1. Articles in category: Cardiology

    481-504 of 2267 « 1 2 ... 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 ... 93 94 95 »
    1. Feature Of The Week 4/14/2013: German Heart Center Researchers Describe Study Using OCT as a Tool for Characterization of Neointimal Tissue after Coronary Stent Implantation.

      Feature Of The Week 4/14/2013: German Heart Center Researchers Describe Study Using OCT as a Tool for Characterization of Neointimal Tissue after Coronary Stent Implantation.

      The current article reports the results of a large translational study related to the application of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) as a novel tool for characterization of in-stent neointimal tissue after coronary stent implantation. After the introduction of drug-eluting stents (DES) in 2002, a therapy targeted at reduction in the burden of in-stent restenosis, a new clinicopathological entity known as delayed arterial healing was observed and hypothesized to be one of the major drivers of a spectrum of adverse outcomes including late stent thrombosis, late catch-up restenosis (“late luminal creep”) and other adverse vascular events. One consequence was that systematic ...

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    2. Exploring coronary atherosclerosis with intravascular imaging

      Exploring coronary atherosclerosis with intravascular imaging

      Coronary angiography has been widely used for five decades to evaluate a range of vascular pathologies and triage patients to therapeutic interventions. The inability to directly visualize the artery wall with conventional angiographic techniques has stimulated development of a number of intravascular imaging modalities. These approaches have the potential to provide a more comprehensive characterization of the burden, composition and functionality of atherosclerotic plaque, neointimal hyperplasia and allograft vasculopathy that develop within coronary arteries. The ability to use these modalities in vivo and in a serial fashion has provided a greater insight into the factors that underlie the disease process ...

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    3. Deceived incidence of acute coronary syndrome by measurement of FFR: Diagnostic gap of vulnerable plaque between physiology and morphology

      Deceived incidence of acute coronary syndrome by measurement of FFR: Diagnostic gap of vulnerable plaque between physiology and morphology

      A 67-year-old male was admitted because of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). An emergent coronary angiography showed a total occlusion in the left anterior descending artery, and a stent was deployed. Moderate lesion stenosis was found in the right coronary artery (RCA). Fractional flow reserve indicated 0.96, and percutaneous coronary intervention was not performed. Six months later, the patient visited an emergency room due to AMI. Angiograms showed a patency of the previous stent and progressed stenosis with filling delay of the RCA. Protruding red thrombi and plaque disruption of thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) were identified by optical coherence tomography. Mild ...

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    4. MGH Receives 2013 NIH Grant for Development of a Preclinical Optical Frequency Domain Angiography Instrument

      MGH Receives 2013 NIH Grant for Development of a Preclinical Optical Frequency Domain Angiography Instrument

      MGH Receives 2013 NIH Grant for $204,038 for Development of a Preclinical Optical Frequency Domain Angiography Instrument. The principal investigator is Benjamin Vakoc. The program is part is a one year project. Below is a summary of the work. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) supports research and development of innovative technologies for improving the quality and use of hearing aid devices. Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes the development of a new Ear Canal Optical Coherent Tomography (ECOCT) system to obtain the shape of the individual ear canal and the corresponding 3D image of the ...

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    5. Texas A&M University Receives NIH Grant for Morphological and Molecular Imaging System for In Vivo Atherosclerosis Research

      Texas A&M University Receives NIH Grant for Morphological and Molecular Imaging System for In Vivo Atherosclerosis Research

      Texas A&M University Received a 2013 NIH Grant for $294,979 Morphological and Molecular Imaging System for In Vivo Atherosclerosis Research. The principal investigator is Brian E. Applegate. The program is part of a multiyear program that started in 2012 and ends in 2017. Below is a summary of the work. Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and is characterized as a systemic, progressive disease process in which the arterial wall thickens through a process of inflammation, oxidative stress, and dyslipidemia. This process leads to plaque formation and flow limitation in the ...

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    6. Optical coherence tomography in interventional radiology

      Optical coherence tomography in interventional radiology

      Learning Objectives Understand the theory and mechanisms of optical coherence tomography (OCT) 2. Explain the benefits of OCT compared with other imaging modalities 3. Describe how OCT is performed, emphasizing intravascular techniques Background OCT, a type of optical tomography (OT), has emerging applications in interventional radiology. In OT, light transmitted through objects is measured for volumetric imaging models. In OCT, near-infrared light is used, allowing deeper tissue penetration. OCT has been referred to as “optical ultrasound,” whereby reflections of light from within tissues are imaged, yielding cross-sectional data. OCT images subsurface tissue morphology at near-microscopic resolution higher than US or ...

