1. Articles in category: Pulmonology

    145-168 of 232 « 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 »
    1. Automated segmentation of lung airway wall area measurements from bronchoscopic optical coherence Tomography imaging

      Automated segmentation of lung airway wall area measurements from bronchoscopic optical coherence Tomography imaging

      Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) affects almost 600 million people and is currently the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. COPD is an umbrella term for respiratory symptoms that accompany destruction of the lung parenchyma and/or remodeling of the airway wall, the sum of which result in decreased expiratory flow, dyspnea and gas trapping. Currently, x-ray computed tomography (CT) is the main clinical method used for COPD imaging, providing excellent spatial resolution for quantitative tissue measurements although dose limitations and the fundamental spatial resolution of CT limit the measurement of airway dimensions beyond the 5th generation. To address this ...

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    2. Central Airway Compliance in Asthma: Up or Down? Good or Bad?

      Central Airway Compliance in Asthma: Up or Down? Good or Bad?

      In this issue of the Journal, Williamson and coworkers (pp. 612–619) report on the use of anatomical optical coherence tomography(OCT) to measure the luminal area of central intrathoracic airways (generations 0–5) (1). By coupling this dynamic, in vivomeasurement with simultaneously measured transpulmonary pressure, they derived area–pressure relationships of these airwaysand calculated airway compliance (Caw) and specific compliance(sCaw). They then compared these values in control subjects andthose with obstructive lung diseases: asthma, chronic obstructivepulmonary disease (COPD), and bronchiectasis. This is an excitinguse of a new technology, and their results are surprising.First described in 1991 (2 ...

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    3. Progress Toward Optical Biopsy: Bringing the Microscope to the Patient

      Progress Toward Optical Biopsy: Bringing the Microscope to the Patient
      Abstract  The investigation of many lung diseases currently requires bronchoscopic or surgical histopathological tissue biopsy. This creates risks for patients and entails processing costs and delays in diagnosis. However, several mainly probe-based biophotonic techniques that can image solitary lesions and diffuse lung diseases are fuelling a paradigm shift toward real-time in vivo diagnosis. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) uses near-infrared light in a process analogous to ultrasonography to image the mucosal and submucosal tissue boundaries of the bronchial tree. With 15-μm resolution, early work suggests it can differentiate between neoplasia, carcinoma in situ, dysplasia, and metaplasia based around epithelial thickness and ...
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    4. Ex-vivo ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of fine lung structure by use of a high-power Gaussian-like supercontinuum at 0.8-μm wavelength

      Ex-vivo ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of fine lung structure by use of a high-power Gaussian-like supercontinuum at 0.8-μm wavelength

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging technology for non-invasive cross-sectional imaging of biological tissue and material with um resolution. Recently, non-invasive high resolution cross-sectional imaging is desired for investigation of diseases in lung in the field of pulmonary medicine. So far, a few works have been reported about OCT imaging of lung. Since the lung consists of alveoli separated by thin wall, ultrahigh resolution (UHR) OCT is supposed to be effective for the imaging of fine structure in lung tissue. In this work, ex vivo cross-sectional imaging of isolated rat lungs was demonstrated using UHR-OCT. A 120 nm-wide, high-power ...

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    5. Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of lung structure using Gaussian shaped super continuum sources

      Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of lung structure using Gaussian shaped super continuum sources

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging technology for non-invasive cross-sectional imaging of biological tissue and material with um resolution. In the field of pulmonary medicine, non-invasive high resolution cross-sectional imaging is desired for investigation of diseases in lung. So far, a few works have been reported about OCT imaging of lung. Since the lung consists of alveoli separated by thin wall, ultrahigh resolution (UHR) OCT is supposed to be effective for the imaging of fine structure in lung tissue. In this work, ex vivo cross-sectional imaging of isolated rat and hamster lungs was demonstrated using UHR-OCT. A 120 nm-wide ...

