1. Articles in category: Cardiology

    481-504 of 3395 « 1 2 ... 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 ... 140 141 142 »
    1. Plaque morphology predictors of side branch occlusion after provisional stenting in coronary bifurcation lesion: Results of optical coherence tomography bifurcation study (ORBID)

      Plaque morphology predictors of side branch occlusion after provisional stenting in coronary bifurcation lesion: Results of optical coherence tomography bifurcation study (ORBID)

      Objectives The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of side branch (SB) ostial stenosis developed after provisional stenting of the main vessel (MV) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Background Provisional stenting remains the main approach to treatment of bifurcation lesions; however, it may result in the narrowing of SB ostium. There is little information about underlying plaque morphology of the MV lesion and its potential impact on the SB after provisional stenting. Methods Patients with stable coronary disease with angiographic MV lesion not involving SB were included in a prospective single center study. The primary outcome was ...

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    2. Choice of Intracoronary Imaging: When to Use Intravascular Ultrasound or Optical Coherence Tomography

      Choice of Intracoronary Imaging: When to Use Intravascular Ultrasound or Optical Coherence Tomography

      Intracoronary imaging has the capability of accurately measuring vessel and stenosis dimensions, assessing vessel integrity, characterising lesion morphology and guiding optimal percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Coronary angiography used to detect and assess coronary stenosis severity has limitations. The 2D nature of fluoroscopic imaging provides lumen profile only and the assessment of coronary stenosis by visual estimation is subjective and prone to error. Performing PCI based on coronary angiography alone is inadequate for determining key metrics of the vessel such as dimension, extent of disease, and plaque distribution and composition. The advent of intracoronary imaging has offset the limitations of angiography ...

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    3. Optical Coherence Tomography in Grafts (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Grafts (Book Chapter)

      Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is a commonly used surgery to treat patients with complex artery disease. Long-term outcome of specifically saphenous vein grafts (SVG) is considered unfavorable, while it is the most commonly used conduit. The SVG is prone to occlude and half of the patients will develop vein graft failure (VGF) within 10 years. VGF is the result of the accelerated atherosclerosis that differs from what is seen in native coronaries. Revascularization of SVGs is considered challenging, due to their challenging anatomy and embolic nature. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging is an invasive imaging technique that can be ...

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    4. Serial Multimodality Imaging and 2-Year Clinical Outcomes of the Novel DESolve Novolimus-Eluting Bioresorbable Coronary Scaffold System for the Treatment of Single De Novo Coronary Lesions

      Serial Multimodality Imaging and 2-Year Clinical Outcomes of the Novel DESolve Novolimus-Eluting Bioresorbable Coronary Scaffold System for the Treatment of Single De Novo Coronary Lesions

      Objectives This study sought to report the late multimodality imaging and clinical outcomes of the novel poly- l -lactic-acid–based DESolve novolimus-eluting bioresorbable coronary scaffold for the treatment of de novo coronary lesions. Background Bioresorbable scaffolds are an alternative to drug-eluting metallic stents and provide temporary vascular scaffolding, which potentially may allow vessel restoration and reduce the risk of future adverse events. Methods Overall, 126 patients were enrolled at 13 international sites between November 2011 and June 2012. The primary endpoint was in-scaffold late lumen loss at 6 months. Major adverse cardiac events, the main safety endpoint, were defined as ...

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    5. Bioresorbable vascular scaffold implantation and scaffold edge dissection, to treat or not to treat? The dilemma clarified by optical coherence tomography

      Bioresorbable vascular scaffold implantation and scaffold edge dissection, to treat or not to treat? The dilemma clarified by optical coherence tomography

      In the last years, the use of bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) has increased considerably in all setting of patients but acute and long term follow up complications after revascularization as iatrogenic coronary dissection(CD) are not established, nor the best treatment and resolution of them.

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    6. Classification of calcium in intravascular OCT images for the purpose of intervention planning

      Classification of calcium in intravascular OCT images for the purpose of intervention planning

      The presence of extensive calcification is a primary concern when planning and implementing a vascular percutaneous intervention such as stenting. If the balloon does not expand, the interventionalist must blindly apply high balloon pressure, use an atherectomy device, or abort the procedure. As part of a project to determine the ability of Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IVOCT) to aid intervention planning, we developed a method for automatic classification of calcium in coronary IVOCT images. We developed an approach where plaque texture is modeled by the joint probability distribution of a bank of filter responses where the filter bank was chosen ...

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    7. Intravascular ultrasound for morphological assessment of napkin-ring sign detected on multidetector computed tomography

      Intravascular ultrasound for morphological assessment of napkin-ring sign detected on multidetector computed tomography

      Background Although napkin-ring sign (NRS) plaques assessed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is identified as a high-risk feature, the detailed morphological features are still unknown. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the morphological features of the MDCT-assessed NRS using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Methods We evaluated 204 plaques in 193 patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome who were diagnosed using 128-slice MDCT and were assessed using IVUS prior to coronary intervention. Morphology was compared between plaques with and without MDCT-assessed NRS. Severe IVUS-assessed attenuation was defined as an attenuation angle > 180°. Results NRS was detected in 49 lesions. MDCT-assessed ...