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    7. Comparison of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) for the Early Diagnosis of Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy in Heart Transplant Patients

      Comparison of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) for the Early Diagnosis of Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy in Heart Transplant Patients

      Purpose Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy (CAV) is one of the leading causes of death after cardiac transplantation. IntraVascular Ultrasound (IVUS) measures the increase in intima-media thickness (IMT) observed in CAV and is more sensitive for diagnosis of CAV than coronary angiography. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), a new intracoronary imaging technique, allows more precise measurement of IMT as compared to IVUS. Objective Demonstrate that OCT is better than IVUS for CAV detection in heart transplant patients. Methods and Materials Comparison of OCT and IVUS in heart transplant patients with or without angiographic CAV, performed during their systematic follow-up coronary angiography. Results Among ...

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    8. Detection of Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy with the New Optical Coherence Tomography in Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients – Initial Experience

      Detection of Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy with the New Optical Coherence Tomography in Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients – Initial Experience

      Purpose Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is the main cause of graft failure in heart transplant (HTx) recipients. Coronary angiography remains the principal tool for CAV in most institutions. However, coronary angiography might miss CAV. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) might be used for visualisation of coronary pahtology in HTx recipients. Methods and Materials OCT is using near infrared light capturing micrometer resolution with three-dimensional imaging. OCT was used with the 5 Fr. Guiding catheter over a 0.014inch guide wire in the left and right coronary artery. OCT was used with a blood free pullback (20 mm/sec) with 100 frames ...

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    9. Predictors and incidence of stent edge dissections in patients with type 2 diabetes as determined by optical coherence tomography

      Predictors and incidence of stent edge dissections in patients with type 2 diabetes as determined by optical coherence tomography

      Patients with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk for post-PCI complications including stent thrombosis and restenosis. Stent edge dissections (SEDs) have been associated with these complications. This study assessed incidence and predictors of SEDs in patients with type 2 diabetes using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Intravascular lesion parameters and plaque morphology were investigated pre- and post-PCI using OCT in 73 type 2 diabetic patients with 90 lesions and 166 visible stent edges. We detected 42 (25.3 %) SEDs in 166 stent edges and 37 (41.1 %) SEDs in 90 lesions. More SEDs occurred if the border of the stent ...

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    10. Very late stent thrombosis after sirolimus-eluting stent implantation: evaluation by intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography

      Very late stent thrombosis after sirolimus-eluting stent implantation: evaluation by intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography

      A 58-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with acute anterior myocardial infarction that occurred 4 years after single sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) implantation in the left anterior descending artery. He had been undergoing continuous dual antiplatelet therapy. Emergency coronary angiography showed total thrombotic occlusion and peri-stent contrast staining at the SES site. The lesion was evaluated using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) after thrombectomy. Vessel remodeling was detected on IVUS, and multiple interstrut hollows and thrombi were observed on OCT. These findings were associated with very late stent thrombosis after SES implantation.

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    11. Spontaneous Recanalization of Coronary Occlusion: Features with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Spontaneous Recanalization of Coronary Occlusion: Features with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Spontaneous recanalization of total coronary occlusions is occasionally found in patients undergoing catheterization. Establishing the accurate diagnosis on angiography can be difficult. 1 We report the case of a 65-yearold man who was referred to our center for a coronary angiogram. His cardiovascular risk factors included hypertension, cigarette smoking, and diabetes. He was completely asymptomatic, with no relevant cardiac or non-cardiac history. The coronary angiogram indicated silent inferior myocardial ischemia, which was documented by scintigraphy. Cardiac enzymes were negative. The electrocardiogram was unremarkable. Transthoracic echocardiography showed normal left ventricular kinetics. The coronary angiogram showed an intermediate stenosis of the left ...

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    12. Imaging Tech Could Lower Heart Disease Deaths

      Imaging Tech Could Lower Heart Disease Deaths

       Under a two-year, $498,325 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase II National Science Foundation grant, Wasatch Photonics Inc. will continue the development of its intravascular optical coherence tomography technique, which shows where lesions and plaques have formed. Physicians can use these images to determine the best course of action, and to resolve issues such as stent placement. The technology will provide a new tool to identify and treat coronary artery disease, which “affects an estimated 16 million Americans and is a primary cause of heart attacks and strokes,” said William J. Brown, vice president of business development. “Identifying and ...

