1. Articles in category: Art

    1-24 of 67 1 2 3 »
    1. 3D Digital Microscopy for Characterizing Punchworks on Medieval Panel Paintings

      3D Digital Microscopy for Characterizing Punchworks on Medieval Panel Paintings

      This article is devoted to a novel application of the micro-3D modeling based on shape from focus. A 3D portable digital microscope prototype has been used for the first time in order to analyze gold punchwork on medieval panel paintings. In general, the 3D domain provides a more flexible and complete characterization of these decorative elements than traditional photographic documentation. Low-magnification 3D digital microscopy is well suited for analyzing morphologies, depths, and profiles of different punch marks. Here, we used these parameters for interpreting the punching process and recognizing sliding and bouncing effects. The 3D reconstruction of the surface engraved ...

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    2. Nottingham Trent helps paint picture of Chinese-European history

      Nottingham Trent helps paint picture of Chinese-European history

      Technology developed by Nottingham Trent University is helping unravel the history behind paintings belonging to the Victoria and Albert Museum (V&A) and Royal Horticultural Society (RHS). Dr Haida Liang, a reader in physics at the university’s School of Science and Technology, is leading a team to use Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), multispectral imaging and other non-invasive and non-contact scientific techniques to analyse watercolours exported by China during the 19th century. The OCT device scans the layers below the surface of an object with infrared light in order to reveal details not visible to the naked eye, such as ...

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    3. Historic Work: Governments need to strengthen support for scientists who preserve our cultural heritage.

      Historic Work: Governments need to strengthen support for scientists who preserve our cultural heritage.

      In Ireland, parts of England and other areas of Europe there are thousands of artworks that were fashioned from rocks during the Neolithic period and the Bronze Age. Threatened by degradation, such cultural heritage attracts scientists and volunteer citizens to ensure its preservation. The tools that researchers have devised to help in this task are themselves creative. In one project, biogeochemists and geomorphologists have developed non-invasive methods that enable researchers and citizens to monitor and mitigate decay. Scientists interested in protecting historic collections are determining how climate change will affect the rates of chemical degradation of paper and silk, pest ...

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    4. Depth-Resolved Multilayer Pigment Identification in Paintings: Combined Use of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

      Depth-Resolved Multilayer Pigment Identification in Paintings: Combined Use of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

      A detailed feasibility study on the combined use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with optical coherence tomography (LIBS/OCT), aiming at a realistic depth-resolved elemental analysis of multilayer stratigraphies in paintings, is presented. Merging a high spectral resolution LIBS system with a high spatial resolution spectral OCT instrument significantly enhances the quality and accuracy of stratigraphic analysis. First, OCT mapping is employed prior to LIBS analysis in order to assist the selection of specific areas of interest on the painting surface to be examined in detail. Then, intertwined with LIBS, the OCT instrument is used as a precise profilometer for the ...

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    5. OCT structural examination of Madonna dei Fusi by Leonardo da Vinc

      OCT structural examination of Madonna dei Fusi by Leonardo da Vinc

      Madonna dei Fusi (‘Madonna of the Yarnwider’) is a spectacular example of Italian Renaissance painting, attributed to Leonardo da Vinci. The aim of this study is to give an account of past restoration procedures. The evidence of a former retouching campaign will be presented with cross-sectional images obtained non-invasively with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Specifically, the locations of overpaintings/retouchings with respect to the original paint layer and secondary varnishes will be given. Additionally, the evidence of a former transfer of the pictorial layer to the new canvas support by detecting the presence of its structure incised into paint layer ...

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    6. Ultra-high resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for resolving thin layers in painted works of art

      Ultra-high resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for resolving thin layers in painted works of art

      While OCT has been applied to the non-invasive examination of the stratigraphy of paint layers in recent years, it has been recognized that the resolutions of commercially available OCT cannot compete in depth resolution with conventional microscopic examination of cross-sections of paint samples. It is necessary to achieve resolutions better than 3 microns to resolve the thinnest layers of paint and varnish. In this paper, we demonstrate a Fourier domain ultrahigh resolution OCT at 810nm with depth resolution of 1.8 μm in air (or 1.2μm in varnish or paint).

