1. Articles in category: Cardiology

    1-24 of 3234 1 2 3 4 ... 133 134 135 »
    1. Optical coherence tomography lumen morphology and vascular resistance measurements methods for blood vessel evaluations

      Optical coherence tomography lumen morphology and vascular resistance measurements methods for blood vessel evaluations

      A method and apparatus of automatically locating in an image of a blood vessel the lumen boundary at a position in the vessel and from that measuring the diameter of the vessel. From the diameter of the vessel and estimated blood flow rate, a number of clinically significant physiological parameters are then determined and various user displays of interest generated. One use of these images and parameters is to aid the clinician in the placement of a stent. The system, in one embodiment, uses these measurements to allow the clinician to simulate the placement of a stent and to determine ...

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    2. New technique yields healthier blood vessels after heart surgery

      New technique yields healthier blood vessels after heart surgery

      New technique yields healthier blood vessels after heart surgery February 17, 2017 Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology have investigated the effect of a new method that involves removing tissue around the veins to be transplanted with the veins during a cardiac bypass surgery. The idea is that this leads to less damage of vessel walls during transplant.

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    3. Mapping the human atria with optical coherence tomography

      Mapping the human atria with optical coherence tomography

      Atrial structure plays an important role in the mechanisms of atrial disease. However, detailed imaging of human atria remains limited due to many imaging modalities lacking sufficient resolution. We propose the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT), which has micrometer resolution and millimeter-scale imaging depth well-suited for the atria, combined with image stitching algorithms, to develop large, detailed atria image maps. Human atria samples (n = 7) were obtained under approved protocols from the National Disease Research Interchange (NDRI). One right atria sample was imaged using an ultrahigh-resolution spectral domain OCT system, with 5.52 and 2.72 μm lateral and ...

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    4. Accuracy of computed tomography angiography to identify thin-cap fibroatheroma detected by optical coherence tomography

      Accuracy of computed tomography angiography to identify thin-cap fibroatheroma detected by optical coherence tomography

      Background Thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) is assumed to cause acute coronary syndromes. Objective To compare the accuracy of different models for diagnosing TCFA using parameters derived by CT, validated against optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods One hundred twenty-nine plaques in 106 patients were analyzed using data acquired by 64-row CT with a reconstruction thickness of 0.67 mm and an increment of 0.33 mm. TCFA was defined by OCT as a plaque with lipid content in ≥2 quadrants and the thinnest part of the fibrous cap measuring ≤65 μm. The following parameters were obtained from CT: remodeling index (RI), proportion ...

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    5. Characterization of ventricular endomyocardial tissue using optical coherence tomography

      Characterization of ventricular endomyocardial tissue using optical coherence tomography

      We present an initial study to describe the potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for characterizing endomyocardial tissue. We obtained ventricular OCT images from 15 fresh human hearts. Layer thickness measurements and texture features were extracted from volumetric datasets with endocardial thickening, normal myocardium, myocardium with interstitial fibrosis, normal endocardium, and adipose tissue. Within our datasets, we observed that the thickness of endocardium was not different within samples with normal or myocardium with interstitial fibrosis, however samples with endocardial thickening showed statistically increased endocardial thickness.

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    6. Live dynamic analysis of the developing cardiovascular system in mice

      Live dynamic analysis of the developing cardiovascular system in mice

      The study of the developing cardiovascular system in mice is important for understanding human cardiogenesis and congenital heart defects. Our research focuses on imaging early development in the mouse embryo to specifically understand cardiovascular development under the regulation of dynamic factors like contractile force and blood flow using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We have previously developed an OCT based approach that combines static embryo culture and advanced image processing with computational modeling to live-image mouse embryos and obtain 4D (3D+time) cardiodynamic datasets. Here we present live 4D dynamic blood flow imaging of the early embryonic mouse heart in correlation ...

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    7. Relationship between quantities of tissue prolapse after percutaneous coronary intervention and neointimal hyperplasia at follow-up on serial optical coherence tomography examination

      Relationship between quantities of tissue prolapse after percutaneous coronary intervention and neointimal hyperplasia at follow-up on serial optical coherence tomography examination

      The clinical significance of the extent of tissue prolapse (TP) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for long-term outcomes remains undetermined. This study investigated the relationship between the quantities of TP immediately after PCI and neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) at follow-up on serial optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination.