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    8. Invasive coronary imaging: any role in primary and secondary prevention?

      Invasive coronary imaging: any role in primary and secondary prevention?

      This review discusses the possibilities offered by new modalities of non-invasive and invasive coronary imaging in an effort to optimize risk stratification for coronary artery disease, and identify subgroups at high risk that may benefit from an aggressive, personalized approach, with access to a growing number of novel drugs and interventions. Special emphasis is placed on the progress of novel invasive imaging techniques such as near infrared spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography that can reliably identify thin-capped fibroatheromas. Multiple trials are exploring the feasibility of these techniques to guide modulation of risk factor control and treatment of non-flow limiting lesions ...

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    9. Micell Technologies Completes Enrollment in OCT Study Designed to Evaluate Superior Performance of MiStent SES Compared to Xience

      Micell Technologies Completes Enrollment in OCT Study Designed to Evaluate Superior Performance of MiStent SES Compared to Xience

      e/ -- Micell Technologies, Inc . announced completion of enrollment in the MiStent® Sirolimus Eluting Absorbable Polymer Coronary Stent System (MiStent SES) Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) study. The study will compare changes in coronary arteries between six and 24 months following treatment with MiStent or XIENCE V Everolimus Eluting Coronary Stent System (Xience). The clinical investigation and data analysis are being conducted by Cardialysis and the European Cardiovascular Research Institute (ECRI), in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. The OCT study will evaluate 60 patients randomized to MiStent or Xience. A prior MiStent clinical study has shown essentially no increase in late lumen loss between ...

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    10. Blood flow changes after unilateral carotid artery ligation monitored by optical coherence tomography

      Blood flow changes after unilateral carotid artery ligation monitored by optical coherence tomography

      Unilateral carotid artery ligation which could induce adaptive improvement is a classic model that has been widely used to study pathology of ischemic disease. In those studies, blood flow is an important parameter to characterize the ischemia. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful imaging modality which can provide depth resolved images in biological tissue with high spatial and temporal resolution. SPF rats was anesthetized with isoflurane and divided into two groups. In first group, bilateral carotid artery was surgically exposed, and then left carotid artery was ligated. Blood flow changes of the contralateral carotid artery was monitored using high ...

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    11. Classification of coronary artery tissues using optical coherence tomography imaging in Kawasaki disease

      Classification of coronary artery tissues using optical coherence tomography imaging in Kawasaki disease

      Intravascular imaging modalities, such as Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) allow nowadays improving diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and even prevention of coronary artery disease in the adult. OCT has been recently used in children following Kawasaki disease (KD), the most prevalent acquired coronary artery disease during childhood with devastating complications. The assessment of coronary artery layers with OCT and early detection of coronary sequelae secondary to KD is a promising tool for preventing myocardial infarction in this population. More importantly, OCT is promising for tissue quantification of the inner vessel wall, including neo intima luminal myofibroblast proliferation, calcification, and fibrous scar deposits ...

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    12. Methods and systems for transforming luminal images

      Methods and systems for transforming luminal images

      The invention provides methods and systems for correcting translational distortion in a medical image of a lumen of a biological structure. The method facilitates vessel visualization in intravascular images (e.g. IVUS, OCT) used to evaluate the cardiovascular health of a patient. Using the methods and systems described herein it is simpler for a provider to evaluate vascular imaging data, which is typically distorted due to cardiac vessel-catheter motion while the image was acquired.

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    13. Hessian analysis for the delineation of amorphous anomalies in optical coherence tomography images of the aortic wall

      Hessian analysis for the delineation of amorphous anomalies in optical coherence tomography images of the aortic wall

      The aortic aneurysm is a disease originated mainly in the media layer of the aortic wall due to the occurrence of degraded areas of altered biological composition. These anomalous regions affect the structure and strength of the aorta artery, being their occurrence and extension proportional to the arterial vessel health. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is applied to obtain cross-sectional images of the artery wall. The backscattering mechanisms in tissue make aorta images difficult to analyze due to noise and strong attenuation with penetration. The morphology of anomalies in pathological specimens is also diverse with amorphous shapes and varied dimensions, being ...

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    14. Optical coherence tomography: A pathway from research to clinical practice

      Optical coherence tomography: A pathway from research to clinical practice

      For more than half a century, coronary angiography has been the goldstandard diagnostic test for the assessment of coronary artery disease, but it does not provide information about the components of the vascular wall, atherosclerosic disease burden, or the interaction of local devices with coronary artery walls.  The development of intracoronary imaging techniques, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), was conceived with the objective to overcome coronary angiography limitations.