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    7. Long wavelength optical coherence tomography for imaging of painted objects

      Long wavelength optical coherence tomography for imaging of painted objects

      Optical Coherence Tomography has been successfully applied to the imaging of painted objects in recent years. However, a significant limitation is the low penetration depth of OCT in paint because of the high opacity of paint due to either scattering or absorption. It has been shown that the optimum spectral window for OCT imaging of paint layers is around 2.2μm in wavelength. In this paper, we demonstrate a 1950nm OCT for imaging painted objects using a superfluorescent fiber source at low power.

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    8. Training on Application of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to Structural Analysis of Cultural Heritage Objects: June 27–28, 2013 Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Poland

      Training on Application of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to Structural Analysis of Cultural Heritage Objects: June 27–28, 2013 Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Poland

      This two-day training event will be dedicated to traditional and innovative applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to the examination of cultural heritage objects. The first day will focus on the scientific background and a review of the state-of-the-art of OCT, as well as applications to cultural heritage. The second day will be devoted to hands-on training. Various objects will be provided by the organizers, but participants are encouraged to bring their own samples – contact Piotr Targowski, Nicolaus Copernicus University, ptarg@fizyka.umk.pl for details. There will be no admission fee. Invitation for submission of oral presentations or posters ...

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    9. Optimum spectral window for imaging of art with optical coherence tomography

      Optimum spectral window for imaging of art with optical coherence tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been shown to have potential for important applications in the field of art conservation and archaeology due to its ability to image subsurface microstructures non-invasively. However, its depth of penetration in painted objects is limited due to the strong scattering properties of artists’ paints. VIS–NIR (400–2,400 nm) reflectance spectra of a wide variety of paints made with historic artists’ pigments have been measured. The best spectral window with which to use OCT for the imaging of subsurface structure of paintings was found to be around 2.2 μm. The same spectral window ...

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    10. How Lasers Are Changing the Study of Art

      How Lasers Are Changing the Study of Art

      Shooting a laser at a priceless 14th century painting may seem problematic. But, precisely tuned and timed, the laser system may be the only non-destructive way to get into the mind of long-dead artists like Puccio Capanna and determine his materials, techniques and intent for painting the Crucifixion around 1330 A.D. Duke chemist Warren Warren originally designed the laser system, which uses less power than a laser pointer, to detect changes in the chemicals that give skin cells their color. But one day, while walking through the National Gallery in England, Warren wondered whether his laser system would be ...

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    11. Optical Coherence Tomography for the non-invasive investigation of the microstructure of ancient Egyptian faience

      Optical Coherence Tomography for the non-invasive investigation of the microstructure of ancient Egyptian faience

      Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive subsurface 3D imaging technique based on the Michelson interferometer. The non-invasive nature of OCT and its speed of acquisition makes it possible to image large volumes of intact objects to yield a complete overview of the microstructure. The production methods for ancient Egyptian faience were first investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging of the microstructure in polished sections and microprobe analysis of the composition of the glass phases. These studies were based on original Egyptian faience objects and laboratory reproductions of faience beads made using three different production methods. The microstructure of ...

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    12. Using optical coherence tomography to characterize thick-glaze structure: Chinese Southern Song Guan glaze case study

      Using optical coherence tomography to characterize thick-glaze structure: Chinese Southern Song Guan glaze case study

      This study explores the structure characteristics of thick glaze, in terms of the case study of Chinese Southern Song Guan (SSG) ware, focusing on the bubble and its media structure, using a novel focus-tracking optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. The OCT images we obtained not only unveil the structural uniqueness of the thick-glaze SSG sample, but also establish a distinguishable structural pattern for aiding authentication. In addition, information revealed in our images provides a logical explanation for the subtle texture and tone of SSG glaze as well as insights into the technologies used in layering and firing these thick glazes.

