violin-making Masters developed peculiar construction methods and defined aesthetic canons that are still recognizable in their musical instruments. Recently, the focus of scientific investigations has been set on the characterization of materials and methods used by the ancient violin makers by means of several scientific approaches. In this work, the merits of synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography and optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the investigation of complex coatings systems on historical bowed string musical ...

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    6. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for Examination of Artworks (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for Examination of Artworks (Book Chapter)

      his book details the application of advanced characterisation techniques and diagnostic tools to heritage science, including the evaluation of heritage assets’ condition, their preservation and restoration. It examines the use of electrochemical techniques in conservation science, with a particular focus on how to solve problems in taking on-site measurements. Specifically, it introduces readers to a new gel polymer (GPE) electrochemical cell developed by the authors for the characterisation of metallic heritage objects. Other techniques used to characterise and monitor reinforced concrete objects in more modern buildings are also covered, including non-destructive electrochemical techniques that allow steel corrosion to be assessed ...

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    7. Photoacoustic signal attenuation analysis for the assessment of thin layers thickness in paintings

      Photoacoustic signal attenuation analysis for the assessment of thin layers thickness in paintings

      This study introduces a novel method for the thickness estimation of thin paint layers in works of art, based on photoacoustic signal attenuation analysis (PAcSAA). Ad hoc designed samples with acrylic paint layers (Primary Red Magenta, Cadmium Yellow, Ultramarine Blue) of various thicknesses on glass substrates were realized for the specific application. After characterization by Optical Coherence Tomography imaging, samples were irradiated at the back side using low energy nanosecond laser pulses of 532 nm wavelength. Photoacoustic waves undergo a frequency-dependent exponential attenuation through the paint layer, before being detected by a broadband ultrasonic transducer. Frequency analysis of the recorded ...

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    8. Using Optical Coherence Tomography to Reveal the Hidden History of The Landsdowne Virgin of the Yarnwinder by Leonardo da Vinci and Studio

      Using Optical Coherence Tomography to Reveal the Hidden History of The Landsdowne Virgin of the Yarnwinder by Leonardo da Vinci and Studio

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used for non‐invasive examination of a well‐known, yet complex, painting from the studio of Leonardo da Vinci in combination with routine imaging in various bands of electromagnetic radiation. In contrast with these techniques, OCT provides depth‐resolved information. Three post‐processing modalities were explored: cross‐sectional views, maps of scattering from given depths, and their 3D models. Some hidden alterations of the painting owing to past restorations were traced: retouching and overpainting with their positioning within varnish layers as well as indications of a former transfer to canvas.

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    9. Uncovering the Secrets of the 'Girl With a Pearl Earring'

      Uncovering the Secrets of the 'Girl With a Pearl Earring'

      “How did the ‘Girl With a Pearl Earring’ come to life? What steps did Vermeer take to make this painting?” These are some of the fundamental questions we still have about Johannes Vermeer’s beloved 1665 painting of a young woman in a blue and yellow turban, glancing beguilingly over her shoulder, according to Abbie Vandivere, paintings conservator at the Mauritshuis Royal Picture Gallery here. Image Emilie Gordenker, the director of the Mauritshuis, and Abbie Vandivere, the museum’s paintings conservator. Credit Michel deGroot for The New York Times The answers may lie below the surface of her luminous face ...

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    10. 'Girl with Pearl Earring' to undergo examination

      'Girl with Pearl Earring' to undergo examination

      One of the world's most famous paintings "Girl with a Pearl Earring" is to undergo a two-week scientific examination in front of curious visitors to the Dutch museum where it lives. The luminescent tableau painted by Dutch master Johannes Vermeer around 1665 was last examined in 1994 during a conservation treatment at the Mauritshuis museum in the centre of The Hague. "Although further restoration is not yet required, major advances in non-invasive technical analysis have been made over the last 25 years," the museum said in a statement. Researchers have long been fascinated by the painting of a young ...