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    8. Analysis of Craniocardiac Malformations in Xenopus using Optical Coherence Tomography : Scientific Reports

      Analysis of Craniocardiac Malformations in Xenopus using Optical Coherence Tomography : Scientific Reports

      Birth defects affect 3% of children in the United States. Among the birth defects, congenital heart disease and craniofacial malformations are major causes of mortality and morbidity. Unfortunately, the genetic mechanisms underlying craniocardiac malformations remain largely uncharacterized. To address this, human genomic studies are identifying sequence variations in patients, resulting in numerous candidate genes. However, the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis for most candidate genes are unknown. Therefore, there is a need for functional analyses in rapid and efficient animal models of human disease. Here, we coupled the frog Xenopus tropicalis with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to create a fast and ...

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    9. Coronary Artery Rupture after Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold Implantation Resolved with Graft Stent: Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment

      Coronary Artery Rupture after Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold Implantation Resolved with Graft Stent: Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment

      Coronary artery perforation (CAP) is an infrequent and lifethreatening complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), requiring prompt intervention because it may lead to pericardial effusion frequently accompanied by tamponade. Due to the expanding volume of PCI procedures worldwide, a rapid increase in the number of CAP cases has been observed in the last decades [1]. The case presentation A 52-year-old male with prior history of smoking and drug consumption (cocaine and heroin) was admitted with unstable angina and mild anterior wall hipokinesia. Due to these findings, we referred him for catheterization. The angiogram revealed difuse calcified artery disease with severe ...

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    10. Comparison between Preoperative Optical Coherence Tomography Findings of Carotid Artery Stenosis and Pathological Specimen of Removed Carotid Plaque: Case Report

      Comparison between Preoperative Optical Coherence Tomography Findings of Carotid Artery Stenosis and Pathological Specimen of Removed Carotid Plaque: Case Report

      Objective: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has recently been applied for the characterization of carotid plaques, but few studies have compared OCT findings with findings from histopathologic examination of carotid plaques. We consider the accuracy, problems, and limitation of OCT findings by comparing OCT findings of carotid artery stenosis and pathological specimen of removed carotid plaque, and confirm that the interpretation of coronary artery findings of OCT can be applied to OCT findings of carotid artery plaque. Case Presentation: A 63-year-old man with asymptomatic left carotid stenosis underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Findings for histopathologic assessment of excised plaque were compared with ...

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    11. Coronary Plaque Characteristics in Hemodialysis-Dependent Patients as Assessed by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Coronary Plaque Characteristics in Hemodialysis-Dependent Patients as Assessed by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Coronary arteries in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been shown to exhibit more extensive atherosclerosis and calcium. We aimed to assess characteristics of coronary plaque in hemodialysis (HD)-dependent patients using optical coherence tomography (OCT). This was a multicenter, retrospective study of 124 patients with stable angina who underwent OCT imaging. Sixty-two HD-dependent patients who underwent pre-intervention OCT for coronary artery disease (CAD) were compared 1:1 with a cohort of patients without CKD, matched for age, diabetes mellitus, sex, and culprit vessel. Baseline characteristics were comparable. Pre-intervention OCT imaging identified 62 paired culprit, 53 paired non-culprit, and ...

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    12. Deep feature learning for automatic tissue classification of coronary artery using optical coherence tomography

      Deep feature learning for automatic tissue classification of coronary artery using optical coherence tomography

      Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute childhood disease complicated by coronary artery aneurysms, intima thickening, thrombi, stenosis, lamellar calcifications, and disappearance of the media border. Automatic classification of the coronary artery layers (intima, media, and scar features) is important for analyzing optical coherence tomography (OCT) images recorded in pediatric patients. OCT has been known as an intracoronary imaging modality using near-infrared light which has recently been used to image the inner coronary artery tissues of pediatric patients, providing high spatial resolution (ranging from 10 to 20 μ m). This study aims to develop a robust and fully automated tissue classification method ...

