1. Articles in category: Cardiology

    1-24 of 3077 1 2 3 4 ... 127 128 129 »
    1. Time-Series Interactions of Gene Expression, Vascular Growth and Hemodynamics during Early Embryonic Arterial Development

      Time-Series Interactions of Gene Expression, Vascular Growth and Hemodynamics during Early Embryonic Arterial Development

      The role of hemodynamic forces within the embryo as biomechanical regulators for cardiovascular morphogenesis, growth, and remodeling is well supported through the experimental studies. Furthermore, clinical experience suggests that perturbed flow disrupts the normal vascular growth process as one etiology for congenital heart diseases (CHD) and for fetal adaptation to CHD. However, the relationships between hemodynamics, gene expression and embryonic vascular growth are poorly defined due to the lack of concurrent, sequential in vivo data. In this study, a long-term, time-lapse optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging campaign was conducted to acquire simultaneous blood velocity, pulsatile micro-pressure and morphometric data for ...

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      Mentions: Thorlabs
    2. Culprit plaque morphology in STEMI – an optical coherence tomography study: insights from the TOTAL-OCT substudy

      Culprit plaque morphology in STEMI – an optical coherence tomography study: insights from the TOTAL-OCT substudy

      Aims: Our aim was to compare stenosis severity and plaque content between STEMI culprit lesions with intact fibrous cap (IFC) and those with plaque rupture (PR) in a prospective study. Methods and results: We evaluated 93 patients undergoing OCT and thrombectomy as part of a prospective substudy of the TOTAL (ThrOmbecTomy versus PCI ALone) trial. Culprit lesion morphology was assessable by OCT in 70/93 (75.3%). IFC was found in 31 (44.3%), PR in 34 (48.6%) and calcified nodule in five (7.1%) patients. Following thrombectomy, OCT demonstrated similar lumen area stenosis in IFC (79.3%) and ...

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    3. Optical coherence tomography visualisation of burst balloon catheter trapped by coronary stent

      Optical coherence tomography visualisation of burst balloon catheter trapped by coronary stent

      A 69-year-old man with prior anterior myocardial infarction underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for significant stenosis of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery. High-pressure inflation by non-compliant balloon was required because of severe calcification in the culprit lesion. The balloon ruptured during inflation and an angiographic filling defect appeared in the LAD. The balloon catheter was pulled out of the body and the tip and membranous part of the catheter was lost ( Panel A , black arrowhead). Although we attempted to retrieve…

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    4. Optical coherence tomography imaging after successful percutaneous coronary intervention treatment of coronary perforation following bioabsorbable vascular scaffold implantation: Consecutive ping-pong and child-in-mother techniques

      Optical coherence tomography imaging after successful percutaneous coronary intervention treatment of coronary perforation following bioabsorbable vascular scaffold implantation: Consecutive ping-pong and child-in-mother techniques

      A 68-year-old male, former smoker, with dyslipidemia, and 7-year history of stable angina was admitted to our center due to symptom progression and positive treadmill test under optimal medical treatment with aspirin, beta-blockers, and highdose statins. Transradial coronary angiography evidenced a chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD), severe stenosis of the proximal left circumflex artery (LCx), and a dominant right coronary artery with collateral flow to the mid and distal bed of the LAD (Rentrop 3, CC 2). Left ventricular (LV)-angiography evidenced LV normal size and function. LCx stenosis was successfully treated with ...

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    5. Angiographic, optical coherence tomography and histology findings from combination of a drug-coated balloon with an everolimus-eluting stent in a porcine mode

      Angiographic, optical coherence tomography and histology findings from combination of a drug-coated balloon with an everolimus-eluting stent in a porcine mode

      Background We designed a porcine model to compare the angiographic, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histological findings of implanting an everolimus-eluting stent (EES) in the same segment of the coronary artery pre-treated with a drug-coating balloon (DCB; paccocath as carrier) with EES alone and DCB plus a bare metal stent (BMS). Methods Seven female swine averaging 46.0±2.4 kg were treated by random assignment as follows: DCB followed by EES; DCB followed by BMS; and EES alone. Quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and OCT were carried out post-implantation and repeated after 28±1 days. Results All arteries remained patent ...

