1. Articles in category: Pulmonology

    145-168 of 240 « 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 »
    1. Microfluidic characterization of cilia-driven fluid flow using optical coherence tomography-based particle tracking velocimetry

      Microfluidic characterization of cilia-driven fluid flow using optical coherence tomography-based particle tracking velocimetry
      Motile cilia are cellular organelles that generate directional fluid flow across various epithelial surfaces including the embryonic node and respiratory mucosa. The proper functioning of cilia is necessary for normal embryo development and, for the respiratory system, the clearance of mucus and potentially harmful particulate matter. Here we show that optical coherence tomography (OCT) is well-suited for quantitatively characterizing the microfluidic-scale flow generated by motile cilia. Our imaging focuses on the ciliated epithelium of Xenopus tropicalis embryos, a genetically manipulable and experimentally tractable animal model of human disease. We show qualitative flow profile characterization using OCT-based particle pathline imaging. We ...
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    2. Investigation of alveolar tissue deformations using OCT combined with fluorescence microscopy

      Investigation of alveolar tissue deformations using OCT combined with fluorescence microscopy

      In critical care medicine, artificial ventilation is a life saving tool providing sufficient blood oxygenation to patients suffering from respiratory failure. Essential for their survival is the use of protective ventilation strategies to prevent further lung damage due to ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). Since there is only little known about implications of lung tissue overdistension on the alveolar level, especially in the case of diseased lungs, this research deals with the investigation of lung tissue deformation on a microscale. A combined setup utilizing optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal fluorescence microscopy, is used to study the elastic behavior of ...

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    3. Improved OCT imaging of lung tissue using a prototype for total liquid ventilation

      Improved OCT imaging of lung tissue using a prototype for total liquid ventilation
      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used for imaging subpleural alveoli in animal models to gain information about dynamic and morphological changes of lung tissue during mechanical ventilation. The quality of OCT images can be increased if the refraction index inside the alveoli is matched to the one of tissue via liquid-filling. Thereby, scattering loss can be decreased and higher penetration depth and tissue contrast can be achieved. Until now, images of liquid-filled lungs were acquired in isolated and fixated lungs only, so that an in vivo measurement situation is not present. To use the advantages of liquid-filling for in vivo ...
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    4. Optical coherence tomography for imaging of subpleural alveolar structure using a Fourier domain mode locked laser

      Optical coherence tomography for imaging of subpleural alveolar structure using a Fourier domain mode locked laser

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging modality generating cross sectional and volumetric images of translucent samples. In Fourier domain OCT (FD OCT), the depth profile is calculated by a fast Fourier transformation of the interference spectrum, providing speed and SNR advantage and thus making FD OCT well suitable in biomedical applications. The interference spectrum can be acquired spectrally resolved in spectral domain OCT or time-resolved in optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI). Since OCT images still suffer from motion artifacts, especially under in vivo conditions, increased depth scan rates are required. Therefor, the principle of Fourier domain mode locking ...

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    5. Postdoctoral Fellow Position in Biomedical Optics At Massachusetts General Hospital within the Pulmonary and Critical Care Unit and the Wellman Center for Photomedicine

      Postdoctoral Fellow Position in Biomedical Optics At Massachusetts General Hospital within the Pulmonary and Critical Care Unit and the Wellman Center for Photomedicine
      A Postdoctoral research opportunity in biomedical optics is available at the Massachusetts General Hospital within the Pulmonary and Critical Care Unit and the Wellman Center for Photomedicine. Harvard Medical School appointment will be at the postdoctoral rank. The successful candidate will work within a highly collaborative research environment focused on the development and use of optical diagnostics for studying lung pathology, structure and function both in preclinical animal studies and in first-in-patient pilot clinical studies. The position will involve the design and fabrication of novel optical imaging systems including polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography, and confocal microscopy systems, and the design ...
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    6. Tomophase Announces First Sale of Its OCT Imaging System (OCTIS™) for Research Use to the University of Texas

