1. Articles in category: Cardiology

    481-504 of 2408 « 1 2 ... 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 ... 99 100 101 »
    1. Artery phantoms for intravascular optical coherence tomography: diseased arteries

      Artery phantoms for intravascular optical coherence tomography: diseased arteries

      We propose and test various strategies for the creation of artery phantoms mimicking different kinds of diseased arteries when imaged by intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT). We first review the method for making healthy artery phantoms. We then describe the procedure to fabricate diseased artery phantoms with intima thickening, lipid pool, thin-capped fibroatheroma, calcification, and restenosis (homogeneous and layered) after stent apposition. For each case, a phantom is fabricated, an IVOCT image is obtained, and the image is compared to that of a real artery.

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    2. Brigham and Women's Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Coronary Plaque Characterization Utilizing Quantum Optics Approaches with OCT

      Brigham and Women's Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Coronary Plaque Characterization Utilizing Quantum Optics Approaches with OCT

      Brigham and Women's Hospital Received a 2013 NIH Grant for $163,958 for Coronary Plaque Characterization Utilizing Quantum Optics Approaches with OCT. The principal investigator is Mark Brezinski. The program began in 2012 and ends in 2014. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Myocardial infarctions (MI), the leading cause of mortality in industrialized countries, almost exclusively result from the rupture of small, thin walled, lipid filled plaques. When these plaques rupture, they release thrombogenic material into the blood, which leads to clot formation and subsequent vessel occlusion. Until the recent commercial availability of optical coherence tomography (OCT ...

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    3. Insulin resistance is associated with coronary plaque vulnerability: insight from optical coherence tomography analysis

      Insulin resistance is associated with coronary plaque vulnerability: insight from optical coherence tomography analysis

      Aims Previous studies have reported that insulin resistance plays an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. However, the relationship between insulin resistance and coronary plaque instability is not well established. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between insulin resistance and coronary plaque characteristics identified by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods and results This study enrolled 155 consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. OCT image acquisitions were performed in the culprit lesions. Insulin resistance was identified using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Subjects were divided into three tertiles according to the HOMA-IR values ...

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    4. Neointimal patterns obtained by optical coherence tomography correlate with specific histological components and neointimal proliferation in a swine model of restenosis

      Neointimal patterns obtained by optical coherence tomography correlate with specific histological components and neointimal proliferation in a swine model of restenosis

      Aims Although optical coherence tomography (OCT) is capable to detect microscopic peri-strut changes that seem to be related to neointimal inhibition and healing, its ability to characterize these components is still limited. In this study, we aimed to compare different OCT morphological characteristics with different in-stent neointimal tissue types analysed by histology. Methods A total of 69 stents (39 drug eluting and 30 bare metal stents) were implanted in coronary arteries of 27 swine. By OCT, neointimal type was classified as homogeneous, heterogeneous, or layered according to its pattern of backscatter and optical intensity. The resulting optical patterns were correlated ...

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    5. Serum n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio correlates with coronary plaque vulnerability: an optical coherence tomography study

      Serum n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio correlates with coronary plaque vulnerability: an optical coherence tomography study

      A low ratio of eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid (EPA/AA) has been demonstrated to be associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is useful for the assessment of coronary plaque vulnerability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between EPA/AA ratio and coronary plaque vulnerability. This study involved 58 patients with stable angina pectoris undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. OCT image acquisition was performed before the procedure in the culprit lesions. We assessed lipid-rich plaque length and arc, fibrous cap thickness, frequency of thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA), thrombus, ruptured plaque, macrophage infiltration ...

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    6. Relation Among Shear Stress Distribution, Stent Design, and Subsequent Vessel Healing After Drug-eluting Stent Implantation (SHEAR Des)

      Relation Among Shear Stress Distribution, Stent Design, and Subsequent Vessel Healing After Drug-eluting Stent Implantation (SHEAR Des)

      The purpose of this study is to evaluate the differences of wall shear stress distribution among different types of drug-eluting stents and its impact on vessel healing evaluated by intravascular optical coherence tomography evaluation.