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    13. Imaging technology could lower coronary disease mortality rate

      Imaging technology could lower coronary disease mortality rate

      Wasatch Photonics Press Release - Patients undergoing angioplasty or other heart-related medical procedures could benefit from a new technology being developed with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF). Optical imaging technology from Wasatch Photonics Inc. creates images of coronary artery walls in vivo to show where lesions and plaques have formed. Physicians can use the images to determine the best course of action, including where a stent might be placed. William J. Brown, vice president of business development at Wasatch Photonics, said the outcome of developing the technology will be the availability of a new tool to identify and treat ...

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    14. Coronary Superficial and Spotty Calcium Deposits in Culprit Coronary Lesions of Acute Coronary Syndrome as Determined by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Coronary Superficial and Spotty Calcium Deposits in Culprit Coronary Lesions of Acute Coronary Syndrome as Determined by Optical Coherence Tomography

      The characteristics of coronary artery calcium responsible for vulnerable plaque remain incompletely elucidated. We used optical coherence tomography to investigate the characteristics of coronary calcium in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), unstable angina pectoris (UAP), and stable angina pectoris (SAP). We evaluated calcium deposits in the culprit lesions (30-mm segment) using optical coherence tomography in 187 patients with AMI (n = 44), UAP (n = 73), or SAP (n = 70). The arc, area, and length of calcium were significantly smaller in those with AMI and UAP than in those with SAP (p <0.001). The number of spotty calcium deposits (with an arc ...

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    15. Apparatus, systems, and methods of in-vivo blood clearing in a lumen

      Apparatus, systems, and methods of in-vivo blood clearing in a lumen

      In one aspect, the invention relates to a computer-implemented method of triggering optical coherence tomography data collection. The method includes collecting optical coherence tomography data with respect to a vessel using an optical coherence tomography probe disposed in the vessel; determining a clearing radius and a quality value for each frame of optical coherence tomography data collected for the vessel using a computer; determining if a blood clearing state has occurred using at least one clearing radius and at least one quality value; and generating a trigger signal in response to the blood clearing state

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    16. Vascular Healing Early After Titanium-Nitride-Oxide-Coated Stent Implantation Assessed by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Vascular Healing Early After Titanium-Nitride-Oxide-Coated Stent Implantation Assessed by Optical Coherence Tomography

      The efficacy and safety of titanium -nitride-oxide-coated bioactive stents (BASs) were demonstrated in prior studies. In a prospective registry, we sought to explore the extent of neointimal coverage of stent struts by optical coherence tomography (OCT) at 30 days following the implantation of BASs in an unselected non-diabetic population. Methods. We enrolled 20 consecutive non-diabetic patients who underwent BAS implantation. OCT images were obtained at 30-day follow-up. Binary stent strut coverage was defined as the number of covered struts as a percentage of all analyzed struts. Results. Patients underwent OCT examination at an average of 30.5 ± 5.7 days ...

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    17. Clinical and Research Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging in Coronary Artery Disease (Book Chapter)

      Clinical and Research Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging in Coronary Artery Disease (Book Chapter)

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical analog of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) that allows microscopic visualization of coronary plaque types and intracoronary tissue. The high-resolution images of OCT produce an intense interest in adopting this imaging technique for both clinical and research purposes. In clinical aspects, OCT imaging for undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is feasible and provides superior resolution of arterial pathology than IVUS. During PCI, OCT can assess pre-procedural coronary plaque morphology and acute effects of coronary intervention (dissection, tissue prolapse, thrombi, and incomplete stent apposition (ISA)). Moreover, OCT provides more useful information to consider PCI strategy, such ...

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    18. Optical coherence tomography and hyperspectral imaging of vascular recovery in a model of peripheral arterial disease

      Optical coherence tomography and hyperspectral imaging of vascular recovery in a model of peripheral arterial disease

      Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) leads to an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke, increased mortality, and reduced quality of life. The mouse hind limb ischemia (HLI) model is the most commonly used system for studying the mechanisms of collateral vessel formation and for testing new PAD therapies, but there is a lack of techniques for acquiring physiologically-relevant, quantitative data intravitally in this model. In this work, non-invasive, quantitative optical imaging techniques were applied to the mouse HLI model over a time course. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaged changes in blood flow (Doppler OCT) and microvessel morphology (speckle variance OCT ...