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    11. Modern acrylic paints probed by optical coherence tomography and infrared reflectography

      Modern acrylic paints probed by optical coherence tomography and infrared reflectography

      Contemporary art is particularly delicate as the synthetic materials used for their realization are of poorer quality and durability than the traditional materials. It follows that the contemporary artworks often require imminent restorations as well as in-depth analytical studies of the constituting materials. The non-invasiveness of the scientific methods is a key issue in the diagnostics of contemporary art because it minimizes the need of sampling. In this respect, the potential of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging to probe the internal structure of the commercial acrylic paint layers, as a function of their thickness, was investigated and compared with that ...

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    12. Complementary use of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Reflection FTIR spectroscopy for in-situ non-invasive monitoring of varnish removal from easel paintings

      Complementary use of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Reflection FTIR spectroscopy for in-situ non-invasive monitoring of varnish removal from easel paintings

      Although the solvent removal of unwanted layers (e.g. aged varnishes, overpaints, oxalate patinas, dirt from easel paintings is one of the most frequently performed restoration treatments) it is questioned regarding its controllability and safety to the artwork. There is thus a need for developing suited diagnostic methodologies able to inform restorers on the chemical, optical and morphological effects of cleaning. To this aim, we have explored the possibility of complementary use of Optical Coherent Tomography (OCT) and reflection FTIR. On the one hand, the OCT technique provides cross-sectional images with varnish layers visible and thus permits for measurement of ...

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    13. Imaging the first printed edition of Euclid’s Elements

      Imaging the first printed edition of Euclid’s Elements

      We decided to use Optical Coherence Tomography. Peter Munro at UCL Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering has just bought a new system and we were keen to try it out. OCT has been one of the biggest successes of biomedical optics in the last thirty years, having gone from a lab invention in the early 1990s to a standard test for imaging the retina and other parts of the body. It uses near infrared light, so it’s safe, and splits it into two arms using a mirror. One arm is used as a reference and the other illuminates a ...

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    14. Optical coherence tomography and non-linear microscopy for paintings – a study of the complementary capabilities and laser degradation effects

      Optical coherence tomography and non-linear microscopy for paintings – a study of the complementary capabilities and laser degradation effects

      his paper examines for the first time the potential complementary imaging capabilities of Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and non-linear microscopy (NLM) for multi-modal 3D examination of paintings following the successful application of OCT to the in situ, non-invasive examination of varnish and paint stratigraphy of historic paintings and the promising initial studies of NLM of varnish samples. OCT provides image contrast through the optical scattering and absorption properties of materials, while NLM provides molecular information through multi-photon fluorescence and higher harmonics generation (second and third harmonic generation). OCT is well-established in the in situ non-invasive imaging of the stratigraphy of ...

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    15. Feature Of The Week 07/24/2017: Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Non-Destructive Testing of Protection Coatings on Metal Substrates

      Feature Of The Week 07/24/2017: Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Non-Destructive Testing of Protection Coatings on Metal Substrates

      Industrial monuments and other artefacts of vanishing industries have to be preserved as cultural heritage. For example, in Germany next year the public subsidy for the mining industry will end and with this the active mining will end as well. The Deutsches Bergbau-Museum in Bochum as one of the largest of its kind and as a research institution of the Leibnitz association is committed to preserve the cultural heritage of the mining industry. Thus it is facing the huge task to conserve a lot of mining industry objects in their actual authentic appearance, ranging from small tools like hammers to ...

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    16. Optical Coherence Tomography: an example of examination of oil painting on canvas

      Optical Coherence Tomography: an example of examination of oil painting on canvas

      Professor Piotr Targowsky, from the Nicolaus Copernicus University of Poland examinates the Portrait of Sir John Wylie, an oil painting on canvas, by using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT).
      OCT offers a micrometre level in-depth resolution and is well suited for the investigation of fine details of structures which moderately absorb infrared light, such as varnishes, glazes and underdrawings of easel paintings, reverse paintings on glass, glazes on porcelain and faience, jade, historic glass and amber amongst others. Images obtained by OCT are usually presented in the convenient manner of cross-sectional views, similar to microscopic photographs of cross-sections of samples collected ...