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    13. Fate of post-procedural malapposition of everolimus-eluting polymeric bioresorbable scaffold and everolimus-eluting cobalt chromium metallic stent in human coronary arteries: sequential assessment with optical coherence tomography in ABSORB Japan trial

      Fate of post-procedural malapposition of everolimus-eluting polymeric bioresorbable scaffold and everolimus-eluting cobalt chromium metallic stent in human coronary arteries: sequential assessment with optical coherence tomography in ABSORB Japan trial

      Aims The natural course of post-procedural incomplete strut apposition (ISA) after the implantation of bioresorbable scaffolds (BVS) remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the fate of post-procedural ISA after everolimus-eluting Absorb BVS in comparison with the second-generation everolimus-eluting cobalt chromium stent (CoCr-EES). Methods and results Fate of post-procedural ISA was evaluated by serial optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the ABSORB Japan randomized trial [OCT-1 subgroup: 110 paired lesions of post-procedure and 2-year follow-up (BVS 73 lesions vs. CoCr-EES 37 lesions)] with respect to ISA distance. Post-procedure ISA struts were categorized into either ‘resolved’ or ‘persistent ...

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    14. Automatic Fibroatheroma Identification from Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Automatic Fibroatheroma Identification from Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Vulnerable plaque identification is important in coronary heart disease diagnosis. Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IVOCT) is an imaging modality which can characterize the appearance of vulnerable plaques. However, current used manual reading of the images is time consuming and subjective. Therefore, an automated and objective assessment of the plaque is necessary. This paper proposes a method for automatic identification of potential vulnerable plaque such as fibroatheroma in IVOCT images. In the proposed method, a graph search based method is applied to detect the region of interest (ROI) including the inner lumen border and outer border. Then various appearance features including ...

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    15. Visualization of extensive intraplaque neovascularization by optical coherence tomography

      Visualization of extensive intraplaque neovascularization by optical coherence tomography

      Inflammation plays a key role in pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis (1) . Advent of novel intravascular imaging tools such as Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has led to visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaque characteristics in vivo that were previously seen only on histology. Herein we discuss a case of extensive neovascularization, a feature that imparts vulnerability to atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary artery, as seen by two- and three-dimensional OCT images. A 63-year-old female with history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension presented with troponin-positive chest pain. She underwent coronary angiography followed by drug-eluting stent implantation to the mid segment of right ...

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    16. Optical coherence tomography to identify the cause of an arrhythmic storm: A case report

      Optical coherence tomography to identify the cause of an arrhythmic storm: A case report

      A 56-year-old man experienced an aborted sudden death followed by an arrhythmic storm. Angiography revealed a non-severe lesion on the left circumflex artery that was treated medically but an arrhythmic storm recurred. A repeat angiogram was comparable but optical coherence tomography imaging revealed a ruptured plaque with intraluminal thrombosis. Percutaneous coronary intervention was performed and no arrhythmia recurred.

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    17. Relationship between yellow plaque grade and tissue protrusion after stent implantation: A coronary angioscopy study

      Relationship between yellow plaque grade and tissue protrusion after stent implantation: A coronary angioscopy study

      Background Tissue protrusion detected with optical coherence tomography after percutaneous coronary intervention using stents is one of the risk factors for early stent thrombosis. However, tissue protrusion features have not been described. The aim of this study was to compare tissue morphology at stented sites with or without tissue protrusion by using coronary angioscopy. Methods Using optical coherence tomography and coronary angioscopy, we assessed 42 patients [31 men, 11 women; age, 70.7 ± 7.4 years; acute coronary syndrome (ACS), n = 19; effort angina pectoris (EAP), n = 23] after stenting. Results Twenty patients had tissue protrusion. ACS patients had a ...

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    18. Coronary artery aneurysm after implantation of a bioresorbable vascular scaffold: Case report and literature review

      Coronary artery aneurysm after implantation of a bioresorbable vascular scaffold: Case report and literature review

      A 55-year-old man underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention for the middle left circumflex artery with a 3.5 × 28-mm bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS). At 18 months, follow-up coronary angiography showed ectatic change with aneurysm formation over the BVS. Optical coherence tomography revealed absence of strut continuity at the aneurysm site, in the middle of the BVS. A literature review identified nine patients with intrascaffold aneurysm, including the present patient, which developed 6–32 months after BVS implantation. Of these nine patients, four underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion. The pathogenesis of coronary artery aneurysm is multifactorial. Most patients ...