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    13. Dual-wavelength multifrequency photothermal wave imaging combined with optical coherence tomography for macrophage and lipid detection in atherosclerotic plaques using gold nanoparticles

      Dual-wavelength multifrequency photothermal wave imaging combined with optical coherence tomography for macrophage and lipid detection in atherosclerotic plaques using gold nanoparticles

      The objective of this study was to assess the ability of combined photothermal wave (PTW) imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect, and further characterize the distribution of macrophages (having taken up plasmonic gold nanorose as a contrast agent) and lipid deposits in atherosclerotic plaques. Aortas with atherosclerotic plaques were harvested from nine male New Zealand white rabbits divided into nanorose- and saline-injected groups and were imaged by dual-wavelength (800 and 1210 nm) multifrequency (0.1, 1 and 4 Hz) PTW imaging in combination with OCT. Amplitude PTW images suggest that lateral and depth distribution of nanorose-loaded macrophages (confirmed ...

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    14. Optical Coherence Tomography: its role in the non-invasive structural examination and conservation of cultural heritage objects—a review

      Optical Coherence Tomography: its role in the non-invasive structural examination and conservation of cultural heritage objects—a review
      A brief introduction to Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is presented, stressing the origin of the tomographic signal and the detection methods defining various modalities of the technique. The parameters of the tomographs, such as axial and lateral resolution, wavelength and intensity of the probing light, imaging range, time of examination, and sensitivity are then defined, and a paradigm for interpreting the OCT tomograms provided. The second part of the article comprises a review of the utilisation of OCT for structural examination of artworks, illustrated with some representative results. Applications to the structural imaging of semi-transparent subsurface layers such as varnishes ...
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    15. High precision dynamic multi-interface profilometry with optical coherence tomography

      High precision dynamic multi-interface profilometry with optical coherence tomography
      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has mostly been used for high-speed volume imaging but its profilometry potentials have not been fully exploited. This paper demonstrates high precision (as good as ∼50 nm) multi-interface profilometry using a Fourier domain OCT system without special antivibration devices. The precision is up to 2 orders of magnitude better than the depth resolution of the OCT. Detailed analysis of the precision achieved for different surfaces is presented. The multi-interface profiles are obtained as a by-product of the tomography data. OCT has the advantage in speed and sensitivity at detecting rough and internal interfaces versus conventional optical ...
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    16. A Bright Future For Lasers In Art Conservation: News From LACONA IX

      A Bright Future For Lasers In Art Conservation: News From LACONA IX
      First used for the conservation of artwork around 15 years ago, researchers are now embarking on the use of lasers to clean and restore organic-based materials. Until recently these were considered too delicate for exposure to lasers, compared to inorganic objects. Organic materials ranging from Australian Aboriginal bark paintings to ancient Egyptian papyrus rope are now serving as case studies for demonstrating the effectiveness of lasers for removing dirt and old coats of varnish. One of the drawbacks of laser ablation, however, is the difficulty of ensuring complete removal of the top varnish layer without damaging the surface beneath. This ...
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    17. Optical coherence tomography and spectral imaging of a wall painting

      Optical coherence tomography and spectral imaging of a wall painting
      There are two reasons for determining the composition of paints used in historical paintings. The first is for conservation purposes, i.e., to identify which conservation methods should be used to best treat an artwork based on its paint composition. The second purpose is art history. For example, some pigments were used in certain periods, while others are more modern. Analysis of the pigments allows art historians to constrain the time when the painting was created, which assists with dating the artwork. Furthermore, pigments can be attributed to geographical areas and are used to shed light on historical pigment trade ...
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    18. Review of several optical non-destructive analyses of an easel painting. Complementarity and crosschecking of the results

