1. Articles in category: Cardiology

    1-24 of 2269 1 2 3 4 ... 93 94 95 »
    1. Histology validation of mapping depth-resolved cardiac fiber orientation in fresh mouse heart using optical polarization tractography

      Histology validation of mapping depth-resolved cardiac fiber orientation in fresh mouse heart using optical polarization tractography

      Myofiber organization in cardiac muscle plays an important role in achieving normal mechanical and electrical heart functions. An imaging tool that can reveal microstructural details of myofiber organization is valuable for both basic research and clinical applications. A high-resolution optical polarization tractography (OPT) was recently developed based on Jones matrix optical coherence tomography (JMOCT). In this study, we validated the accuracy of using OPT for measuring depth-resolved fiber orientation in fresh heart samples by comparing directly with histology images. Systematic image processing algorithms were developed to register OPT with histology images. The pixel-wise differences between the two tractographic results were ...

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    2. Expert evidence on lost profits inadmissible

      Expert evidence on lost profits inadmissible

      The Supreme Judicial Court has upheld a judge’s decision not to allow expert evidence on lost profits in a commercial dispute over optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems used to image human coronary arteries. Superior Court Judge Margaret R. Hinkle excluded opinion testimony from Roy Weinstein, plaintiff LightLab Imaging's expert economist, on the question of future lost...

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    3. Side branch healing patterns of the Tryton dedicated bifurcation stent: a 1-year optical coherence tomography follow-up study

      Side branch healing patterns of the Tryton dedicated bifurcation stent: a 1-year optical coherence tomography follow-up study

      The bare-metal Tryton Side Branch (SB) Stent™ (Tryton Medical, Durham, NC, USA) is used with a drug-eluting stent (DES) in the main branch (MB) to treat bifurcation lesions. It is argued that a drug-eluting Tryton-version is needed to improve clinical outcomes, although previous registries have shown good clinical results. More insights in neo-intimal hyperplasia (NIH) growth patterns of the Tryton treatment strategy are needed to decide if and where to drug-coat the stent. Ten patients returned for follow-up angiography (mean follow-up time 393 ± 103 days) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) pullbacks from the MB were obtained in all patients and ...

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    4. Intravascular Photoacoustic Tomography of Coronary Atherosclerosis

      Intravascular Photoacoustic Tomography of Coronary Atherosclerosis

      The emergence of coronary angiography in the late 1950s enabled an imaging-based understanding of coronary artery disease and led to surgical and intravascular treatment approaches of coronary luminal stenosis. Based on the increasing familiarity with intracoronary catheter manipulation, miniature intravascular ultrasound probes subsequently were developed. The advantage of direct, intraluminal imaging was initially considered to be its capability to clarify indeterminate luminal findings (e.g., severity of left main stenosis, dissection, in-stent restenosis). However, investigators soon realized that the visualization of the wall/plaque beyond the narrowed lumen with intravascular imaging provided important insights into pathophysiologic aspects of atherosclerosis ( 1 ...

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      Mentions: Cleveland Clinic
    5. Intracoronary Optical Coherence Tomography: Insights from Clinical Research—What Do We Need to Learn?

      Intracoronary Optical Coherence Tomography: Insights from Clinical Research—What Do We Need to Learn?

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution technology for imaging of biological tissues that has shown tremendous potential for intracoronary use. Based on near-infrared light rather than ultrasound, catheter-based OCT provides cross-sectional images of the vessel wall and related devices in a histology-like manner. At present, OCT is primarily being used in research to better characterize and understand the pathophysiology of vulnerable plaques and to study the acute and long-term effects of coronary stent implantation. The present review provides the interventional cardiologist with a summary of the clinical research involving OCT, with an emphasis on specific challenges and how these ...

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      Mentions: Maria D. Radu
    6. Optical Coherence Tomography in Coronary Artery Disease: Toward Sub cellular Imaging

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Coronary Artery  Disease: Toward Sub cellular Imaging

      Intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an interferometric imaging technology that uses near-infrared light to provide cross-sectional images with an axial resolution of 10 μm and a transverse of 20-40 μm in vivo. The imaging capabilities of OCT have enabled visualization of important features of coronary plaque, including thrombus, macrophage, neovascularization, stent implantation and stent strut coverage, which have provided new insights for better understanding of this disease. Frequency domain (FD)-OCT is secondgeneration form of OCT that is able to acquire OCT images at a much higher frame. The high-speed imaging capabilities of FD-OCT have made intravascular OCT practical ...

