1. Articles in category: Art

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    1. Photoacoustic signal attenuation analysis for the assessment of thin layers thickness in paintings

      Photoacoustic signal attenuation analysis for the assessment of thin layers thickness in paintings

      This study introduces a novel method for the thickness estimation of thin paint layers in works of art, based on photoacoustic signal attenuation analysis (PAcSAA). Ad hoc designed samples with acrylic paint layers (Primary Red Magenta, Cadmium Yellow, Ultramarine Blue) of various thicknesses on glass substrates were realized for the specific application. After characterization by Optical Coherence Tomography imaging, samples were irradiated at the back side using low energy nanosecond laser pulses of 532 nm wavelength. Photoacoustic waves undergo a frequency-dependent exponential attenuation through the paint layer, before being detected by a broadband ultrasonic transducer. Frequency analysis of the recorded ...

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    2. Using Optical Coherence Tomography to Reveal the Hidden History of The Landsdowne Virgin of the Yarnwinder by Leonardo da Vinci and Studio

      Using Optical Coherence Tomography to Reveal the Hidden History of The Landsdowne Virgin of the Yarnwinder by Leonardo da Vinci and Studio

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used for non‐invasive examination of a well‐known, yet complex, painting from the studio of Leonardo da Vinci in combination with routine imaging in various bands of electromagnetic radiation. In contrast with these techniques, OCT provides depth‐resolved information. Three post‐processing modalities were explored: cross‐sectional views, maps of scattering from given depths, and their 3D models. Some hidden alterations of the painting owing to past restorations were traced: retouching and overpainting with their positioning within varnish layers as well as indications of a former transfer to canvas.

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    3. Uncovering the Secrets of the 'Girl With a Pearl Earring'

      Uncovering the Secrets of the 'Girl With a Pearl Earring'

      “How did the ‘Girl With a Pearl Earring’ come to life? What steps did Vermeer take to make this painting?” These are some of the fundamental questions we still have about Johannes Vermeer’s beloved 1665 painting of a young woman in a blue and yellow turban, glancing beguilingly over her shoulder, according to Abbie Vandivere, paintings conservator at the Mauritshuis Royal Picture Gallery here. Image Emilie Gordenker, the director of the Mauritshuis, and Abbie Vandivere, the museum’s paintings conservator. Credit Michel deGroot for The New York Times The answers may lie below the surface of her luminous face ...

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    4. 'Girl with Pearl Earring' to undergo examination

      'Girl with Pearl Earring' to undergo examination

      One of the world's most famous paintings "Girl with a Pearl Earring" is to undergo a two-week scientific examination in front of curious visitors to the Dutch museum where it lives. The luminescent tableau painted by Dutch master Johannes Vermeer around 1665 was last examined in 1994 during a conservation treatment at the Mauritshuis museum in the centre of The Hague. "Although further restoration is not yet required, major advances in non-invasive technical analysis have been made over the last 25 years," the museum said in a statement. Researchers have long been fascinated by the painting of a young ...

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    5. Modern acrylic paints probed by optical coherence tomography and infrared reflectography

      Modern acrylic paints probed by optical coherence tomography and infrared reflectography

      Contemporary art is particularly delicate as the synthetic materials used for their realization are of poorer quality and durability than the traditional materials. It follows that the contemporary artworks often require imminent restorations as well as in-depth analytical studies of the constituting materials. The non-invasiveness of the scientific methods is a key issue in the diagnostics of contemporary art because it minimizes the need of sampling. In this respect, the potential of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging to probe the internal structure of the commercial acrylic paint layers, as a function of their thickness, was investigated and compared with that ...

