1. Articles in category: Pulmonology

    169-192 of 243 « 1 2 ... 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 »
    1. Elastic Properties of the Central Airways in Obstructive Lung Diseases Measured Using Anatomical Optical Coherence Tomography

      Elastic Properties of the Central Airways in Obstructive Lung Diseases Measured Using Anatomical Optical Coherence Tomography
      Rationale: Our understanding of how airway remodeling affects regional airway elastic properties is limited due to technical difficulties in quantitatively measuring dynamic, in vivo airway dimensions. Such knowledge could help elucidate mechanisms of excessive airway narrowing. Objectives: To utilize anatomical optical coherence tomography (aOCT) to compare central airway elastic properties in control subjects and those with obstructive lung diseases. Methods: Following bronchodilation, airway lumen area (Ai) was measured using aOCT during bronchoscopy in control subjects (n=10) and those with asthma (n=16), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n=9) and bronchiectasis (n=8). Ai was measured in each of ...
      Read Full Article
    2. Diagnostic bronchoscopy: state of the art

      Diagnostic bronchoscopy: state of the art
      Since the introduction of the flexible fibreoptic bronchoscope in the late 1960s there have been relatively few technological advances for three decades, aside from the development of a white light video bronchoscope with a miniature charge-coupled device built in its tip replacing the fibreoptics. White light flexible videobronchoscopy with its ancillary devices (forceps biopsy, bronchial brushing, bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial washings and transbronchial needle aspiration) has long been the only established diagnostic bronchoscopic technique. With the advances in microtechnology over the past two decades, recent technical developments such as autofluorescence bronchoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound allow better evaluation of endobronchial, mediastinal and ...
      Read Full Article
    3. Advances in Diagnostic Bronchoscopy

      Advances in Diagnostic Bronchoscopy
      Diagnostic bronchoscopy has undergone two major paradigm shifts in the last 40 years. First, the advent of flexible bronchoscopy gave chest physicians improved access to the tracheobronchial tree with a rapid learning curve and greater patient comfort compared with rigid bronchoscopy. The second paradigm shift has evolved over the last 5 years with the proliferation of new technologies that have significantly enhanced the diagnostic capabilities of flexible bronchoscopy compared with traditional methods. At the forefront of these new technologies is endobronchial ultrasound. In its various forms, endobronchial ultrasound has improved diagnostic yield for pulmonary masses, nodules, intrathoracic adenopathy, and disease ...
      Read Full Article
    4. Changes and Current State of Diagnosis of Lung Cancer After Development of the Flexible Bronchofiberscope

      Changes and Current State of Diagnosis of Lung Cancer After Development of the Flexible Bronchofiberscope
      The flexible bronchofiberscope developed by Ikeda et al. has brought about revolutionary changes in the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Advances in this device are continuing to emerge and lesions even smaller than those visible to the naked eye can now be visualized. In addition, the use of ultrasound now enables diagnosis of extramural bronchial lesions. Bronchoscopy is also used for the treatment of early hilar lung cancer, and in patients with airway stenosis due to advanced cancer, laser therapy, brachytherapy, and stenting can be performed. The bronchofiberscope is also very useful for tissue sampling from the lung periphery ...
      Read Full Article
    5. Photodynamic therapy using NPe6 for bronchogenic carcinomas in central airways more than 1.0 cm in diameter.

      Photodynamic therapy using NPe6 for bronchogenic carcinomas in central airways more than 1.0 cm in diameter.
      Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is recommended as a treatment option for centrally located early lung cancers (CLELCs), meaning roentgenographically occult squamous cell carcinomas that are located no more distally than segmental bronchi and, histologically, are either carcinoma in situ or carcinoma associated with only limited invasion. Since CLELC patients who are heavy smokers are at fairly high risk of developing a second primary lung cancer, they require treatment that will preserve their cardiopulmonary function. Most centrally located early lung cancers (CLELCs) less than 1.0 cm in diameter do not invade beyond the bronchial cartilage, and photodynamic therapy (PDT) with ...
      Read Full Article
    6. Virtual four-dimensional imaging of lung parenchyma by optical coherence tomography in mice

      Virtual four-dimensional imaging of lung parenchyma by optical coherence tomography in mice
      In this feasibility study, we present a method for virtual 4-D imaging of healthy and injured subpleural lung tissue in the ventilated mouse. We use triggered swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) with an A-scan frequency of 20 kHz to image murine subpleural alveoli during the inspiratory phase. The data acquisition is gated to the ventilation pressure to take single B-scans in each respiration cycle for different pressure levels. The acquired B-scans are combined off-line into one volume scan for each pressure level. The air fraction in healthy lungs and injured lungs is measured using 2-D OCT en-face images. Upon ...
      Read Full Article
    7. Combining optical coherence tomography with fluorescence microscopy: a closer look into tissue