      Tomophase Announces First Sale of Its OCT Imaging System (OCTIS™) for Research Use to the University of Texas
      Tomophase Press Release - Tomophase Corporation, a leading developer of minimally invasive optical coherence tomography (OCT) tissue imaging devices, announced today that it has installed the first of its OCT Imaging Systems (OCTIS™) at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) in Galveston, Texas. This first system sale will be for research use in the laboratory of Dr. Massoud Motamedi, Director, Center for Biomedical Engineering at UTMB. Dr. Motamedi will be conducting research on application of OCT in intraluminal imaging. Dr Motamedi said, "There is a great need for the development of a high resolution image-based technique for non-invasive assessment of ...
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    7. Intravital microscopy of subpleural alveoli via transthoracic endoscopy

      Intravital microscopy of subpleural alveoli via transthoracic endoscopy
      Transfer of too high mechanical energy from the ventilator to the lung's alveolar tissue is the main cause for ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). To investigate the effects of cyclic energy transfer to the alveoli, we introduce a new method of transthoracic endoscopy that provides morphological as well as functional information about alveolar geometry and mechanics. We evaluate the new endoscopic method to continuously record images of focused subpleural alveoli. The method is evaluated by using finite element modeling techniques and by direct observation of subpleural alveoli both in isolated rat lungs as well as in intact animals (rats). The ...
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    8. In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe

      In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe

      In situ imaging of alveoli and the smaller airways with optical coherence tomography (OCT) has significant potential in the assessment of lung disease. We present a minimally invasive imaging technique utilizing an OCT needle probe. The side-facing needle probe comprises miniaturized focusing optics consisting of no-core and GRIN fiber encased within a 23-gauge needle. 3D-OCT volumetric data sets were acquired by rotating and retracting the probe during imaging. The probe was used to image an intact, fresh (not fixed) sheep lung filled with normal saline, and the results validated against a histological gold standard. We present the first published images ...

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    9. Automated segmentation of lung airway wall area measurements from bronchoscopic optical coherence Tomography imaging

      Automated segmentation of lung airway wall area measurements from bronchoscopic optical coherence Tomography imaging

      Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) affects almost 600 million people and is currently the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. COPD is an umbrella term for respiratory symptoms that accompany destruction of the lung parenchyma and/or remodeling of the airway wall, the sum of which result in decreased expiratory flow, dyspnea and gas trapping. Currently, x-ray computed tomography (CT) is the main clinical method used for COPD imaging, providing excellent spatial resolution for quantitative tissue measurements although dose limitations and the fundamental spatial resolution of CT limit the measurement of airway dimensions beyond the 5th generation. To address this ...

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    10. Central Airway Compliance in Asthma: Up or Down? Good or Bad?

      Central Airway Compliance in Asthma: Up or Down? Good or Bad?

      In this issue of the Journal, Williamson and coworkers (pp. 612–619) report on the use of anatomical optical coherence tomography(OCT) to measure the luminal area of central intrathoracic airways (generations 0–5) (1). By coupling this dynamic, in vivomeasurement with simultaneously measured transpulmonary pressure, they derived area–pressure relationships of these airwaysand calculated airway compliance (Caw) and specific compliance(sCaw). They then compared these values in control subjects andthose with obstructive lung diseases: asthma, chronic obstructivepulmonary disease (COPD), and bronchiectasis. This is an excitinguse of a new technology, and their results are surprising.First described in 1991 (2 ...

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    11. Progress Toward Optical Biopsy: Bringing the Microscope to the Patient

      Progress Toward Optical Biopsy: Bringing the Microscope to the Patient
      Abstract  The investigation of many lung diseases currently requires bronchoscopic or surgical histopathological tissue biopsy. This creates risks for patients and entails processing costs and delays in diagnosis. However, several mainly probe-based biophotonic techniques that can image solitary lesions and diffuse lung diseases are fuelling a paradigm shift toward real-time in vivo diagnosis. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) uses near-infrared light in a process analogous to ultrasonography to image the mucosal and submucosal tissue boundaries of the bronchial tree. With 15-μm resolution, early work suggests it can differentiate between neoplasia, carcinoma in situ, dysplasia, and metaplasia based around epithelial thickness and ...
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    12. Ex-vivo ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of fine lung structure by use of a high-power Gaussian-like supercontinuum at 0.8-μm wavelength

      Ex-vivo ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of fine lung structure by use of a high-power Gaussian-like supercontinuum at 0.8-μm wavelength

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging technology for non-invasive cross-sectional imaging of biological tissue and material with um resolution. Recently, non-invasive high resolution cross-sectional imaging is desired for investigation of diseases in lung in the field of pulmonary medicine. So far, a few works have been reported about OCT imaging of lung. Since the lung consists of alveoli separated by thin wall, ultrahigh resolution (UHR) OCT is supposed to be effective for the imaging of fine structure in lung tissue. In this work, ex vivo cross-sectional imaging of isolated rat lungs was demonstrated using UHR-OCT. A 120 nm-wide, high-power ...