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    6. Complementary use of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Reflection FTIR spectroscopy for in-situ non-invasive monitoring of varnish removal from easel paintings

      Complementary use of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Reflection FTIR spectroscopy for in-situ non-invasive monitoring of varnish removal from easel paintings

      Although the solvent removal of unwanted layers (e.g. aged varnishes, overpaints, oxalate patinas, dirt from easel paintings is one of the most frequently performed restoration treatments) it is questioned regarding its controllability and safety to the artwork. There is thus a need for developing suited diagnostic methodologies able to inform restorers on the chemical, optical and morphological effects of cleaning. To this aim, we have explored the possibility of complementary use of Optical Coherent Tomography (OCT) and reflection FTIR. On the one hand, the OCT technique provides cross-sectional images with varnish layers visible and thus permits for measurement of ...

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    7. Imaging the first printed edition of Euclid’s Elements

      Imaging the first printed edition of Euclid’s Elements

      We decided to use Optical Coherence Tomography. Peter Munro at UCL Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering has just bought a new system and we were keen to try it out. OCT has been one of the biggest successes of biomedical optics in the last thirty years, having gone from a lab invention in the early 1990s to a standard test for imaging the retina and other parts of the body. It uses near infrared light, so it’s safe, and splits it into two arms using a mirror. One arm is used as a reference and the other illuminates a ...

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    8. Optical coherence tomography and non-linear microscopy for paintings – a study of the complementary capabilities and laser degradation effects

      Optical coherence tomography and non-linear microscopy for paintings – a study of the complementary capabilities and laser degradation effects

      his paper examines for the first time the potential complementary imaging capabilities of Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and non-linear microscopy (NLM) for multi-modal 3D examination of paintings following the successful application of OCT to the in situ, non-invasive examination of varnish and paint stratigraphy of historic paintings and the promising initial studies of NLM of varnish samples. OCT provides image contrast through the optical scattering and absorption properties of materials, while NLM provides molecular information through multi-photon fluorescence and higher harmonics generation (second and third harmonic generation). OCT is well-established in the in situ non-invasive imaging of the stratigraphy of ...

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    9. Feature Of The Week 07/24/2017: Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Non-Destructive Testing of Protection Coatings on Metal Substrates

      Feature Of The Week 07/24/2017: Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Non-Destructive Testing of Protection Coatings on Metal Substrates

      Industrial monuments and other artefacts of vanishing industries have to be preserved as cultural heritage. For example, in Germany next year the public subsidy for the mining industry will end and with this the active mining will end as well. The Deutsches Bergbau-Museum in Bochum as one of the largest of its kind and as a research institution of the Leibnitz association is committed to preserve the cultural heritage of the mining industry. Thus it is facing the huge task to conserve a lot of mining industry objects in their actual authentic appearance, ranging from small tools like hammers to ...

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    10. Optical Coherence Tomography: an example of examination of oil painting on canvas

      Optical Coherence Tomography: an example of examination of oil painting on canvas

      Professor Piotr Targowsky, from the Nicolaus Copernicus University of Poland examinates the Portrait of Sir John Wylie, an oil painting on canvas, by using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT).
      OCT offers a micrometre level in-depth resolution and is well suited for the investigation of fine details of structures which moderately absorb infrared light, such as varnishes, glazes and underdrawings of easel paintings, reverse paintings on glass, glazes on porcelain and faience, jade, historic glass and amber amongst others. Images obtained by OCT are usually presented in the convenient manner of cross-sectional views, similar to microscopic photographs of cross-sections of samples collected ...

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    11. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for the conservation and interpretation of vitreous materials in museums collections with the British Museum & Nottingham Trent University

      Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for the conservation and interpretation of vitreous materials in museums collections with the British Museum & Nottingham Trent University

      AHRC Collaborative Doctoral Partnership Research Studentship 2017 Nottingham Trent University, School of Science & Technology, and the British Museum, Department of Scientific Research Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for the conservation and interpretation of vitreous materials in museums collections Applications are invited for an AHRC Collaborative Doctoral Partnership PhD studentship, to be undertaken at Nottingham Trent University (School of Science & Technology) and the British Museum (Department of Scientific Research). The studentship is for a three-year (full-time) project entitled ‘Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for the conservation and interpretation of vitreous materials in museums collections’, to commence on 1 October 2017. The student will ...