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    7. OCT Compared With IVUS in a Coronary Lesion Assessment The OPUS-CLASS Study

      OCT Compared With IVUS in a Coronary Lesion Assessment The OPUS-CLASS Study

      The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) for coronary measurements compared with quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Background Accurate luminal measurement is expected in FD-OCT because this technology offers high resolution and excellent contrast between lumen and vessel wall. Methods In 5 medical centers, 100 patients with coronary artery disease were prospectively studied by using angiography, FD-OCT, and IVUS. In addition, 5 phantom models of known lumen dimensions (lumen diameter 3.08 mm; lumen area 7.45 mm 2 ) were examined using FD-OCT and IVUS. Quantitative image ...

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    8. Optical coherence tomography criteria for defining functional severity of intermediate lesions: a comparative study with FFR

      Optical coherence tomography criteria for defining functional severity of intermediate lesions: a comparative study with FFR

      Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is the gold standard in the assessment of severity of the coronary stenosis. The aim of the study was to compare optical coherence tomography (OCT) obtained intermediate coronary lesions lumen areas measurements with FFR assessments, with the goal to develop an OCT threshold to identify significant coronary stenosis. 48 patients (mean age 65 ± 10 years) was enrolled for the study. Within this population, 71 intermediate coronary lesions were investigated using both FFR and OCT. High dose bolus of Adenosine (120 μg) was used to obtain coronary hyperemia. OCT imaging was performed using non-occlusive technique to assess ...

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    9. Serial Assessment by Optical Coherence Tomography of Early and Late Vascular Responses After Implantation of an Absorbable-Coating Sirolimus-Eluting Stent (from the First-in-Human DESSOLVE I Trial)

      Serial Assessment by Optical Coherence Tomography of Early and Late Vascular Responses After Implantation of an Absorbable-Coating Sirolimus-Eluting Stent (from the First-in-Human DESSOLVE I Trial)

      The initial enthusiasm caused by the potent antirestenotic effect of early generation drug-eluting stents was recently plagued by concerns regarding their safety profile. Investigators worldwide were stimulated, therefore, to seek for improvement in drug-eluting stent technology, such as eliminating their permanent polymer blamed for vascular inflammation and delayed healing. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) assessments of stent-vessel interactions are used as a surrogate for vessel healing after DES implantation. Herewith, we report serial OCT assessments of vascular reactions to the implantation of a novel absorbable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent (MiStent). In total, 30 patients were included. At 4-, 6-, and 8-month follow-up ...

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    10. Catheter with spiral slit terminating in slit termination portion oriented to suppress crack occurrence

      Catheter with spiral slit terminating in slit termination portion oriented to suppress crack occurrence

      A catheter comprising a sheath to be inserted into a living body, wherein the sheath includes a tubular reinforcement layer of at least one layer, which is formed with a spiral slit continuous from the distal side to the proximal side thereof; a termination end of the spiral slit is provided on the proximal side of the slit proximal portion at the site of the proximal side of the spiral slit; and at the same time, there is formed a slit termination portion in which inclination angle of the spiral slit with respect to the circumferential direction of the reinforcement ...

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    11. Renal artery fibromuscular dysplasia: in vivo optical coherence tomography insights

      Renal artery fibromuscular dysplasia: in vivo optical coherence tomography insights

      A 66-year-old woman with long-term essential hypertension presented with poorly controlled blood pressure in spite of six antihypertensive drugs. Percutaneous renal denervation was indicated as a treatment of resistant arterial hypertension. Renal angiography showed ‘strings of beads’ appearance characteristic of fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) in the mid-segment of the right …

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    12. Predictors of Stent Strut Malapposition in Calcified Vessels Using Frequency-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Predictors of Stent Strut Malapposition in Calcified Vessels Using Frequency-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Background and Aims. Malapposition of stent struts to the arterial wall and suboptimal stent expansion have been linked with poor outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The purpose of this study was to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to investigate stent strut malapposition in relation to calcium distribution. Methods and Results. Twenty-three PCI patients underwent OCT before and after stent deployment. Patient and procedural details and lesion characteristics — including the extent and depth of calcification — were measured, and the number of malapposed struts following final postdilatation was quantified. Patient and lesion characteristics associated with malapposition were assessed using univariate and ...