      Combining optical coherence tomography with fluorescence microscopy: a closer look into tissue

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a technique, capable of high resolution and non-invasive 3D imaging in vivo by detection of backscattered light from cellular and sub cellular structures. Due to visualization of micrometer sized tissue constituents and high penetration depths of up to 2 mm, it is already well established in medical fields like ophthalmology and dermatology. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), on the contrary, gives further information on structural tissue components stained with suitable dyes. In combination, these two methods yield three dimensional and high resolution data providing geometrical and structural details of tissue. In this study, we present ...

      Read Full Article
    8. Optical Coherence Tomography as an Adjunct to Flexible Bronchoscopy in the Diagnosis of Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study

      Optical Coherence Tomography as an Adjunct to Flexible Bronchoscopy in the Diagnosis of Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study
      Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and the second most common type of cancer in both men and women. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can generate high resolution cross-sectional images of complex, living tissues in real time. The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of using OCT during flexible bronchoscopy, and to preliminarily assess the ability of OCT to distinguish an endobronchial malignancy from normal endobronchial mucosa. Methods: A NirisTM OCT probe was introduced into the airways of patients with an endobronchial mass during flexible bronchoscopy. An investigational device exemption ...
      Read Full Article
    9. Competing Technologies: Ultrasound, Navigational Bronchoscopy, Optical Coherence Tomography, etc. – Who Will Win Out?

      Competing Technologies: Ultrasound, Navigational Bronchoscopy, Optical Coherence Tomography, etc. – Who Will Win Out?
      Bronchoscopy in the new millennium spells an exciting time for the pulmonologist, which likens to Alice peering through the looking glass into a wonderland of miniaturized probes, superior optics and technology that are advancing at a maddening pace. Whilst scientists continue to push the envelope using nanotechnology where nanoparticles each measuring one billionth of a meter may facilitate further miniaturization of probes to allow imaging at the cellular or molecular level as well as for targeted drug or gene delivery in the near future, it is opportune to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of available technologies in thoracic imaging, for ...
      Read Full Article
    10. Bronchoscopic Advances: On the Way to the Cells

      Bronchoscopic Advances: On the Way to the Cells
      In the past 15 years, new endoscopic methods have been developed in order to improve the detection of early bronchial cancers, with autofluorescence bronchoscopy being the leading technique. However, autofluorescence bronchoscopy is hampered by the low specificity of the fluorescence defect which ranges from 25 to 50%, and its limitation to the proximal bronchial tree from which arise only half of the lung cancers that are currently diagnosed. To overcome these limitations, other techniques emerge including video/autofluorescence bronchoscopy, narrow band imaging, optical coherence tomography, and ‘endomicroscopy’ using confocal fluorescent laser microscopy. These emerging techniques provide new insight into bronchology ...
      Read Full Article
    11. Tomophase Receives Seventh Patent: Delivering Light via Optical Waveguide and Multiview Optical Probe Head

      Tomophase Receives Seventh Patent: Delivering Light via Optical Waveguide and Multiview Optical Probe Head
      BURLINGTON, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Tomophase Corporation, a leading developer of non-invasive optical coherence tomography (OCT) tissue imaging devices, announced today that it has received notification of the issuance of its seventh patent: Delivering Light via Optical Waveguide and Multi-view Opt
      Read Full Article
    12. Outcome of Photodynamic Therapy Using NPe6 for Bronchogenic Carcinomas in Central Airways >1.0 cm in Diameter

      Outcome of Photodynamic Therapy Using NPe6 for Bronchogenic Carcinomas in Central Airways >1.0 cm in Diameter
      Purpose: Most centrally located early lung cancers (CLELC) <1.0 cm in diameter do not invade beyond the bronchial cartilage, and photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Photofrin is currently recommended as a treatment option for such lesions. NPe6 is a second-generation photosensitizer, and because it has a longer absorption band (664 nm) than Photofrin (630 nm), we hypothesized that NPe6-PDT would exert a strong antitumor effect against cancer lesions >1.0 cm in diameter, which are assumed to involve extracartilaginous invasion and to be unsuitable for treatment with Photofrin-PDT. Experimental Design: Between June 2004 and December 2008, 75 patients (91 lesions) with CLELC underwent NPe6-PDT after the extent of their tumors had been assessed by fluorescence bronchoscopy for photodynamic diagnosis and tumor depth had been assessed by optical coherence tomography. Results: Seventy cancer lesions ≤1.0 cm in diameter and 21 lesions >1.0 cm in diameter were identified, and the complete response rate was 94.0% (66 of 70) and ...
      Read Full Article
    13. Tomophase Corporation Names Ralph S. Johnston President and Chief Operating Officer