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    6. Three-dimensional functional imaging of lung parenchyma using optical coherence tomography combined with confocal fluorescence microscopy

      Three-dimensional functional imaging of lung parenchyma using optical coherence tomography combined with confocal fluorescence microscopy

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT), as a non-invasive technique for studying tissue morphology, is widely used in in vivo studies, requiring high resolution and fast three-dimensional imaging. Based on light scattering it reveals micrometer sized substructures of the samples due to changes in their optical properties and therefore allows quantification of the specimen's geometry. Utilizing fluorescence microscopy further information can be obtained from molecular compositions embedded in the investigated object. Fluorescent markers, specifically binding to the substance of interest, reveal the sample's chemical structure and give rise to functional studies. This research presents the application of a combined OCT ...

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    7. Quantification of airway thickness changes in smoke-inhalation injury using in-vivo 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography

      Quantification of airway thickness changes in smoke-inhalation injury using in-vivo 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography
      Smoke inhalation injury is frequently accompanied by cyanide poisoning that may result in substantial morbidity and mortality, and methods are needed to quantitatively determine extent of airway injury. We utilized a 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) constructed with a swept-source laser to investigate morphological airway changes following smoke and cyanide exposure in rabbits. The thickness of the mucosal area between the epithelium and cartilage in the airway was measured and quantified. 3-D endoscopic FD-OCT was able to detect significant increases in the thickness of the tracheal walls of the rabbit beginning almost immediately after smoke inhalation injuries which ...
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    8. OCT firm Tomophase gains FDA clearance

      OCT firm Tomophase gains FDA clearance
      Tomophase, a Burlington, Massachusetts company developing "OCTIS", a novel imaging system based on optical coherence tomography (OCT), has received clearance from the Food & Drug Administration (FDA) to market the system in the US. The company is working in particular on the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases using the optical technique, and the OCTIS system employs a disposable optical catheter to image airways and lung tissue. Ralph Johnston, the president and COO of Tomophase, says of the potential applications: “Our company is committed to providing new medical imaging products to improve the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lung and airways ...
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    9. Tomophase OCTIS(TM) Receives FDA 510(K) Clearance to Market

      Tomophase OCTIS(TM) Receives FDA 510(K) Clearance to Market
      Tomophase Corporation, developer of the non-invasive Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging System (OCTIS™) and other devices, announced today that it has received FDA 510(k) clearance to market OCTIS. Tomophase is a leader in the development of OCT brochoscopically-based imaging systems for interventional pulmonology. OCTIS is comprised of a single-use disposable optical catheter and imaging console. Initially OCTIS will be deployed for tissue imaging of airways and lungs, followed by diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) recently released by the NCI represents an example of how OCT will be applied. In the NLST, the risk of dying ...
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    10. Imaging true 3D endoscopic anatomy by incorporating magnetic tracking with optical coherence tomography: proof-of-principle for airways

      Imaging true 3D endoscopic anatomy by incorporating magnetic tracking with optical coherence tomography: proof-of-principle for airways

      Endoscopic imaging using optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been demonstrated as clinically useful in the assessment of human airways. These airways have a complex 3D structure, bending, tapering and bifurcating. Previously published 3D OCT reconstructions have not accounted for changes in the orientation and trajectory of the endoscopic probe as it moves through the airway during imaging. We propose a novel endoscopic setup incorporating a magnetic tracking system that accounts for these changes, yielding reconstructions that reveal the true 3D nature of the imaged anatomy. We characterize the accuracy of the system, and present the first published magnetic tracker-assisted endoscopic ...

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    11. Mapping physiological functions of tissues in lungs and other organs

      Mapping physiological functions of tissues in lungs and other organs
      Systems, apparatus and techniques for non-invasive optical probing of various substances, and systems, apparatus and techniques for detecting, diagnosing and treating a disease in lungs and other organs using the non-invasive optical probing, including mapping physiological functions of tissues in lungs and other organs.
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    12. Tomophase Receives Qualifying Therapeutic Discovery Project (QTDP) Award