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    12. Optical coherence tomography for non-invasive examination and conservation of cultural heritage objects

      Optical coherence tomography for non-invasive examination and conservation of cultural heritage objects

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has great potential for the examination of oil paintings, particularly for celebrated masterpieces by great artists in history. We developed an OCT system for large field of view (FOV), high definition (HD) imaging of oil paintings. To achieve large FOV, we translated the sample using a pair of high-precision linear motors and performed sequential volumetric imaging on adjacent, non-overlapping regions. Through 3D OCT imaging, the surface terrain and subsurface microarchitecture of the paintings have been characterized and visualized.

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    13. Optical measurements of paintings and the creation of an artwork database for authenticity

      Optical measurements of paintings and the creation of an artwork database for authenticity

      Paintings have high cultural and commercial value, so that needs to be preserved. Many techniques have been attempted to analyze properties of paintings, including X-ray analysis and optical coherence tomography (OCT) methods, and enable conservation of paintings from forgeries. In this paper, we suggest a simple and accurate optical analysis system to protect them from counterfeit which is comprised of fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) and line laser-based topographic analysis. The system is designed to fully cover the whole area of paintings regardless of its size for the accurate analysis. For additional assessments, a line laser-based high resolved OCT was ...

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    14. High-definition optical coherence tomography imaging for noninvasive examination of heritage works

      High-definition optical coherence tomography imaging for noninvasive examination of heritage works

      Cultural heritage works, such as ancient murals and historical paintings, are examined routinely for the purpose of conservation. Previous works have applied optical coherence tomography (OCT), which is a three-dimensional (3D) microscopic imaging modality in the field of heritage works conservation. The data acquired by OCT provides both 3D surface information of the object and structure information underneath the surface. Therefore, cross-sectional information on the object can be utilized to study layer structure of the painting and brush stroke techniques used by the artist. However, as demonstrated in previous studies, OCT has limited capability in high-definition (HD) examination of paintings ...

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    15. Non-Destructive Art Inspection Using SWIR and Terahertz Spectroscopy

      Non-Destructive Art Inspection Using SWIR and Terahertz Spectroscopy

      Conclusion Cultural Heritage Traditionally, artists painted canvas, paper, parchment, wood, walls, and ceramics to produce images of their own intuition and to depict their contemporaries. This artform is still in use by the current generation of artists. Over the centuries artists have left valuable art works that should withstand the test of times.

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      Mentions: Xenics
    16. At Duke, sibling sleuths try to unlock mummy mystery

      At Duke, sibling sleuths try to unlock mummy mystery

      Mike Toth is trying to make mummies “talk.” In ancient Egypt, middle-class dead were mummified with a mask made of papyrus scraps – “papyrus mâché,” he calls it – and finished off with layers of primer and paint. Toth hopes to look under those layers and see if these reused papyrus scraps have text on them. “The laws of physics are against us,” he said. “We have to penetrate these layers – paint, gesso, papyrus – and we need energy to do that.” Researchers can use light or X-rays to reveal the inner layers, but this can be risky. The same techniques that ...

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    17. Examining the past

      Examining the past

      Greetings! Today I thought I’d dip into the technology file and have a look at some research into new techniques developed to examine our artifacts. A painting in a museum tells us one story but what lies beneath its surface may tell quite another. Most great masterpieces are covered with varnish, sometimes several coats applied at different times over their history. The varnish was originally applied to protect the paint underneath and make the colors more vivid, but over the centuries it can degrade. Conservators carefully clean off the old varnish and replace it with new, but to do ...