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    6. Optical Coherence Tomography for Lesion Assessment

      Optical Coherence Tomography for Lesion Assessment

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an intravascular imaging technology that employs an optical source for image acquisition, allowing high-resolution (10–20 μm) analysis of the coronary vasculature. The development of this imaging tool over the last decade, along with European CE Mark approval in March 2009 and US Food and Drug Administration approval in April 2010, has led to a dramatic increase in the number of operators and institutions using this technology. In many ways, early experience with this technology mimics the early experience with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) 2 decades earlier, and as a still-emerging innovative imaging modality, much of ...

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      Mentions: St. Jude Medical
    7. Markedly different tissue types on optical coherence tomography imaging in a patient with multiple lesion drug-eluting stent in-stent restenosis

      Markedly different tissue types on optical coherence tomography imaging in a patient with multiple lesion drug-eluting stent in-stent restenosis

      The treatment of in-stent restenosis after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation remains a major clinical challenge. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging at the time of presentation can provide important information on mechanical factors contributing to stent failure as well as on tissue characteristics of the in-stent neointimal tissue. We report a case of markedly different tissue types—characterized by heterogeneous and homogeneous signal intensity—observed in a patient with multiple lesion DES in-stent restenosis. Although both lesions were initially successfully treated with drug-coated balloon angioplasty, the patient presented with recurrent in-stent restenosis in the lesion with homogeneous tissue characteristics. Future studies ...

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    8. Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment of Incidence, Morphological Characteristics, and Spontaneous Healing Course of Edge Dissections Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Stent Implantation in Patients with Non-ST segment Elevation Myocardi

      Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment of Incidence, Morphological Characteristics, and Spontaneous Healing Course of Edge Dissections Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Stent Implantation in Patients with Non-ST segment Elevation Myocardi

      Background Stenting-induced edge dissections (ED) can be assessed in detail by optical coherence tomography (OCT). This study sought to investigate the incidence, morphological characteristics, and spontaneous healing course of OCT-identified EDs following drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation in a Non-ST segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) patient-population. Methods Acute vessel wall injury at the 5-mm stent adjacent distal and proximal reference segments was assessed by post-procedure OCT and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in n = 97 NSTEMI-patients (n = 97 lesions). Six months OCT follow-up was available in 82 patients (including 35 untreated post-procedure EDs). Results The overall incidence of post-procedure OCT-detected ED was 38 ...

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    9. Coronary Plaque Characterization Assessed by Optical Coherence Tomography and Plasma Trimethylamine-N-oxide Levels in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

      Coronary Plaque Characterization Assessed by Optical Coherence Tomography and Plasma Trimethylamine-N-oxide Levels in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been considered as the ideal tool for the evaluation of atherosclerotic plaques. Circulating trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), which is a metabolite of the dietary lipid phosphatidylcholine, has recently been linked to elevated coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between circulating TMAO level and coronary plaque vulnerability assessed by OCT in CAD patients. A total of 26 patients with CAD were recruited to assess coronary plaque using OCT and measure plasma TMAO level. According to plaque rupture status, patients were divided into plaque rupture group (n = 12) and non-plaque ...

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    10. The Role of Intracoronary Plaque Imaging with Intravascular Ultrasound, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

      The Role of Intracoronary Plaque Imaging with Intravascular Ultrasound, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

      The development of multiple diagnostic intracoronary imaging modalities has increased our understanding of coronary atherosclerotic disease. These imaging modalities, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), have provided a method to study plaques and introduced the concept of plaque vulnerability. They are being increasingly used for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) optimization and are invaluable tools in research studying the pathophysiology of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), in-stent thrombosis and in-stent restenosis. IVUS has the ability to visualize the intracoronary lumen and the vessel wall and can be used to detect early atherosclerotic disease even in the setting ...

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    11. Evaluation of vascular healing of polymer-free sirolimus-eluting stents in native coronary artery stenosis: a serial follow-up at three and six months with optical coherence tomography imaging

      Evaluation of vascular healing of polymer-free sirolimus-eluting stents in native coronary artery stenosis: a serial follow-up at three and six months with optical coherence tomography imaging

      Aims: Our aim was to assess vascular response after polymer-free sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) implantation by using an optical coherence tomography (OCT)-derived vascular healing score (HS), quantifying the deficiency of healing. Methods and results: In a prospective, multicentre, single-arm, open-label study, OCT examinations were performed at three months in 45 patients (47 lesions). Per protocol, 24 lesions which had not reached adequate vascular healing according to study criteria were scheduled for OCT examination at six months. The HS was calculated at two time points. Serial OCT imaging demonstrated that the proportion of covered stent struts increased from a median of ...