      Tomophase Receives Qualifying Therapeutic Discovery Project (QTDP) Award
      BURLINGTON, Mass., Nov. 5, 2010 -- Tomophase Corporation, a leading developer of minimally invasive optical coherence tomography (OCT) tissue imaging devices, announced that it has received an award from the Departments of the Treasury and Health and Human Services for the Qualifying Therapeutic Discovery Project (QTDP.) The Qualifying Therapeutic Discovery Project is a federally sponsored program that is targeted to projects that show a reasonable potential to: Result in new therapies to treat areas of unmet medical need or prevent, detect, or treat chronic or acute diseases and conditions; Reduce the long-term growth of health care costs in the United States ...
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    13. Phenotyping Airways Disease With Optical Coherence Tomography

      Phenotyping Airways Disease With Optical Coherence Tomography

      Airway diseases are a major concern around the world. However, the pace of new drug and biomarker discovery has lagged behind those of other common disorders such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. One major barrier in airways research has been the inability to accurately visualize large and small airway remodeling or dysplastic/neoplastic (either pre or early cancerous) changes using non or minimally invasive instruments. The advent of optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to revolutionize airway research and management by allowing investigators and clinicians to visualize the airway with resolution approaching histology without exposing patients to harmful effects ...

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    14. Elastic Properties of the Central Airways in Obstructive Lung Diseases Measured Using Anatomical Optical Coherence Tomography

      Elastic Properties of the Central Airways in Obstructive Lung Diseases Measured Using Anatomical Optical Coherence Tomography
      Rationale: Our understanding of how airway remodeling affects regional airway elastic properties is limited due to technical difficulties in quantitatively measuring dynamic, in vivo airway dimensions. Such knowledge could help elucidate mechanisms of excessive airway narrowing. Objectives: To utilize anatomical optical coherence tomography (aOCT) to compare central airway elastic properties in control subjects and those with obstructive lung diseases. Methods: Following bronchodilation, airway lumen area (Ai) was measured using aOCT during bronchoscopy in control subjects (n=10) and those with asthma (n=16), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n=9) and bronchiectasis (n=8). Ai was measured in each of ...
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    15. Diagnostic bronchoscopy: state of the art

      Diagnostic bronchoscopy: state of the art
      Since the introduction of the flexible fibreoptic bronchoscope in the late 1960s there have been relatively few technological advances for three decades, aside from the development of a white light video bronchoscope with a miniature charge-coupled device built in its tip replacing the fibreoptics. White light flexible videobronchoscopy with its ancillary devices (forceps biopsy, bronchial brushing, bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial washings and transbronchial needle aspiration) has long been the only established diagnostic bronchoscopic technique. With the advances in microtechnology over the past two decades, recent technical developments such as autofluorescence bronchoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound allow better evaluation of endobronchial, mediastinal and ...
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    16. Advances in Diagnostic Bronchoscopy

      Advances in Diagnostic Bronchoscopy
      Diagnostic bronchoscopy has undergone two major paradigm shifts in the last 40 years. First, the advent of flexible bronchoscopy gave chest physicians improved access to the tracheobronchial tree with a rapid learning curve and greater patient comfort compared with rigid bronchoscopy. The second paradigm shift has evolved over the last 5 years with the proliferation of new technologies that have significantly enhanced the diagnostic capabilities of flexible bronchoscopy compared with traditional methods. At the forefront of these new technologies is endobronchial ultrasound. In its various forms, endobronchial ultrasound has improved diagnostic yield for pulmonary masses, nodules, intrathoracic adenopathy, and disease ...
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    17. Changes and Current State of Diagnosis of Lung Cancer After Development of the Flexible Bronchofiberscope

      Changes and Current State of Diagnosis of Lung Cancer After Development of the Flexible Bronchofiberscope
      The flexible bronchofiberscope developed by Ikeda et al. has brought about revolutionary changes in the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Advances in this device are continuing to emerge and lesions even smaller than those visible to the naked eye can now be visualized. In addition, the use of ultrasound now enables diagnosis of extramural bronchial lesions. Bronchoscopy is also used for the treatment of early hilar lung cancer, and in patients with airway stenosis due to advanced cancer, laser therapy, brachytherapy, and stenting can be performed. The bronchofiberscope is also very useful for tissue sampling from the lung periphery ...
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    18. Photodynamic therapy using NPe6 for bronchogenic carcinomas in central airways more than 1.0 cm in diameter.