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    13. Quantitative optical coherence tomography tissue-type imaging for lipid-core plaque detection

      Quantitative optical coherence tomography tissue-type imaging for lipid-core plaque detection

      Comparison Between OCT Attenuation Imaging and NIRS for 3 Sites (A) NIRS/IVUS images; (B) OCT and (C) Attenuation coefficient analyzed from the OCT data (color coded 0–12 mm-1). Scale bars are 1 mm. Site 1 (refer to Fig. 1 ): a mixed lesion contains calcifications (bright echos on IVUS with dorsal shadowing; 3–5 o'clock) and lipid-rich tissue (5–10 o'clock). High attenuation (red-orange-yellow) in the plaque (white arrow) coincides with the yellow in the NIRS data. The calcification (marked by c) identified on IVUS and OCT has low attenuation (blue) . Site 2: an eccentric lipid-core plaque ...

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    14. Infraredx Receives $25 Million Investment from Nipro Corporation

      Infraredx Receives $25 Million Investment from Nipro Corporation

      Infraredx, Inc. , a medical device company committed to advancing the diagnosis and management of coronary artery disease, today announced that it has received a $25 million equity investment from Nipro Corporation. This investment builds on Infraredx’s exclusive agreement with Nipro for distribution of its TVC Imaging System in Japan, the world’s largest intravascular imaging market. In conjunction with the investment, a member of Nipro’s management team will join Infraredx’s board of directors. “Nipro’s investment in Infraredx underscores the significant potential of our TVC Imaging System to change the standard of care for patients with coronary ...

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      Mentions: InfraReDx
    15. Prospective Evaluation of Optical Coherence Tomography in Lower Limb Arteries Compared with Intravascular Ultrasound

      Prospective Evaluation of Optical Coherence Tomography in Lower Limb Arteries Compared with Intravascular Ultrasound

      Purpose To compare in a prospective noninferiority study optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in popliteal and infrapopliteal vessels. Materials and Methods OCT and IVUS images of 112 popliteal and infrapopliteal arterial segments were prospectively obtained from 16 patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Three observers evaluated the corresponding OCT and IVUS images for image quality, artifact frequency, discriminability of vessel wall layers, and plaque composition. Measurements of the lumen, vessel, and plaque areas were compared for both modalities. Results The intrareader and interreader reproducibility of plaque tissue discrimination (0.88 vs 0.75), overall image quality, and ...

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    16. Pathological insights of a woven coronary artery with optical coherence tomography

      Pathological insights of a woven coronary artery with optical coherence tomography

      A 78-year-old male was admitted to our centre because of III/IV CCS stable angina despite optimal medical treatment. Stress-induced myocardial ischaemia was demonstrated by SPECT in the inferior wall ( Panel A ), and a coronary angiography was performed. Severe coronary stenosis was observed in the first diagonal and in the circumflex. The right coronary artery (RC A )

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    17. Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography evaluation of a left main bifurcation lesion treated with ABSORB® bioresorbable vascular scaffold including fenestration and dilatation of the side branch - Corrected Proof

      Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography evaluation of a left main bifurcation lesion treated with ABSORB® bioresorbable vascular scaffold including fenestration and dilatation of the side branch - Corrected Proof

      Previous trials on the ABSORB (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, USA) everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) were predominated by relatively low-risk lesions, excluding patients with left main coronary artery (LMCA) lesions and bifurcation lesions involving side branches >2mm . Little is known about the safety and feasibility of fenestration and dilation of the side branch ostium after BVS placement .

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    18. Intravascular OCT and FFR used on Former President George Bush?

      Intravascular OCT and FFR used on Former President George Bush?

      When former President George W. Bush had stent implanted to help clear a blocked artery on Aug. 6, some doctors called into question whether the procedure was necessary. Dr. William Felten, an interventional cardiologists with MidMichigan Physicians Group, says the only people who can know if the decision was right for the former president are Bush and his doctors. Without seeing the specifics of Bush’s medical history, it is hard to criticize the choice, Felten said. Bush, 67, went in for his annual physical and reportedly had no symptoms, but a stress test indicated an issue. Bush then had ...