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    12. Early coverage of drug-eluting stents analysed by optical coherence tomography: evidence of the impact of stent apposition and strut characteristics on the neointimal healing process

      Early coverage of drug-eluting stents analysed by optical coherence tomography: evidence of the impact of stent apposition and strut characteristics on the neointimal healing process

      Aims: Previous studies have associated issues such as incomplete stent apposition with delayed healing and adverse events (stent thrombosis). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of strut apposition and stent type on the progression of stent strut coverage. Methods and results: We evaluated in vivo in porcine models the follow-up response and coverage characteristics of well-apposed and malapposed segments of drug-eluting stents (DES) (CYPHER, PROMUS Element and Orsiro) and the Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) by optical coherence tomography (OCT) sequentially, at baseline, and at one week and four weeks of follow-up. Supporting results were provided ...

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    13. Absorb vs. DESolve: an optical coherence tomography comparison of acute mechanical performances

      Absorb vs. DESolve: an optical coherence tomography comparison of acute mechanical performances

      Aims: The aim of the study was to compare retrospectively the acute mechanical performance of the Absorb vs. DESolve scaffolds in terms of appropriate deployment with OCT. Methods and results: Final post-deployment OCT pullbacks of consecutive patients treated with either Absorb or DESolve were reviewed. The following parameters were calculated and compared: mean and minimal lumen area (MLA), residual in-scaffold area stenosis (RAS), incomplete strut apposition (ISA), tissue prolapse area, eccentricity index, asymmetry index, strut fracture and edge dissection. A total of 72 patients were included. The Absorb group consisted of 35 patients treated with 63 Absorb scaffolds and was ...

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    14. Optical coherence tomography-based diagnosis in a patient with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and no obstructive coronary arteries

      Optical coherence tomography-based diagnosis in a patient with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and no obstructive coronary arteries

      A 60-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of severe anterior chest pain. His medical history included hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. An electrocardiogram demonstrated slight ST elevation in leads II, III, and aVF (Fig. 1, panel A). The high-sensitivity troponin I level was elevated to 715.8 pg/ml, while transthoracic echocardiography did not detect any apparent wall motion abnormality.

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    15. Microvascular contrast enhancement in optical coherence tomography using microbubbles

      Microvascular contrast enhancement in optical coherence tomography using microbubbles

      Gas microbubbles (MBs) are investigated as intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) contrast agents. Agar + intralipid scattering tissue phantoms with two embedded microtubes were fabricated to model vascular blood flow. One was filled with human blood, and the other with a mixture of human blood + MB. Swept-source structural and speckle variance (sv) OCT images, as well as speckle decorrelation times, were evaluated under both no-flow and varying flow conditions. Faster decorrelation times and higher structural and svOCT image contrasts were detected in the presence of MB in all experiments. The effects were largest in the svOCT imaging mode, and uniformly diminished ...

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    16. Optimization of coronary optical coherence tomography imaging using the attenuation-compensated technique: a validation study

      Optimization of coronary optical coherence tomography imaging using the attenuation-compensated technique: a validation study

      Purpose To optimize conventional coronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) images using the attenuation-compensated technique to improve identification of plaques and the external elastic lamina (EEL) contour. Method The attenuation-compensated technique was optimized via manipulating contrast exponent C, and compression exponent N, to achieve an optimal contrast and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This was applied to 60 human coronary lesions (38 native and 22 stented) ex vivo conventional coronary OCT images acquired from heart autopsies of 10 patients and matching histology was available as reference. Three independent reviewers assessed the conventional and attenuation-compensated OCT images blindly for plaque characteristics and EEL detection ...

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    17. 6-month Intracoronary Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) Evaluation of Three New Generation Drug Eluting Stent (CREBX-OCT)

      6-month Intracoronary Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) Evaluation of Three New Generation Drug Eluting Stent (CREBX-OCT)

      Aim of this study is to compare at 6 months follow-up, endothelization and malapposition, evaluated by means of optical coherence tomography, in terms of number of struts not endothelized or malapposed, after the implantation of three new generation stent: Cre8, Biomatrix and Xience.

