1. Articles in category: Cardiology

    1-24 of 3906 1 2 3 4 ... 161 162 163 »
    1. Exploring the use of intracoronary imaging devices such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), as a means of focusing on the prediction and prevention of coronary artery disease

      Exploring the use of intracoronary imaging devices such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), as a means of focusing on the prediction and prevention of coronary artery disease

      Following on from a previous finding that there was a significant association between the increase in inflammatory monocytes after AMI and microcirculation impairment, and another that direct rennin inhibitors mediate the suppression of inflammatory monocytes after AMI to improve myocardial relief rate, the researchers are setting out to: discover the significance of peripheral blood monocytes in microcirculation impairment; clarify the influence of renin/aldosterone (the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is the most important system involved in the regulation of systemic blood pressure, renal blood flow, and monocytes recruitment); and establish a treatment. Initially, the team conducted clinical research involving 50 patients with ...

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      Mentions: Yuichi Ozaki
    2. Coronary Atherosclerotic Phenotype and Plaque Healing in Patients With Recurrent Acute Coronary Syndromes Compared With Patients With Long-term Clinical Stability An In Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Coronary Atherosclerotic Phenotype and Plaque Healing in Patients With Recurrent Acute Coronary Syndromes Compared With Patients With Long-term Clinical Stability An In Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Importance At one end of the coronary artery disease (CAD) spectrum, there are patients with multiple recurrent acute coronary syndromes (rACS), and at the other end there are those with long-standing clinical stability. Predicting the natural history of these patients is challenging because unstable plaques often heal without resulting in ACS. Objective To assess in vivo the coronary atherosclerotic phenotype as well as the prevalence and characteristics of healed coronary plaques by optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging in patients at the extremes of the CAD spectrum. Design, Setting, and Participants This is an observational, single-center cohort study with prospective clinical ...

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    3. Automatic segmentation of optical coherence tomography pullbacks of coronary arteries treated with bioresorbable vascular scaffolds: Application to hemodynamics modeling

      Automatic segmentation of optical coherence tomography pullbacks of coronary arteries treated with bioresorbable vascular scaffolds: Application to hemodynamics modeling

      Background / Objectives Automatic algorithms for stent struts segmentation in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of coronary arteries have been developed over the years, particularly with application on metallic stents. The aim of this study is three-fold: (1) to develop and to validate a segmentation algorithm for the detection of both lumen contours and polymeric bioresorbable scaffold struts from 8-bit OCT images, (2) to develop a method for automatic OCT pullback quality assessment, and (3) to demonstrate the applicability of the segmentation algorithm for the creation of patient-specific stented coronary artery for local hemodynamics analysis. Methods The proposed OCT segmentation algorithm ...

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    4. Effect of Heart Rate on Early Progression of Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy: A Prospective Study Using Highly Automated 3-D Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis

      Effect of Heart Rate on Early Progression of Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy: A Prospective Study Using Highly Automated 3-D Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis

      Purpose Despite the controversial effect of elevated heart rate on progression of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), heart-rate-slowing agents are frequently prescribed with the assumption that higher heart rate predicts worse outcomes in cardiovascular disease. Methods This prospective 2-center trial investigated progression of CAV in 116 heart transplant (HTx) patients. Both baseline (1 month after HTx) and follow-up (12 months after HTx) examinations by coronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) were analyzed using highly automated 3D graph-based segmentation software. Mean heart rate was assessed by 24-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring at baseline and at 12-month follow-ups after HTx. Results During the first post-transplant ...

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    5. Techniques to Optimize the Use of Optical Coherence Tomography: Insights From the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) Database

      Techniques to Optimize the Use of Optical Coherence Tomography: Insights From the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) Database

      Background/Purpose Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution intravascular imaging modality used to assess coronary arteries and as an adjunctive tool for optimization of percutaneous coronary interventions. Overall, the rate of complications and adverse events related to intravascular imaging is low. Limited data exist on the most commonly reported complications and modes of failure related to the use of OCT. Therefore, we analyzed the post-marketing surveillance data from the Food and Drug Administration Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database to assess the reported complications and failure modes for OCT and reviewed techniques to optimize device use. Methods ...