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    7. ABSORB Biodegradable Stents Versus Second-Generation Metal Stents : A Comparison Study of 100 Complex Lesions Treated Under OCT Guidance

      ABSORB Biodegradable Stents Versus Second-Generation Metal Stents : A Comparison Study of 100 Complex Lesions Treated Under OCT Guidance

      Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the acute performance of the PLLA ABSORB bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, California) with second-generation metal drug-eluting stents (DES) in complex coronary artery lesions. Background Thick polymer-based BVS have different mechanical properties than thin second-generation DES. Data on the acute performance of BVS are limited to simple coronary lesions treated in trials with strict inclusion criteria. Methods Fifty complex coronary lesions (all type American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association B2-C) treated with a BVS undergoing a final optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination were compared with an equal ...

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    8. Highly calcific in-stent restenosis as a substrate for sirolimus-eluting stent very late stent thrombosis

      Highly calcific in-stent restenosis as a substrate for sirolimus-eluting stent very late stent thrombosis

      We describe a case of very late stent thrombosis with documentation of highly calcific restenosis at optical coherence tomography without clear signs of stent malapposition, neoatherosclerosis disruption, or vascular toxicity to stent polymer. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first reports dealing with highly calcific restenosis as a potential background to very late stent thrombosis.

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    9. Feasibility of the Assessment of Cholesterol Crystals in Human Macrophages Using Micro Optical Coherence Tomography

      Feasibility of the Assessment of Cholesterol Crystals in Human Macrophages Using Micro Optical Coherence Tomography

      The presence of cholesterol crystals is a hallmark of atherosclerosis, but until recently, such crystals have been considered to be passive components of necrotic plaque cores. Recent studies have demonstrated that phagocytosis of cholesterol crystals by macrophages may actively precipitate plaque progression via an inflammatory pathway, emphasizing the need for methods to study the interaction between macrophages and crystalline cholesterol. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of detecting cholesterol in macrophages in situ using Micro-Optical Coherence Tomography (µOCT), an imaging modality we have recently developed with 1-µm resolution. Macrophages containing cholesterol crystals frequently demonstrated highly scattering constituents in ...

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    10. Long-Term Outcomes of Neointimal Hyperplasia Without Neoatherosclerosis After Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation

      Long-Term Outcomes of Neointimal Hyperplasia Without Neoatherosclerosis After Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation

      Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between in-stent neointimal tissue without features of neoatherosclerosis and long-term clinical outcomes. Background Recent studies have reported differential morphological characteristics of in-stent neointimal tissue assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods The study population consisted of 336 patients with 368 drug-eluting stent-treated lesions. Patients received a follow-up OCT examination without any intervention. OCT-based neointima was categorized as homogeneous (n = 227 lesions in 208 patients), heterogeneous (n = 79 lesions in 73 patients), or layered (n = 62 lesions in 55 patients). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (a composite of cardiac death ...

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    11. Insights of Optical Coherence Tomography in Renal Artery Fibromuscular Dysplasia in a Patient with Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection

      Insights of Optical Coherence Tomography in Renal Artery  Fibromuscular Dysplasia in a Patient with Spontaneous Coronary  Artery Dissection

      A 60-year-old woman was admitted for an acute coronary syndrome. Coronary angiography showed a spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) in the left anterior descending coronary artery (A). A typical image of fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) was also observed in the right renal artery (B). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) (C) revealed alternating areas of thickening and thinning of the medial layer, corresponding to the typical image of "string of beads" readily identified in the longitudinal reconstruction of the OCT and also in angiography. A very high prevalence of FMD in non-coronary arteries has been recently reported in patients with DCE. Our findings ...

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      Mentions: Fernando Alfonso
    12. Optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy after implantation of bioresorbable vascular scaffolds; lessons from optimal coherence tomography

      Optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy after implantation of bioresorbable vascular scaffolds; lessons from optimal coherence tomography

      The current case report demonstrates the interesting finding of incomplete bioresorbable vascular scaffold strut coverage at 18 months post implantation for a chronic total occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. In this case, local differences in shear stress could explain the simultaneous presence of well covered and uncovered BVS strut segments in the same optical coherence tomography frame. Even though current standard practice suggests dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for 12 months after BVS implantation, further studies are required to establish optimal duration of DAPT, particularly when tackling complex lesions.