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    18. On the application of Optical Coherence Tomography as a complimentary tool in a analysis of the 13th century Byzantine Bessarion Reliquary

      On the application of Optical Coherence Tomography as a complimentary tool in a analysis of the 13th century Byzantine Bessarion Reliquary

      This work presents the results of an application of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to examination a 13th century Byzantine reliquary of unparalleled artistic and historical value. The aim of this work, performed at the initial stage, before the restoration, was focused on the resolution of cleaning procedures regarding both the thick, old varnish and the gold leaf details finely applied on the painted parts of the artwork by means of an integrated approach of non-invasive and invasive analyses and diagnostics. The results allow definition of the thickness of the varnishes, their inner morphology and establishes the presence (or absence) of ...

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    19. Optical Coherence Tomography in Art Conservation

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Art Conservation

      This sounds interesting - a whizzy new camera (seen above, in front of a copy of a Raphael at the National Gallery) can digitally take cross-sections of a painting. Normally, to find out the exact build up of layers in a painting (from ground layer to the tpyes of pigments used), you need to physically take a sample of paint, flip it on its side, and then look at the cross-section under a microscope (as in the colour photo below). But this new camera - developed at Nottingham Trent University - allows a virtual cross-section to be taken, and the results look as ...

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    20. Optical devices provide unprecedented insights into the laser cleaning of calcium oxalate layers

      Optical devices provide unprecedented insights into the laser cleaning of calcium oxalate layers

      Calcium oxalates are insoluble colorless or whitish salts constituting noble patina, on both natural and artificial stone artworks' surfaces, the presence of which is extremely valued. The oxalates are not considered detrimental to the substrate, however, being often accompanied by other substances such as gypsum, silicates, and pigmented particles. They may form very adherent, relatively thick and colored layers creating disfiguring effects and hindering legibility of the pictorial surface. For this reason it may be appropriate to diminish their thickness, but patina's partial preservation is particularly required calling for extremely gradual and controllable cleaning approach. Thinning of calcium oxalate ...

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    21. The application of macro-X-ray fluorescence and optical coherence tomography for examination of parchment manuscripts

      The application of macro-X-ray fluorescence and optical coherence tomography for examination of parchment manuscripts

      Macro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a newly commercially available research tool very useful in the examination of artwork. Its novelty lies in its ability to create maps of the distribution of chemical elements on scales of a few milimetres. In this contribution, its use together with optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the inspection of an illuminated manuscript is reported for the first time. The former technique is used both for mapping the elemental distribution over large parts of the folios – including illuminated initials – and for quantitative analysis of the composition of the smalt pigment, as well as of changes in the ...

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    22. Optical and spectroscopic tools for evaluating Er:YAG laser removal of shellac varnish

      Optical and spectroscopic tools for evaluating Er:YAG laser removal of shellac varnish

      We report on tests to remove naturally and artificially aged shellac varnish by laser and traditional chemical cleaning from the substrates of mural paintings. Optical tools were used for the evaluation of cleaning processes, in particular laser microprofilometry to assess the changes in the surface morphology and time-domain confocal optical coherence tomography (OCT) to evaluate varnish thickness. The cleaning assessment was integrated with molecular characterization provided by portable Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy operating in reflectance mode, and colorimetric measurements. This complete analytical approach led to optimized laser-based cleaning tests at 1.9 and 2.6 J/cm 2 in the ...

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    23. A holistic multimodal approach to the non-invasive analysis of watercolour painting

      A holistic multimodal approach to the non-invasive analysis of watercolour painting

      the materials (pigments, drawing materials and paper) and painting techniques of watercolour paintings is presented. The non-invasive imaging and spectroscopic techniques include VIS–NIR reflectance spectroscopy and multispectral imaging, micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The three spectroscopic techniques complement each other in pigment identification. Multispectral imaging (near-infrared bands), OCT and micro-Raman complement each other in the visualisation and identification of the drawing material. OCT probes the micro-structure and light scattering properties of the substrate, while XRF detects the elemental composition that indicates the sizing methods and the filler content. The multiple techniques were applied ...

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    1-24 of 97 1 2 3 4 »
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