      Tomophase Corporation Names Ralph S. Johnston President and Chief Operating Officer
      BURLINGTON, Mass.--(HSMN NewsFeed)--Tomophase Corporation, a leading developer of non-invasive optical coherence tomography (OCT) tissue imaging devices, announced today that Ralph S. Johnston has been appointed President and Chief Operating Officer of the company. The announcement was made by Dr. Peter Norris, CEO, Co-Founder and Chairman of the Board. Mr. Johnston brings over 25 years of experience in medical devices and pharmaceuticals to the business. He has held senior management positions in business development, strategic marketing and sales with venture-backed start-up enterprises and Fortune 500 companies Pfizer and Corning Medical.
      Read Full Article
    14. Early Diagnosis of Lung Cancer

      Early Diagnosis of Lung Cancer
      Early detection and surgical resection is essential for the treatment of lung cancer. Although the introduction of low-dose spiral computed tomography (CT) is considered to be one of the most promising clinical research developments, CT screening is used for detecting small peripheral lesions. Tumors arising in the central airways require other techniques for early detection. Centrally arising squamous cell carcinoma of the airway, especially in heavy smokers, is thought to develop through multiple stages from squamous metaplasia to dysplasia, followed by carcinoma in situ (CIS), progressing to invasive cancer. It would be ideal to be able to detect and treat ...
      Read Full Article
    15. Three-dimensional Fourier domain optical coherence tomography in vivo imaging of alveolar tissue in the intact thorax using the parietal pleura as a window

      Three-dimensional Fourier domain optical coherence tomography in vivo imaging of alveolar tissue in the intact thorax using the parietal pleura as a window
      In vivo determination of 3-D and dynamic geometries of alveolar structures with adequate resolution is essential for developing numerical models of the lung. A thorax window is prepared in anesthetized rabbits by removal of muscle tissue between the third and fourth rib without harming the parietal pleura. The transparent parietal pleura allows contact-free imaging by intravital microscopy IVM and 3-D optical coherence tomography 3-D OCT. We demonstrate that dislocation of the lung surface is small enough to observe identical regions in the expiratory and inspiratory plateau phase, and that OCT in this animal model is suitable for generating 3-D geometry ...
      Read Full Article
    16. Distribution of airway narrowing responses across generations and at branching points, assessed in vitro by anatomical optical coherence tomography

      Distribution of airway narrowing responses across generations and at branching points, assessed in vitro by anatomical optical coherence tomography

      Background Previous histological and imaging studies have shown the presence of variability in the degree of bronchoconstriction of airways sampled at different locations in the lung (i.e., heterogeneity). Heterogeneity can occur at different airway generations and at branching points in the bronchial tree. Whilst heterogeneity has been detected by previous experimental approaches its spatial relationship either within or between airways is unknown. Methods In this study, distribution of airway narrowing responses across a portion of the porcine bronchial tree was determined in vitro. The portion comprised contiguous airways spanning bronchial generations (#3-11), including the associated side branches. We used ...

      Read Full Article
    17. Optical coherence tomography imaging of preneoplastic lung lesion

      Although autofluorescence bronchoscopy improves the detection rate of high grade dysplasia and carcinoma in-situ compares to white-light examination, the natural history of preneoplastic bronchial lesions is still poorly understood because the biopsy procedure for histological confirmation can mechanically remove these small lesions. The lack of accurate information regarding the spontaneous progression and regression rates of preneoplastic lesions make if difficult to assess the effect of chemoprevention agents. It is therefore important to develop non-biopsy methods that can characterize preneoplastic lesions in the bronchial epithelium. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging method that can visualize cellular and extra-cellular structures ...