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      Mentions: St. Jude Medical
    19. Elevated Levels of Systemic Pentraxin 3 Are Associated With Thin-Cap Fibroatheroma in Coronary Culprit Lesion: Assessment by Optical Coherence Tomography and Intravascular Ultrasound

      Elevated Levels of Systemic Pentraxin 3 Are Associated With Thin-Cap Fibroatheroma in Coronary Culprit Lesion: Assessment by Optical Coherence Tomography and Intravascular Ultrasound

      Objectives This study sought to determine whether systemic levels of pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a novel inflammatory marker, are associated with thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA). Background Biomarkers predicting the presence of TCFA in vivo have not been established. Methods We evaluated 75 patients (stable angina pectoris, n = 47; acute coronary syndrome, n = 28) with de novo culprit lesions who were examined by optical coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound. We defined TCFA as lipid-rich plaque with a fibrous cap <65 μm thick. Systemic levels of PTX3 were compared between patients with and without TCFA. Results Thirty-eight and 37 patients with and without TCFA ...

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    20. View point: what should the future design of clinical imaging studies be?

      View point: what should the future design of clinical imaging studies be?

      Coronary artery disease (CAD) is primarily a structural disease characterized by the build-up of atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries. With progressive impingement on coronary blood flow, a given coronary stenosis will elicit functional consequences that are described by the ‘ischaemic cascade’ and emerge progressively as inducible changes of perfusion, wall motion, and electrocardiogram, and finally manifest as chest pain ( Figure 1 ). Thus, definitions for clinically significant CAD may vary considerably based on whether rather anatomical vs. functional criteria are used ( Table 1 ).

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    21. Diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography parameters in predicting in-stent hemodynamic severe coronary lesions: Validation against fractional flow reserve

      Diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography parameters in predicting in-stent hemodynamic severe coronary lesions: Validation against fractional flow reserve

      Background By means of optical coherence tomography (OCT), coronary dimensions can be assessed accurately. However, whether OCT can identify hemodynamic significant coronary lesions as determined by fractional flow reserve (FFR) in patients with an in-stent lesion is not known. Therefore, we tried to assess the predictive value of OCT parameters in this setting as compared to FFR. Methods and results In patients who underwent a percutaneous coronary intervention for an in-stent restenotic lesion, pre-, post-procedural and 6-month follow-up OCT and FFR acquisitions were performed. In case of an FFR ≤ 0.80, a lesion was classified as hemodynamically severe. Diagnostic efficiency ...

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    22. Automatic lumen segmentation in IVOCT images using binary morphological reconstruction

      Automatic lumen segmentation in IVOCT images using binary morphological reconstruction

      BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis causes millions of deaths, annually yielding billions in expenses round the world. Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IVOCT) is a medical imaging modality, which displays high resolution images of coronary cross-section. Nonetheless, quantitative information can only be obtained with segmentation; consequently, more adequate diagnostics, therapies and interventions can be provided. Since it is a relatively new modality, many different segmentation methods, available in the literature for other modalities, could be successfully applied to IVOCT images, improving accuracies and uses. METHOD: An automatic lumen segmentation approach, based on Wavelet Transform and Mathematical Morphology, is presented. The methodology is divided into ...

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    23. Safety and efficacy of saline infusion for optical coherence tomography evaluation of vascular lesion induced by renal nerve ablation

      Safety and efficacy of saline infusion for optical coherence tomography evaluation of vascular lesion induced by renal nerve ablation

      Renal nerve ablation (RNA) using radiofrequency (RF) catheter-based has been recently proposed for the treatment of severe drug-resistant hypertension . Despite preliminary animal studies showing the safety and efficacy of this procedure, recent in-human studies highlighted the possibility of vascular lesions following RF emission . Templin et al. recently evaluated 32 renal arteries before and after the RNA-procedure using optical coherence tomography (OCT) .

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    24. Treatment of acute left internal mammary artery graft failure using a bio-absorbable scaffold, guided by 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography

      Treatment of acute left internal mammary artery graft failure using a bio-absorbable scaffold, guided by 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography

      A 42year old Caucasian male presented with sudden onset chest pain, associated with diaphoresis, and nausea. He had experienced similar brief episode earlier that week. Cardiac risk factors included hypercholesterolemia (fasting level 6.85mmol/l), uncompliant with statin therapy and a smoker of 10–15 cigarettes per day. He had recently been diagnosed with type II diabetes.

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