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    13. Comparison of scanning electron microscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging of coronary bifurcation stents

      Comparison of scanning electron microscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging of coronary bifurcation stents

      Background: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new intracoronary imaging modality that has excellent resolution and image quality and has been used to image neointimal coverage after stent implantation. OCT has been compared to histologic, intravascular ultrasound, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. However, OCT has not been compared with SEM for imaging stent coverage over side branches. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare OCT with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in imaging neointimal coverage over stent struts bridging coronary side-branch ostia. Methods: Using a balloon-overstretch in-stent restenosis model, we deployed 38 everolimus-eluting stents across coronary bifurcations in ...

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    14. Very late acquired peri-stent contrast staining and incomplete stent apposition with biodegradable polymer stents: Insight from optical coherence tomography

      Very late acquired peri-stent contrast staining and incomplete stent apposition with biodegradable polymer stents: Insight from optical coherence tomography

      A 68-year-old female with hypertension, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention to the left anterior descending artery (LAD) because of exertion angina pectoris in July 2012. At that procedure, severe intramural hematoma had occurred from the proximal to the distal segment of LAD. Therefore, she had been implanted with three biolimus-eluting stents after ballooning at the proximal to distal LAD (Fig. 1A). After then, she had been relieved from angina symptom.

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    15. Optical coherence tomography assessment of a PLGA-polymer with electro-grafting base layer versus a PLA-polymer sirolimus-eluting stent at three-month follow-up: the BuMA-OCT randomised trial

      Optical coherence tomography assessment of a PLGA-polymer with electro-grafting base layer versus a PLA-polymer sirolimus-eluting stent at three-month follow-up: the BuMA-OCT randomised trial

      Aims: To compare stent strut coverage using optical coherence tomography (OCT) at three-month follow-up between a PLGA-polymer with electro-grafting base layer sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) (BuMA) and a PLA-polymer SES (EXCEL). Methods and results: This prospective, single-centre, non-inferiority randomised BuMA-OCT trial enrolled patients with de novo coronary artery lesions, treated with either the BuMA or the EXCEL stent. The study primary endpoint was OCT-evaluated stent strut coverage at three months. Secondary endpoints were neointimal thickness of stent struts, and incomplete stent apposition evaluated with OCT. A total of 80 patients were randomly assigned to receive the BuMA (n=40) or the ...

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    16. Invasive management without stents in selected acute coronary syndrome patients with a large thrombus burden: a prospective study of optical coherence tomography guided treatment decisions

      Invasive management without stents in selected acute coronary syndrome patients with a large thrombus burden: a prospective study of optical coherence tomography guided treatment decisions

      Aims: To assess whether a strategy of invasive management without stents in selected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with a large thrombus burden (LTB) might be feasible and safe. Methods and results: We performed a prospective non-randomised observational cohort study of invasive treatment decisions guided by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in selected ACS patients with LTB. Among 852 ACS patients who had undergone invasive coronary angiography, 101 (11.8%) patients with large thrombus burden on initial angiography underwent thrombectomy to restore TIMI 3 flow without stenting. All of these patients then had repeat angiography with OCT (days 0-2 [Group 1 ...

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      Mentions: Francesco Prati
    17. Computer-Aided Image Analysis Algorithm to Enhance In Vivo Diagnosis of Plaque Erosion by Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography

      Computer-Aided Image Analysis Algorithm to Enhance In Vivo Diagnosis of Plaque Erosion by Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography

      Background —Recent reports show that plaque erosion can be diagnosed in vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). However, quantitative OCT image criteria for computer-aided diagnosis of plaque erosion have not been established. Methods and Results —A total of 42 patients with ACS caused by plaque erosion were included. Plaque erosion was identified according to the previously established OCT criteria. Both optical properties and morphological features of the focal eroded region as well as erosion-adjacent region were analyzed using a custom designed computer algorithm. Non-eroded fibrous plaques remote from the erosion site within the ...