      Read Full Article
    18. In vivo three-dimensional imaging of normal tissue and tumors in the rabbit pleural cavity using endoscopic swept source optical coherence tomography with thoracoscopic guidance

      The purpose of this study was to develop a dynamic tunable focal distance graded-refractive-index lens rod-based high-speed 3-D swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) endoscopic system and demonstrate real-time in vivo, high-resolution (10-µm) imaging of pleural-based malignancies in an animal model. The GRIN lens-based 3-D SS OCT system, which images at 39 fps with 512 A-lines per frame, was able to capture images of and detect abnormalities during thoracoscopy in the thoracic cavity, including the pleura, chest wall, pericardium, and the lungs. The abnormalities were confirmed by histological evaluation and compared to OCT findings. The dynamic tunable focal distance range ...
      Read Full Article
    19. Improved three-dimensional Fourier domain optical coherence tomography by index matching in alveolar structures

      Three-dimensional Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (3-D FDOCT) is used to demonstrate that perfusion fixation with a mixture of glutaraldehyde and paraformaldehyde does not alter the geometry of subpleural lung parenchyma in isolated and perfused rabbit lungs. This is confirmed by simultaneous imaging of lung parenchyma with intravital microscopy. To eliminate the diffraction index interfaces between alveolar pockets and walls, we fill the fixed lungs with ethanol by perfusing with gradually increasing concentrations. This bottom-up filling process leaves no remaining air bubbles in the alveolar structures, thus drastically improving the resolution and penetration depth of 3-D FDOCT imaging. We observe ...
      Read Full Article
    20. Optical Coherence Tomography: An Adjunct to Flexible Bronchoscopy in the Diagnosis of Lung Cancer

      Optical coherence tomography will be a feasible adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy, and provide images with good sensitivity and specificity to determine the presence of endobronchial malignancies. OCT could become a powerful tool in diagnostic pulmonary medicine, not only in the early recognition of lung cancer, but also in the evaluation and monitoring of microstructures in the lower respiratory tract that are affected by other inflammatory or invasive disease processes. Initially, OCT could be used to guide the location of biopsies which would likely provide increased specificity to traditional bronchoscopy. However, if the sensitivity and specificity of OCT images are comparable ...
      Read Full Article
      Mentions: FDA
    21. In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography

      In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography
      We report on the feasibility of rapid, high-resolution, 3-D swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) to detect early airway injury changes following smoke inhalation exposure in a rabbit model. The SSOCT system obtains 3-D helical scanning using a microelectromechanical system motor-based endoscope. Real-time 2-D data processing and image display at the speed of 20 frames/s are achieved by adopting the technique of parallel computing. Longitudinal images are reconstructed via an image processing algorithm to remove motion artifacts caused by ventilation and pulse. Quantitative analyses of tracheal airway thickness as well as thickness distribution along tracheal circumference are also performed based ...
      Read Full Article
    22. Gaining a better picture of lung disease

      Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a respiratory disease commonly known as chronic bronchitis or emphysema, is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, but a University of Western Ontario researcher is providing new insight into the disease. With 600 million people living with COPD, researchers have yet to find any real treatment or cure. However, Grace Parraga of Robarts Research Institute is using various imaging techniques to learn more about the diease. The World Health Organization officially recognized World COPD Day on Wednesday. Parraga is a scientist in the Imaging Research Laboratories at Robarts and recently recruited to the Departments ...
      Read Full Article
    23. Multimodality bronchoscopic imaging of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

      Objectives/Hypothesis. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) of the central airways requires removal to potentially reduce recurrence and risk for malignant transformation. Analogous to the principles of treatment for early lung cancer, a precise determination of the extent of cartilage invasion could help guide therapeutic decisions and monitor response to treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a bronchoscopy platform comprised of white light bronchoscopy (WLB), endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) could identify layered microstructure of RRP and underlying cartilage. Study Design. Case study. Methods. A bronchoscopy platform consisting of commercially available WLB, EBUS using ...
      Read Full Article
    169-192 of 243 « 1 2 ... 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 »
  1. Categories

    1. Applications:

      Art, Cardiology, Dentistry, Dermatology, Developmental Biology, Gastroenterology, Gynecology, Microscopy, NDE/NDT, Neurology, Oncology, Ophthalmology, Other Non-Medical, Otolaryngology, Pulmonology, Urology
    2. Business News:

      Acquisition, Clinical Trials, Funding, Other Business News, Partnership, Patents
    3. Technology:

      Broadband Sources, Probes, Tunable Sources
    4. Miscellaneous:

      Jobs & Studentships, Student Theses, Textbooks
  2. Popular Articles

  3. Organizations in the News

    1. (2 articles) British Columbia Cancer Agency
  4. People in the News

    1. (2 articles) Stephen Lam