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    13. Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of lung structure using Gaussian shaped super continuum sources

      Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of lung structure using Gaussian shaped super continuum sources

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging technology for non-invasive cross-sectional imaging of biological tissue and material with um resolution. In the field of pulmonary medicine, non-invasive high resolution cross-sectional imaging is desired for investigation of diseases in lung. So far, a few works have been reported about OCT imaging of lung. Since the lung consists of alveoli separated by thin wall, ultrahigh resolution (UHR) OCT is supposed to be effective for the imaging of fine structure in lung tissue. In this work, ex vivo cross-sectional imaging of isolated rat and hamster lungs was demonstrated using UHR-OCT. A 120 nm-wide ...

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    14. Three-dimensional functional imaging of lung parenchyma using optical coherence tomography combined with confocal fluorescence microscopy

      Three-dimensional functional imaging of lung parenchyma using optical coherence tomography combined with confocal fluorescence microscopy

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT), as a non-invasive technique for studying tissue morphology, is widely used in in vivo studies, requiring high resolution and fast three-dimensional imaging. Based on light scattering it reveals micrometer sized substructures of the samples due to changes in their optical properties and therefore allows quantification of the specimen's geometry. Utilizing fluorescence microscopy further information can be obtained from molecular compositions embedded in the investigated object. Fluorescent markers, specifically binding to the substance of interest, reveal the sample's chemical structure and give rise to functional studies. This research presents the application of a combined OCT ...

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    15. Quantification of airway thickness changes in smoke-inhalation injury using in-vivo 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography

      Quantification of airway thickness changes in smoke-inhalation injury using in-vivo 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography

      Smoke inhalation injury is frequently accompanied by cyanide poisoning that may result in substantial morbidity and mortality, and methods are needed to quantitatively determine extent of airway injury. We utilized a 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) constructed with a swept-source laser to investigate morphological airway changes following smoke and cyanide exposure in rabbits. The thickness of the mucosal area between the epithelium and cartilage in the airway was measured and quantified. 3-D endoscopic FD-OCT was able to detect significant increases in the thickness of the tracheal walls of the rabbit beginning almost immediately after smoke inhalation injuries which ...

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    16. OCT firm Tomophase gains FDA clearance

      OCT firm Tomophase gains FDA clearance
      Tomophase, a Burlington, Massachusetts company developing "OCTIS", a novel imaging system based on optical coherence tomography (OCT), has received clearance from the Food & Drug Administration (FDA) to market the system in the US. The company is working in particular on the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases using the optical technique, and the OCTIS system employs a disposable optical catheter to image airways and lung tissue. Ralph Johnston, the president and COO of Tomophase, says of the potential applications: “Our company is committed to providing new medical imaging products to improve the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lung and airways ...
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    17. Tomophase OCTIS(TM) Receives FDA 510(K) Clearance to Market

      Tomophase OCTIS(TM) Receives FDA 510(K) Clearance to Market
      Tomophase Corporation, developer of the non-invasive Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging System (OCTIS™) and other devices, announced today that it has received FDA 510(k) clearance to market OCTIS. Tomophase is a leader in the development of OCT brochoscopically-based imaging systems for interventional pulmonology. OCTIS is comprised of a single-use disposable optical catheter and imaging console. Initially OCTIS will be deployed for tissue imaging of airways and lungs, followed by diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) recently released by the NCI represents an example of how OCT will be applied. In the NLST, the risk of dying ...
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    18. Imaging true 3D endoscopic anatomy by incorporating magnetic tracking with optical coherence tomography: proof-of-principle for airways

      Imaging true 3D endoscopic anatomy by incorporating magnetic tracking with optical coherence tomography: proof-of-principle for airways

      Endoscopic imaging using optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been demonstrated as clinically useful in the assessment of human airways. These airways have a complex 3D structure, bending, tapering and bifurcating. Previously published 3D OCT reconstructions have not accounted for changes in the orientation and trajectory of the endoscopic probe as it moves through the airway during imaging. We propose a novel endoscopic setup incorporating a magnetic tracking system that accounts for these changes, yielding reconstructions that reveal the true 3D nature of the imaged anatomy. We characterize the accuracy of the system, and present the first published magnetic tracker-assisted endoscopic ...