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    18. Impact of thin-cap fibroatheroma on predicting deteriorated coronary flow during interventional procedures in acute as well as stable coronary syndromes: insights from optical coherence tomography analysis

      Impact of thin-cap fibroatheroma on predicting deteriorated coronary flow during interventional procedures in acute as well as stable coronary syndromes: insights from optical coherence tomography analysis

      The occurrence of deteriorated coronary flow associated with distal embolization during percutaneous coronary intervention results in impaired myocardial perfusion and worsens the clinical prognosis. This study aimed to examine the impact of optical coherence tomography (OCT)-determined coronary plaque morphology on the prediction of deteriorated coronary flow after stent implantation in acute as well as stable coronary syndromes (ACS and SAP, respectively). We studied 126 patients who underwent OCT during stenting for ACS ( n = 44) and SAP ( n = 82) with a de novo lesion. Angiographic deteriorated coronary flow was defined as the deterioration of TIMI flow grade after mechanical dilatation ...

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    19. Intracoronary thrombus on optical coherence tomography in a patient with variant angina; treatment and follow-up

      Intracoronary thrombus on optical coherence tomography in a patient with variant angina; treatment and follow-up

      Variant angina is caused by transient and recurrent coronary spasm leading to episodes of transmural myocardial ischemia with ST segment elevation. Neurological, humoral and local factors have been proposed, and endothelial dysfunction are important predisposing factors 1 . However, intravascular ultrasound studies have shown that atherosclerosis is invariably present at site of focal vasospasm 2 . Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution imaging method for plaque characterization and detection of intracoronary thrombus 3 .

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      Mentions: Evelyn Regar
    20. Avinger Enrolls First PAD Patient in VISION Global Clinical Trial

      Avinger Enrolls First PAD Patient in VISION Global Clinical Trial

      Avinger Inc., pioneer of the lumivascular approach for treating vascular disease announced today that Dr. John Pigott of Jobst Vascular Institute, Toledo, OH, enrolled the first patient in VISION. VISION is a global IDE clinical trial, approved by the FDA to evaluate Avinger’s PantherisTM catheter for the treatment of Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD). It is estimated that PAD affects 12 million people in the US alone. The PantherisTM system combines directional atherectomy capabilities with real-time intravascular visualization to remove plaque from blocked arteries. The minimally invasive catheter is designed to remove plaque, while avoiding the disruption of normal arterial ...

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    21. Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Guided Nd:YAG Laser Iridocystotomy in Post Traumatic Iris Cyst

      Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography  Guided Nd:YAG Laser Iridocystotomy in  Post Traumatic Iris Cyst

      A 30 year old female presented with a large post traumatic iris cyst obstructing the visual axis, with a corneal scar inferiorly. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) was done to identify the areas of corneal attachment and locate the thinnest area of the cyst. Nd:YAG laser iridocystotomy performed subsequently resulted in immediate deflation of the cyst, excellent restoration of visual acuity and no recurrence till 6 months of follow up. AS-OCT guided laser cystotomy has not been reported previously, to the best of our knowledge.

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    22. In-vivo segmentation and quantification of coronary lesions by optical coherence tomography images for a lesion type definition and stenosis grading

      In-vivo segmentation and quantification of coronary lesions by optical coherence tomography images for a lesion type definition and stenosis grading

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a catheter-based medical imaging technique that produces cross-sectional images of blood vessels. This technique is particularly useful for studying coronary atherosclerosis. In this paper, we present a new framework that allows a segmentation and quantification of OCT images of coronary arteries to define the plaque type and stenosis grading. These analyses are usually carried out on-line on the OCT-workstation where measuring is mainly operator-dependent and mouse-based. The aim of this program is to simplify and improve the processing of OCT images for morphometric investigations and to present a fast procedure to obtain 3D geometrical models ...

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    23. Use of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to Cross Peripheral Arterial Chronic Total Occlusions

      Use of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to Cross Peripheral Arterial Chronic Total Occlusions

      Published on Jul 14, 2014 In this series of XLPAD webinars, Dr. Ian Cawich presents a novel application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the use of crossing infrainguinal chronic total occlusions (CTO). Dr. Cawich has trained physicians worldwide on how to use the Ocelot (Avinger, Redwood City, CA) CTO crossing device, and he displays his expertise in this webinar, highlighting the keys to using this device and answering questions from experienced peripheral interventionists. Recorded July 10, 2014.

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      Mentions: Avinger
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