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    18. Avinger Offers A Better Mousetrap, But A Lot Of Challenges

      Avinger Offers A Better Mousetrap, But A Lot Of Challenges

      Summary: Adding high-quality imaging to mechanical atherectomy could be a powerful combination that finally ignites a $500 million-plus market that has long frustrated med-tech watchers. Avinger is short on cash and has a lot of spending to do to drive market share into the teens and beyond; dilution seems like a certainty today. An EV/revenue multiple between 4.5x and 5x supports a $7 FV today, and high-growth med-tech stocks can trade well above 5x forward revenue during the good times.

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    19. Concise Review of Optical Coherence Tomography in Clinical Practice

      Concise Review of Optical Coherence Tomography in Clinical Practice

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel image modality with higher resolution in the catheterization laboratory. It can differentiate tissue characteristics and provide detailed information, including dissection, tissue prolapse, thrombi, and stent apposition. In this study, we comprehensively reviewed the current pros and cons of OCT clinical applications and presented our clinical experiences associated with the advantages and limitations of this new imaging modality.

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    20. Sex Differences in Nonculprit Coronary Plaque Microstructures on Frequency-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Acute Coronary Syndromes and Stable Coronary Artery Disease

      Sex Differences in Nonculprit Coronary Plaque Microstructures on Frequency-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Acute Coronary Syndromes and Stable Coronary Artery Disease

      Background— Numerous reports suggest sex-related differences in atherosclerosis. Frequency-domain optical coherence tomography has enabled visualization of plaque microstructures associated with disease instability. The prevalence of plaque microstructures between sexes has not been characterized. We investigated sex differences in plaque features in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods and Results— Nonculprit plaques on frequency-domain optical coherence tomography imaging were compared between men and women with either stable coronary artery disease (n=320) or acute coronary syndromes (n=115). A greater prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was observed in women. Nonculprit plaques in women with stable coronary artery disease were more likely ...

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    21. Assessing Computational Fractional Flow Reserve From Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients With Intermediate Coronary Stenosis in the Left Anterior Descending Artery

      Assessing Computational Fractional Flow Reserve From Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients With Intermediate Coronary Stenosis in the Left Anterior Descending Artery

      Background— Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging provides limited information on the functional assessment of coronary stenosis. We evaluated a new approach to OCT image–based computation modeling, which can be used to estimate the fractional flow reserve (FFR) in patients with intermediate coronary stenosis. Methods and Results— Ninety-two patients with intermediate diameter stenosis in the left anterior descending artery underwent both FFR measurement with pressure wires and OCT examination. Using the OCT data, a computational fluid dynamics algorithm was used to calculate the computational FFR (FFR OCT ). The diagnostic performance of the FFR OCT was assessed based on the ...

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    22. Hemodynamic changes in a rat parietal cortex after endothelin-1-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion monitored by optical coherence tomography

      Hemodynamic changes in a rat parietal cortex after endothelin-1-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion monitored by optical coherence tomography

      A blockage of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) on the cortical branch will seriously affect the blood supply of the cerebral cortex. Real-time monitoring of MCA hemodynamic parameters is critical for therapy and rehabilitation. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful imaging modality that can produce not only structural images but also functional information on the tissue. We use OCT to detect hemodynamic changes after MCA branch occlusion. We injected a selected dose of endothelin-1 (ET-1) at a depth of 1 mm near the MCA and let the blood vessels follow a process first of occlusion and then of slow ...

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    23. Two-year Optical Coherence Tomography Findings after Balloon-Only Treatment of Bioresorbable Scaffold Restenosis in a Calcified Coronary Lesion: A Case Report

      Two-year Optical Coherence Tomography Findings after Balloon-Only Treatment of Bioresorbable Scaffold Restenosis in a Calcified Coronary Lesion: A Case Report

      We report a case of a 65-year-old female patient treated with an everolimus-eluting bioresorbable scaffold (BRS) after rotational atherectomy of a severely calcified lesion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The implanted BRS restenosed 10 months after implantation and was treated with a scoring balloon followed by drug-eluting balloons with good immediate and long-term results. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a balloon-only treatment of a restenosis occurring more than 6 months after BRS implantation; angiographic and optical coherence tomography images after treatment and at two-year follow-up are presented.

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