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    19. Mapping physiological functions of tissues in lungs and other organs

      Mapping physiological functions of tissues in lungs and other organs
      Systems, apparatus and techniques for non-invasive optical probing of various substances, and systems, apparatus and techniques for detecting, diagnosing and treating a disease in lungs and other organs using the non-invasive optical probing, including mapping physiological functions of tissues in lungs and other organs.
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    20. Tomophase Receives Qualifying Therapeutic Discovery Project (QTDP) Award

      Tomophase Receives Qualifying Therapeutic Discovery Project (QTDP) Award
      BURLINGTON, Mass., Nov. 5, 2010 -- Tomophase Corporation, a leading developer of minimally invasive optical coherence tomography (OCT) tissue imaging devices, announced that it has received an award from the Departments of the Treasury and Health and Human Services for the Qualifying Therapeutic Discovery Project (QTDP.) The Qualifying Therapeutic Discovery Project is a federally sponsored program that is targeted to projects that show a reasonable potential to: Result in new therapies to treat areas of unmet medical need or prevent, detect, or treat chronic or acute diseases and conditions; Reduce the long-term growth of health care costs in the United States ...
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    21. Phenotyping Airways Disease With Optical Coherence Tomography

      Phenotyping Airways Disease With Optical Coherence Tomography

      Airway diseases are a major concern around the world. However, the pace of new drug and biomarker discovery has lagged behind those of other common disorders such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. One major barrier in airways research has been the inability to accurately visualize large and small airway remodeling or dysplastic/neoplastic (either pre or early cancerous) changes using non or minimally invasive instruments. The advent of optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to revolutionize airway research and management by allowing investigators and clinicians to visualize the airway with resolution approaching histology without exposing patients to harmful effects ...

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    22. Elastic Properties of the Central Airways in Obstructive Lung Diseases Measured Using Anatomical Optical Coherence Tomography

      Elastic Properties of the Central Airways in Obstructive Lung Diseases Measured Using Anatomical Optical Coherence Tomography
      Rationale: Our understanding of how airway remodeling affects regional airway elastic properties is limited due to technical difficulties in quantitatively measuring dynamic, in vivo airway dimensions. Such knowledge could help elucidate mechanisms of excessive airway narrowing. Objectives: To utilize anatomical optical coherence tomography (aOCT) to compare central airway elastic properties in control subjects and those with obstructive lung diseases. Methods: Following bronchodilation, airway lumen area (Ai) was measured using aOCT during bronchoscopy in control subjects (n=10) and those with asthma (n=16), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n=9) and bronchiectasis (n=8). Ai was measured in each of ...
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    23. Diagnostic bronchoscopy: state of the art

      Diagnostic bronchoscopy: state of the art
      Since the introduction of the flexible fibreoptic bronchoscope in the late 1960s there have been relatively few technological advances for three decades, aside from the development of a white light video bronchoscope with a miniature charge-coupled device built in its tip replacing the fibreoptics. White light flexible videobronchoscopy with its ancillary devices (forceps biopsy, bronchial brushing, bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial washings and transbronchial needle aspiration) has long been the only established diagnostic bronchoscopic technique. With the advances in microtechnology over the past two decades, recent technical developments such as autofluorescence bronchoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound allow better evaluation of endobronchial, mediastinal and ...
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    24. Advances in Diagnostic Bronchoscopy

      Advances in Diagnostic Bronchoscopy
      Diagnostic bronchoscopy has undergone two major paradigm shifts in the last 40 years. First, the advent of flexible bronchoscopy gave chest physicians improved access to the tracheobronchial tree with a rapid learning curve and greater patient comfort compared with rigid bronchoscopy. The second paradigm shift has evolved over the last 5 years with the proliferation of new technologies that have significantly enhanced the diagnostic capabilities of flexible bronchoscopy compared with traditional methods. At the forefront of these new technologies is endobronchial ultrasound. In its various forms, endobronchial ultrasound has improved diagnostic yield for pulmonary masses, nodules, intrathoracic adenopathy, and disease ...
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    145-168 of 240 « 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 »
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