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    19. Intraluminal bioresorbable vascular scaffold dismantling with aneurysm formation leading to very late thrombosis

      Intraluminal bioresorbable vascular scaffold dismantling with aneurysm formation leading to very late thrombosis

      Coronary artery aneurysm formation has been described in patients after the placement of first-generation drug-eluting stents (DES), but is less common with newer generation metallic stents. In contrast, coronary artery aneurysm formation may be more common with the use of bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) due to the frequent formation of evaginations in the arterial wall seen with BVS. In this article, we describe a unique case of BVS dismantling and thrombus formation leading to an acute coronary syndrome thirty-two months after initial BVS placement. We also discuss existing literature and the pathophysiology of BVS degradation, in addition to the utility ...

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      Mentions: Gregg W. Stone
    20. Classification of mechanisms of strut malapposition after angiographically optimized stent implantation: An optical coherence tomography study

      Classification of mechanisms of strut malapposition after angiographically optimized stent implantation: An optical coherence tomography study

      Aims To elucidate causes and extent of strut malapposition in angiographically optimized stenting. Methods and Results Using a new classification system for strut malapposition, the mechanisms of stent strut malapposition were classified as localized lumen enlargement, vessel asymmetry, stent undersizing, strut underexpansion and stent deployment issue. Stent implantations ( n  = 110) in 100 consecutive patients undergoing optical coherence tomography (OCT) after the operator considered the stent as optimally deployed angiographically were reviewed to determine if strut apposition was complete. 127,894 stent struts in 110 stents were analyzed. There were 6,644 struts malapposed (5.2% ±7.3%), with strut malapposition ...

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    21. Role of Optic Coherence Tomography (OCT) on Atherosclerotic Plaques in the Carotid Artery and other Vascular Network: A Review

      Role of Optic Coherence Tomography (OCT) on Atherosclerotic Plaques in the Carotid Artery and other Vascular Network: A Review

      The evaluation of carotid artery lesions as a potential target in order to avoid highly devastating ischemic strokes, which are secondary to a severe carotid artery or thromboembolic events from unstable plaques. Recently, a number of diagnostic modalities are in practice to make an early diagnosis of significant stenosis or vulnerable carotid artery plaques namely ultrasonography(USG), computed tomography(CT), magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). The above mentioned diagnostic tools are effective in their diagnostic spectrum, however, are still unable to give an optimal level of reliable diagnostic results. Optic coherence tomography(OCT) is a relatively new technique which is highly ...

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    22. Optical coherence tomography is a kid on the block: I would choose intravascular ultrasound

      Optical coherence tomography is a kid on the block: I would choose intravascular ultrasound

      Intravascular imaging has improved our understanding of in vivo pathophysiology of coronary artery disease (CAD) and predicted decision-making in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has emerged as the first clinical imaging method contributing significantly to modern PCI techniques. This modality has outlived many other intravascular techniques 26 years after its inception. It has assisted us in understanding dynamics of atherosclerosis and provides several unique insights into plaque burden, remodeling, and restenosis. It is useful as an imaging endpoint in large progression-regression trial and as workhorse in many catheterization laboratories. IVUS guidance appears to be most beneficial in complex ...

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    23. Fully integrated optical coherence tomography, ultrasound, and indocyanine green-based fluorescence tri-modality system for intravascular imaging

      Fully integrated optical coherence tomography, ultrasound, and indocyanine green-based fluorescence tri-modality system for intravascular imaging

      We present a tri-modality imaging system and fully integrated tri-modality probe for intravascular imaging. The tri-modality imaging system is able to simultaneously acquire optical coherence tomography (OCT), ultrasound (US), and fluorescence imaging. Moreover, for fluorescence imaging, we used the FDA-approved indocyanine green (ICG) dye as the contrast agent to target lipid-loaded macrophages. We conducted imaging from a male New Zealand white rabbit to evaluate the performance of the tri-modality system. In addition, tri-modality images of rabbit aortas were correlated with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histology to check the measurement accuracy. The fully integrated miniature tri-modality probe, together with the ...

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