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    19. Very late stent thrombosis after paclitaxel-eluting stent implantation with full neointimal tissue coverage visualized by optical coherence tomography

      Very late stent thrombosis after paclitaxel-eluting stent implantation with full neointimal tissue coverage visualized by optical coherence tomography

      We present findings of a very late stent thrombosis (VLST) involving paclitaxel-eluting stents (PESs) that were fully covered by thin neointima, visualized by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in a patient receiving dual antiplatelet therapy. A 69-year-old Japanese man had been treated with 2 overlapping PESs for chronic coronary artery disease in the proximal right coronary artery. A follow-up coronary computed tomography angiography showed no restenosis in the stent site, and the result of stress myocardial perfusion imaging showed no ischemic changes. Seventeen months after the percutaneous coronary intervention, he was transported to our clinic with a diagnosis of acute myocardial ...

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    20. Appearance of neointima according to stent type and restenotic phase: analysis by optical coherence tomography

      Appearance of neointima according to stent type and restenotic phase: analysis by optical coherence tomography

      Aims: The features of neointima after bare metal stent (BMS) or drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation have not yet been fully characterised. The aim of this study was to investigate in-stent neointima characteristics according to stent type and restenotic phase. Methods and results: The study included 59 consecutive patients undergoing target lesion revascularisation for in-stent restenosis (ISR) evaluated by optical coherence tomography (OCT) during the early phase (≤1 year, n=30) and late phase (>1 year, n=29) after either BMS (n=37) or DES (n=22) implantation. The OCT signal patterns of tissues at the minimal lumen area were categorised ...

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    21. Edge Vascular Response After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention : An Intracoronary Ultrasound and Optical Coherence Tomography Appraisal: From Radioactive Platforms to First- and Second-Generation Drug-Eluting Stents and Bioresorbable Scaffolds

      Edge Vascular Response After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention : An Intracoronary Ultrasound and Optical Coherence Tomography Appraisal: From Radioactive Platforms to First- and Second-Generation Drug-Eluting Stents and Bioresorbable Scaffolds

      The concept of edge vascular response (EVR) was first introduced with bare-metal stents and later with radioactive stents of various activity levels. Although radioactive stents reduced intra-stent neointimal hyperplasia and thereby the incidence of in-stent restenosis in a dose-dependent manner, tissue proliferation at the non-irradiated proximal and distal stent edges resulted in the failure of this invasive treatment. The advent of first- and second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) reduced in-stent restenosis to approximately 5% to 10%, depending on the lesion subset and DES type. When in-segment restenosis (stent and 5-mm proximal and distal margins) occurred, it was most commonly focal and ...

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    22. Optical coherence tomography versus intravascular ultrasound to evaluate coronary artery disease and percutaneous coronary intervention

      Optical coherence tomography versus intravascular ultrasound to evaluate coronary artery disease and percutaneous coronary intervention

      We compared intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and 2 different generations of optical coherence tomography (OCT)—time-domain OCT (TD-OCT) and frequency-domain OCT (FD-OCT)—for the assessment of coronary disease and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using stents. Background OCT is a promising light-based intravascular imaging modality with higher resolution than IVUS. However, the paucity of data on OCT image quantification has limited its application in clinical practice. Methods A total of 227 matched OCT and IVUS pull backs were studied. One hundred FD-OCT and IVUS pull backs in nonstented (n = 56) and stented (n = 44) vessels were compared. Additionally, 127 matched TD-OCT and ...

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    23. Comparison of Ticagrelor Versus Clopidogrel on Residual Thrombus Burden During PCI: an OCT Study

      Comparison of Ticagrelor Versus Clopidogrel on Residual Thrombus Burden During PCI: an OCT Study

      Subjects with acute coronary syndromes scheduled for cardiac catheterization will be enrolled in this study. Subjects that are to be treated clinically with coronary artery stenting will be randomized to receive a loading dose of clopidogrel versus ticagrelor after diagnostic angiography but prior to stenting. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) will be performed after stenting and the presence of blood clots inside the new stent will be measured and compared between the groups.

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    24. Iatrogenic coronary ostial stenosis of left main stem following aortic valve replacement: Visualization with optical coherence tomography

      Iatrogenic coronary ostial stenosis of left main stem following aortic valve replacement: Visualization with optical coherence tomography

      Iatrogenic coronary ostial stenosis following aortic valve replacement (AVR) occurs in up to 3.4% of cases and usually presents within the first 6 months following surgery. We present the case of an 85 year old man who developed an acute coronary syndrome 2 months following AVR. Coronary angiography revealed a severe de novo lesion in the left main stem, which, on optical coherence tomography, was shown to be due to severe intimal hyperplasia. The most likely underlying mechanism is vessel wall trauma caused by the rigid tip cannula used for administration of cardioplegia solution. Surgeons should be aware of ...

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