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    17. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for the conservation and interpretation of vitreous materials in museums collections with the British Museum & Nottingham Trent University

      Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for the conservation and interpretation of vitreous materials in museums collections with the British Museum & Nottingham Trent University

      AHRC Collaborative Doctoral Partnership Research Studentship 2017 Nottingham Trent University, School of Science & Technology, and the British Museum, Department of Scientific Research Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for the conservation and interpretation of vitreous materials in museums collections Applications are invited for an AHRC Collaborative Doctoral Partnership PhD studentship, to be undertaken at Nottingham Trent University (School of Science & Technology) and the British Museum (Department of Scientific Research). The studentship is for a three-year (full-time) project entitled ‘Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for the conservation and interpretation of vitreous materials in museums collections’, to commence on 1 October 2017. The student will ...

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    18. Optical coherence tomography for non-invasive examination and conservation of cultural heritage objects

      Optical coherence tomography for non-invasive examination and conservation of cultural heritage objects

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has great potential for the examination of oil paintings, particularly for celebrated masterpieces by great artists in history. We developed an OCT system for large field of view (FOV), high definition (HD) imaging of oil paintings. To achieve large FOV, we translated the sample using a pair of high-precision linear motors and performed sequential volumetric imaging on adjacent, non-overlapping regions. Through 3D OCT imaging, the surface terrain and subsurface microarchitecture of the paintings have been characterized and visualized.

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    19. Optical measurements of paintings and the creation of an artwork database for authenticity

      Optical measurements of paintings and the creation of an artwork database for authenticity

      Paintings have high cultural and commercial value, so that needs to be preserved. Many techniques have been attempted to analyze properties of paintings, including X-ray analysis and optical coherence tomography (OCT) methods, and enable conservation of paintings from forgeries. In this paper, we suggest a simple and accurate optical analysis system to protect them from counterfeit which is comprised of fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) and line laser-based topographic analysis. The system is designed to fully cover the whole area of paintings regardless of its size for the accurate analysis. For additional assessments, a line laser-based high resolved OCT was ...

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    20. High-definition optical coherence tomography imaging for noninvasive examination of heritage works

      High-definition optical coherence tomography imaging for noninvasive examination of heritage works

      Cultural heritage works, such as ancient murals and historical paintings, are examined routinely for the purpose of conservation. Previous works have applied optical coherence tomography (OCT), which is a three-dimensional (3D) microscopic imaging modality in the field of heritage works conservation. The data acquired by OCT provides both 3D surface information of the object and structure information underneath the surface. Therefore, cross-sectional information on the object can be utilized to study layer structure of the painting and brush stroke techniques used by the artist. However, as demonstrated in previous studies, OCT has limited capability in high-definition (HD) examination of paintings ...

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    21. Non-Destructive Art Inspection Using SWIR and Terahertz Spectroscopy

      Non-Destructive Art Inspection Using SWIR and Terahertz Spectroscopy

      Conclusion Cultural Heritage Traditionally, artists painted canvas, paper, parchment, wood, walls, and ceramics to produce images of their own intuition and to depict their contemporaries. This artform is still in use by the current generation of artists. Over the centuries artists have left valuable art works that should withstand the test of times.

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      Mentions: Xenics
    22. At Duke, sibling sleuths try to unlock mummy mystery

      At Duke, sibling sleuths try to unlock mummy mystery

      Mike Toth is trying to make mummies “talk.” In ancient Egypt, middle-class dead were mummified with a mask made of papyrus scraps – “papyrus mâché,” he calls it – and finished off with layers of primer and paint. Toth hopes to look under those layers and see if these reused papyrus scraps have text on them. “The laws of physics are against us,” he said. “We have to penetrate these layers – paint, gesso, papyrus – and we need energy to do that.” Researchers can use light or X-rays to reveal the inner layers, but this can be risky. The same techniques that ...

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    23. Examining the past

      Examining the past

      Greetings! Today I thought I’d dip into the technology file and have a look at some research into new techniques developed to examine our artifacts. A painting in a museum tells us one story but what lies beneath its surface may tell quite another. Most great masterpieces are covered with varnish, sometimes several coats applied at different times over their history. The varnish was originally applied to protect the paint underneath and make the colors more vivid, but over the centuries it can degrade. Conservators carefully clean off the old varnish and replace it with new, but to do ...

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