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    6. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: Pathophysiological Insights From Optical Coherence Tomography

      Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: Pathophysiological Insights From Optical Coherence Tomography

      Objectives This study used optical coherence tomography to investigate the mechanism of false lumen (FL) formation in spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) by studying: 1) differences between fenestrated and nonfenestrated SCAD; 2) vasa vasorum density; and 3) light attenuation characteristics of the FL. Background SCAD is an increasingly recognized cause of acute coronary syndromes , characterized by FL formation and compression of the true lumen (TL). The mechanisms underlying FL formation remain poorly understood. Methods A total of 65 SCAD patients (68 vessels) who underwent acute OCT imaging as part of routine clinical care were included. Images were classified by the ...

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    7. Optocardiography: A Review of its Past, Present and Future

      Optocardiography: A Review of its Past, Present and Future

      Cardiac electrophysiology has progressed in great strides since the electrical activity of the heart was first discovered in 1842 and documented using electrocardiography. Optical imaging of cardiac electrophysiology, or optocardiography, has seen many advances in recent years including panoramic imaging of the heart, alternating transillumination to image transmural electrical activity, optogenetic models and customizable 3D printed optical mapping systems. Most of these techniques were adopted from other fields of study and refined for cardiac electrophysiology purposes. The future of this field could see similar adaptations of photoacoustic tomography, structured light technology and optical coherence tomography contributing to optocardiography.

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    8. Percutaneous coronary intervention for a Chinese familial hypercholesterolemia homozygous under the guidance of optical coherence tomography

      Percutaneous coronary intervention for a Chinese familial hypercholesterolemia homozygous under the guidance of optical coherence tomography

      Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia developed into severe cardiovascular consequences early. Untreated HoFH usually cannot survive over 30 years old. Acute coronary syndrome(ACS) caused by plaque rupture is one of the main causes of death in HoFH. As the highest resolution intravascular imaging technique, optical coherence tomography(OCT) can clearly show the thickness and structural characteristics of atherosclerotic plaque caps. In this study, a Chinese male HoFH received percutaneous coronary intervention for unstable angina . After analyzed his genetic and follow-up data, OCT was performed during interventional therapy . Multiple lipid rich plaques accompanied with inflammatory cell infiltration and a thin-cap fibroatheroma(TCFA ...

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    9. Conavi Medical Announces Health Canada Approval of Novasight Hybrid System for Visualization During Coronary Angioplasty Procedures

      Conavi Medical Announces Health Canada Approval of Novasight Hybrid System for Visualization During Coronary Angioplasty Procedures

      Conavi Medical Inc. is pleased to announce that it has received a Health Canada Medical Device License for the Novasight Hybrid System. This patented technology is the only clinical system that enables simultaneous imaging of coronary arteries with both intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT), and was invented at Sunnybrook Research Institute. Angioplasty and stenting is performed four million times around the world every year as an important part of the treatment of coronary artery disease, including patients suffering from heart attacks and angina. Recent randomized studies with existing IVUS systems have shown that intravascular imaging has the ...

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    10. Determination of the Duration of the Dual Antiplatelet Therapy by the Degree of the Coverage of The Struts on Optical Coherence Tomography From the Randomized Comparison Between Everolimus-eluting Stents Versus Biolimus A9-eluting Stents

      Determination of the Duration of the Dual Antiplatelet Therapy by the Degree of the Coverage of The Struts on Optical Coherence Tomography From the Randomized Comparison Between Everolimus-eluting Stents Versus Biolimus A9-eluting Stents

      This study is a retrospective and prospective follow-up study of patients who were participating in a randomized comparative study (DETECT-OCT trial) to determine the duration of dual antiplatelet therapy for neointimal hyperplasia after Biolimus stent and Everolimus stent insertion . The primary objective of this study was to determine the duration of double antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) based on OCT results at 3 months after percutaneous coronary intervention with OCT guide and percutaneous coronary intervention with guided angiography. After that, patients who were enrolled in the previous DETECT-OCT study will be followed up for a 10 years follow-up.