      Review of several optical non-destructive analyses of an easel painting. Complementarity and crosschecking of the results
      Five optical analyses of a given work of art are presented, using multispectral imaging, optical coherence tomography, goniophometry, UV-fluorescence emission spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. All these methods are non-destructive, contactless, and implementable in situ. They all lead to results in quasi-real time. The multispectral camera allows imaging of the whole painting with very high definition and recording of 240 millions of spectra. Optical coherence tomography allows local 2D and 3D imaging with in-face and in depth stratigraphies inside the painting with a micrometric accuracy. It allows the evaluation of the pigment volume concentration inside a layer, the measurement of ...
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    19. Non-invasive investigations of a wall painting using optical coherence tomography and hyperspectral imaging

      Non-invasive investigations of a wall painting using optical coherence tomography and hyperspectral imaging
      Multispectral and hyperspectral imaging are efficient methods of measuring spectral reflectance at high spatial resolution. This non-invasive technique has been applied to the imaging of paintings over the last 20 years. PRISMS (Portable Remote Imaging System for Multispectral Scanning) was designed specifically for imaging wall paintings. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a low coherence interferometric technique capable of fast non-invasive imaging of subsurface microstructure. This paper shows the first application of in situ OCT imaging of a wall painting. The combination of PRISMS and OCT gives information on the varnish and paint layer structure, pigment identification, the state of degradation ...
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    20. Application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for real time monitoring of consolidation of the paint layer in Hinterglasmalerei objects

      Application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for real time monitoring of consolidation of the paint layer in Hinterglasmalerei objects
      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a fast non-contact and non-invasive technique for examination of objects consisting of transparent or semitransparent layers. Since it is a useful tool for inspection of Hinterglasmalerei paintings, the aim of the experiment was to explore its feasibility for monitoring of the consolidation process, which plays the most important role in the conservation treatment of such artefacts.
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    21. OCT and NMR for non-invasive in-situ monitoring of the vulnerability of rock art monuments

      OCT and NMR for non-invasive in-situ monitoring of the vulnerability of rock art monuments
      This paper will introduce a new application of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to the monitoring of vulnerability of rock art monuments in-situ. The porosity of the host rock is an important factor affecting the susceptibility of rock art monuments to decay. Pore characteristics of rocks are one of the main factors that control the intensity of physical deterioration. OCT has successfully been applied to paintings and archaeological objects, including geological materials, to produce cross sectional images non-invasively. The stack of cross sectional images can be rendered as a volume to visualise the structure in depth over an extended area. Preliminary ...
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    22. Medical Imaging Used to Probe Tower of London Mural (Video)

      Medical Imaging Used to Probe Tower of London Mural (Video)
      Tucked away in the Tower of London, a mysterious wall painting has been intriguing art historians. Commonly called the Byward Angel, it's one of the most well-preserved murals in the UK and the only surviving medieval interior at the castle. The style of the painting suggests it dates back to the 1390s - but nobody knows who painted it or why it's there. Until recently, investigating the mural has been a painstaking task as it could only be analysed invasively by taking tiny samples of paint. Now, Haida Liang and her team from Nottingham Trent University have repurposed a ...
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    23. OCT system to examine priceless paintings

      OCT system to examine priceless paintings
      A team of researchers from Nottingham Trent University have received more than £600,000 of funding to develop a new Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) system that they hope will become a tool used by art galleries around the world. The funding was received from the Science and Heritage Programme of the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) and the EPSRC. Since 2004, Dr Haida Liang from the university’s School of Science and Technology has led research into the application of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for the non-invasive examination of paintings.
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    24. They go through the pictures without touching them! (A Swiss Television Video on OCT in Art)

      They go through the pictures without touching them! (A Swiss Television Video on OCT in Art)
      Text translation of the web page can be obtained using Google Language Tools. A new technique useful in the restoration attracting interest from major museums. Using a method derived from ophthalmology, researchers are able to get inside even works of art! Its name: optical coherence tomography. In the restoration workshops of the Museum of Art and History in Geneva, a romantic landscape painter undergoes a battery of tests. Fluorescence ultraviolet light to diagnose the condition of the varnish, and then exposed to a raking light to explore the contours of the material, Victor Lopes, the conservator of places, has ten ...
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    1-24 of 67 1 2 3 »
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