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    15. Four-dimensional live imaging of hemodynamics in mammalian embryonic heart with Doppler optical coherence tomography

      Four-dimensional live imaging of hemodynamics in mammalian embryonic heart with Doppler optical coherence tomography

      Four-dimensional live hemodynamic imaging of the mouse embryonic heart at embryonic day 9.0 using Doppler optical coherence tomography, showing directional blood flows in the sinus venosus, primitive atrium, atrioventricular region and vitelline vein. Hemodynamic analysis of the mouse embryonic heart is essential for understanding the functional aspects of early cardiogenesis and advancing the research in congenital heart defects. However, high-resolution imaging of cardiac hemodynamics in mammalian models remains challenging, primarily due to the dynamic nature and deep location of the embryonic heart. Here we report four-dimensional micro-scale imaging of blood flow in the early mouse embryonic heart, enabling time-resolved ...

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    16. Safety of optical coherence tomography in daily practice: a comparison with intravascular ultrasound

      Safety of optical coherence tomography in daily practice: a comparison with intravascular ultrasound

      Aims Previous studies have reported the safety and feasibility of both time-domain optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT) and Fourier-domain OCT (FD-OCT) in highly selected patients and clinical settings. However, the generalizability of these data is limited, and data in unselected patient populations reflecting a routine cathlab practice are lacking. We compared safety of intracoronary FD-OCT imaging to intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging in a large real-world series of consecutive patients who underwent invasive imaging during coronary catheterization in our centre. Methods and results This is a prospective, single-centre registry of patients scheduled for coronary angiography or intervention undergoing intracoronary imaging with FD-OCT ...

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    17. Three-dimensional reconstruction of optical coherence tomography for improving bifurcation stenting

      Three-dimensional reconstruction of optical coherence tomography for improving bifurcation stenting

      Coronary bifurcation lesions are encountered in approximately 15–20% of all percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) [1] . Bifurcation PCI has historically been associated with lower procedural success rates and higher long-term adverse event rates compared with PCI for non-bifurcation lesions. In the drug-eluting stent (DES) era, the clinical outcomes for bifurcation PCI have improved considerably [2] . However, bifurcation stenting is still technically challenging and associated with an increased risk of stent thrombosis [3] . The conventional coronary stent is a small mesh-patterned tube, usually linear in shape. To adapt the DES for morphological variation of bifurcation, various techniques have been developed [4 ...

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    18. A glimpse into first generation drug-eluting and bare metal stents ten years later with optical coherence tomography analysis

      A glimpse into first generation drug-eluting and bare metal stents ten years later with optical coherence tomography analysis

      Currently, the very long-term behavior of first-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) is not available. However, several studies have shown that the TAXUS™ paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) (Boston Scientific, Natick, Massachusetts) is associated with a rate of 5-year stent thrombosis ranging from 3 to 7%, depending on the complexity of the lesion [1], with higher rates of very late stent thrombosis compared with second-generation DES [2].

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    19. Systems for correcting distortions in a medical image and methods of use thereof

      Systems for correcting distortions in a medical image and methods of use thereof

      The invention relates generally systems for correcting distortion in a medical image and methods of use thereof. Methods and systems for displaying a medical image of a lumen of a biological structure, generally comprise obtaining image data of a lumen of a biological structure from an imaging device, correcting the image data for translational distortions, in which correcting is accomplished without reference to another data set, and displaying a corrected image.

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    20. Neoatherosclerosis in Very Late Stenosis of Bare Metal Stent by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Neoatherosclerosis in Very Late Stenosis of Bare Metal Stent by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Bare metal stents (BMS) continue to be widely used in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous revascularization. Progressive luminal renarrowing has been reported late after BMS implantation resulting in a significant rate of stent failure events. We present a case of very late BMS failure due to in-stent restenosis where optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to demonstrate neoatherosclerosis as the underlying mechanism. We provide a brief review of neoatherosclerosis and showcase salient features on OCT evaluation.

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    21. Measurement of strain and strain rate in embryonic chick heart using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      Measurement of strain and strain rate in embryonic chick heart using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      It is important to measure embryonic heart myocardial wall strain and strain rate for understanding the mechanisms of embryonic heart development. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can provide depth resolved images with high spatial and temporal resolution, which makes it have the potential to reveal the complex myocardial activity in the early stage embryonic heart. We develop a novel method to measure strain in embryonic chick heart based on spectral domain OCT images and subsequent image processing. We perform 4D(x,y,z,t) scanning on the outflow tract (OFT) of chick embryonic hearts in HH18 stage (~3 days of incubation ...

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    22. Blood flowing state analysis in outflow tract of chick embryonic heart based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      Blood flowing state analysis in outflow tract of chick embryonic heart based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      The cardiac development is a complicated process affected by genetic and environmental factors. Wall shear stress (WSS) and periodic stress (WPS) are the components which have been proved to influence the morphogenesis during early stages of cardiac development. The vessel wall will be deformed by the blood pressure and produce natural elastic force acting on the blood. Because blood flowing in different flow state and show different characteristics of fluid, which influence the calculation of WSS and WPS directly, it is necessary to study the blood flow state. In this paper, we introduce a method to quantify the blood flowing ...

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