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    11. Automated analysis of intravascular OCT image volumes

      Automated analysis of intravascular OCT image volumes

      This disclosure provides systems and methods to automatically classify stent struts as covered or uncovered and to measure the thickness of tissue coverage. As one example, the method includes storing three-dimensional image data acquired intravascularly via an optical coherence tomography (OCT) apparatus and detecting struts based on analysis of the image data. Image data corresponding to each of the detected struts is further analyzed automatically to compute an indication of tissue coverage for the stent.

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    12. Establishment of an Automated Algorithm Utilizing Optical Coherence Tomography and Micro-Computed Tomography Imaging to Reconstruct the 3-D Deformed Stent Geometry

      Establishment of an Automated Algorithm Utilizing Optical Coherence Tomography and Micro-Computed Tomography Imaging to Reconstruct the 3-D Deformed Stent Geometry

      Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the prevalent treatment for coronary artery disease, with hundreds of thousands of stents implanted annually. Computational studies have demonstrated the role of biomechanics in the failure of vascular stents, but clinical studies is this area are limited by a lack of understanding of the deployed stent geometry, which is required to accurately model and predict the stent-induced in vivo biomechanical environment. Herein, we present an automated method to reconstruct the 3-D deployed stent configuration through the fusion of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and micro-computed tomography ( μ CT) imaging data. In an experimental setup, OCT and μ CT ...

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    13. Mechanical performance and healing patterns of the novel sirolimus-eluting bioresorbable Fantom scaffold: 6-month and 9-month follow-up by optical coherence tomography in the FANTOM II study

      Mechanical performance and healing patterns of the novel sirolimus-eluting bioresorbable Fantom scaffold: 6-month and 9-month follow-up by optical coherence tomography in the FANTOM II study

      Objectives We aimed to evaluate the mechanical properties and healing patterns 6 and 9 months after implantation of the sirolimus-eluting Fantom bioresorbable scaffold (BRS). Background The Fantom BRS (Reva Medical, San Diego, USA) has differentiating properties including radiopacity, strut thickness of 125 µm, high expansion capacity and has demonstrated favourable mid-term clinical and angiographic outcomes. Methods and results FANTOM II was a prospective, single arm study with implantation of the Fantom BRS in 240 patients with stable angina pectoris. Guidance by optical coherence tomography (OCT) was encouraged and was repeated at 6-month (cohort A) or 9-month follow-up (cohort B). Matched ...

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    14. Coronary artery fenestration as rescue management of intramural haematoma with luminal compression

      Coronary artery fenestration as rescue management of intramural haematoma with luminal compression

      Conservative management is the first‐line treatment for spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) with stable haemodynamic status and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction three flow on angiography. However, in a few very specific patients, recurrent ischemia, or haemodynamic instability necessitates revascularization. Here, we describe a case of successful optical coherence tomography (OCT)‐guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with a cutting balloon. We performed fenestration at multiple decompression sites prior to stenting in an intramural haematoma with luminal compression. Rescue management of SCAD with luminal compression is a critical issue, because SCAD is an emergent clinical condition affecting young patients with a ...

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    15. Doppler optical coherence tomography images based on cascaded U-net architecture

      Doppler optical coherence tomography images based on cascaded U-net architecture

      Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of vessels after anastomosis procedures can provide high resolution structure and blood flow imaging of the vessel simultaneously for objective surgical evaluation. Automatic boundary segmentation of the outer vessel wall boundary and its inner lumen contour is a very crucial and fundamental step for the responsive and complicated quantitative analysis required in future clinical applications of Doppler OCT imaging. In this work, we proposed a cascaded U-net (CU-net) architecture to segment the vascular intensity image and its corresponding phase image for the outer vessel wall boundary and the inner blood flowing lumen contour, respectively ...

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      Mentions: Yong Huang
    16. OCT-IVUS catheter for concurrent luminal imaging

      OCT-IVUS catheter for concurrent luminal imaging

      The invention relates to an apparatus for in vivo imaging. More specifically, the present invention relates to a catheter that incorporates an Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) system and an Intravascular Ultrasound ("IVUS) system for concurrent imaging of luminal systems, such as imaging the vasculature system, including, without limitation, cardiac vasculature, peripheral vasculature and neural vasculature.

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    17. Intravascular imaging user interface systems and methods

      Intravascular imaging user interface systems and methods

      In part, the disclosure relates to intravascular data collections and generation of representations thereof include one or more view of regions associated with side branches or arteries such as a carina or bifurcation. In one embodiment, accessing a set of intravascular data stored in machine readable memory; performing side branch detection with regard to the intravascular data to identify one or more side branches; and identifying a plurality of frames for the one or more side branches is performed. An automatic viewing angle that is toggleable is used in one embodiment.

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      Mentions: St. Jude Medical
    18. Cardiac muscle energetics: Improved normalisation of heat using optical coherence tomography

      Cardiac muscle energetics: Improved normalisation of heat using optical coherence tomography

      Heat liberated from isolated cardiac muscle has been used to inform us of thermo-mechanical processes that occur during a contraction. However, for comparisons between different samples to be useful, the heat output needs to be normalized to volume. We have implemented an optical coherence tomograph (OCT), together with a flow-through calorimeter, to accurately determine both muscle volume and heat in the same measurement chamber. The heat rate for multiple stimulation frequencies were recorded and normalized to the volume captured by the OCT. There was a ~15 % difference in the volume estimated by the OCT compared to the standard 1D approximation ...

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    19. Identification of Risk Factors for Acute Coronary Events by Optical Coherence Tomography After STEMI and NSTEMI in Patients With Residual Non-flow Limiting Lesions

      Identification of Risk Factors for Acute Coronary Events by Optical Coherence Tomography After STEMI and NSTEMI in Patients With Residual Non-flow Limiting Lesions

      Despite major advances in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes a large proportion of patients is still at risk for new coronary events after experiencing an ACS. Detection of residual vulnerable plaques after ACS using OCT potentially identifies patients at high risk for new coronary events. However, no prospectively collected data on the prognostic power of OCT for plaque rupture are available at this moment. To design trials aimed to reduce events in patients with vulnerable plaques it is required to collect such prospective data on the relation between OCT derived characteristics of vulnerability and clinical outcome.

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    20. Stabilization of High Risk Coronary Plaque on Optical Coherence Tomography and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy by Intensive Lipid-Lowering Therapy With Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) Inhibitor

      Stabilization of High Risk Coronary Plaque on Optical Coherence Tomography and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy by Intensive Lipid-Lowering Therapy With Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) Inhibitor

      A 70-year-old woman with hypertension and dyslipidemia underwent drug-eluting stent implantation in the mid-left anterior descending artery (LAD) due to acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) during the index procedure showed lipid-rich plaque in non-culprit lesions of the proximal LAD and mid-right coronary artery (Figure B,E). Near-infrared spectroscopy-intravascular ultrasound (NIRS-IVUS) showed plaque with high lipid burden in both sites (Figure C,F). Intensive lipid-lowering therapy with combined strong statin and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor was started after the index procedure. Scheduled 10-month follow-up OCT and NIRS-IVUS showed increase in minimum fibrous cap thickness ...

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    21. 4-D Computational Modeling of Cardiac Outflow Tract Hemodynamics over Looping Developmental Stages in Chicken Embryos

      4-D Computational Modeling of Cardiac Outflow Tract Hemodynamics over Looping Developmental Stages in Chicken Embryos

      Cardiogenesis is interdependent with blood flow within the embryonic system. Recently, a number of studies have begun to elucidate the effects of hemodynamic forces acting upon and within cells as the cardiovascular system begins to develop. Changes in flow are picked up by mechanosensors in endocardial cells exposed to wall shear stress (the tangential force exerted by blood flow) and by myocardial and mesenchymal cells exposed to cyclic strain (deformation). Mechanosensors stimulate a variety of mechanotransduction pathways which elicit functional cellular responses in order to coordinate the structural development of the heart and cardiovascular system. The looping stages of heart ...

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    22. Vascular Stress Analysis During in vivo Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

      Vascular Stress Analysis During in vivo Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

      Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) has been employed to clinical coronary imaging for several years. But the influence of flushing and OCT catheter to the blood vessel biomechanical properties have not been studied. In this paper, IVOCT imaging is integrated with the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation to study the blood flow velocity and the stress distribution of a porcine carotid artery during IVOCT imaging. 3D geometric model is built based on the in vivo OCT images, and a hyperelastic model is employed for the material properties of the vascular wall. The blood flow profile and wall stress distributions under various ...

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