      Photodynamic therapy using NPe6 for bronchogenic carcinomas in central airways more than 1.0 cm in diameter.
      Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is recommended as a treatment option for centrally located early lung cancers (CLELCs), meaning roentgenographically occult squamous cell carcinomas that are located no more distally than segmental bronchi and, histologically, are either carcinoma in situ or carcinoma associated with only limited invasion. Since CLELC patients who are heavy smokers are at fairly high risk of developing a second primary lung cancer, they require treatment that will preserve their cardiopulmonary function. Most centrally located early lung cancers (CLELCs) less than 1.0 cm in diameter do not invade beyond the bronchial cartilage, and photodynamic therapy (PDT) with ...
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    19. Virtual four-dimensional imaging of lung parenchyma by optical coherence tomography in mice

      Virtual four-dimensional imaging of lung parenchyma by optical coherence tomography in mice
      In this feasibility study, we present a method for virtual 4-D imaging of healthy and injured subpleural lung tissue in the ventilated mouse. We use triggered swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) with an A-scan frequency of 20 kHz to image murine subpleural alveoli during the inspiratory phase. The data acquisition is gated to the ventilation pressure to take single B-scans in each respiration cycle for different pressure levels. The acquired B-scans are combined off-line into one volume scan for each pressure level. The air fraction in healthy lungs and injured lungs is measured using 2-D OCT en-face images. Upon ...
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    20. Combining optical coherence tomography with fluorescence microscopy: a closer look into tissue

      Combining optical coherence tomography with fluorescence microscopy: a closer look into tissue

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a technique, capable of high resolution and non-invasive 3D imaging in vivo by detection of backscattered light from cellular and sub cellular structures. Due to visualization of micrometer sized tissue constituents and high penetration depths of up to 2 mm, it is already well established in medical fields like ophthalmology and dermatology. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), on the contrary, gives further information on structural tissue components stained with suitable dyes. In combination, these two methods yield three dimensional and high resolution data providing geometrical and structural details of tissue. In this study, we present ...

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    21. Optical Coherence Tomography as an Adjunct to Flexible Bronchoscopy in the Diagnosis of Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study

      Optical Coherence Tomography as an Adjunct to Flexible Bronchoscopy in the Diagnosis of Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study
      Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and the second most common type of cancer in both men and women. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can generate high resolution cross-sectional images of complex, living tissues in real time. The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of using OCT during flexible bronchoscopy, and to preliminarily assess the ability of OCT to distinguish an endobronchial malignancy from normal endobronchial mucosa. Methods: A NirisTM OCT probe was introduced into the airways of patients with an endobronchial mass during flexible bronchoscopy. An investigational device exemption ...
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    22. Competing Technologies: Ultrasound, Navigational Bronchoscopy, Optical Coherence Tomography, etc. – Who Will Win Out?

      Competing Technologies: Ultrasound, Navigational Bronchoscopy, Optical Coherence Tomography, etc. – Who Will Win Out?
      Bronchoscopy in the new millennium spells an exciting time for the pulmonologist, which likens to Alice peering through the looking glass into a wonderland of miniaturized probes, superior optics and technology that are advancing at a maddening pace. Whilst scientists continue to push the envelope using nanotechnology where nanoparticles each measuring one billionth of a meter may facilitate further miniaturization of probes to allow imaging at the cellular or molecular level as well as for targeted drug or gene delivery in the near future, it is opportune to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of available technologies in thoracic imaging, for ...
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    23. Bronchoscopic Advances: On the Way to the Cells

      Bronchoscopic Advances: On the Way to the Cells
      In the past 15 years, new endoscopic methods have been developed in order to improve the detection of early bronchial cancers, with autofluorescence bronchoscopy being the leading technique. However, autofluorescence bronchoscopy is hampered by the low specificity of the fluorescence defect which ranges from 25 to 50%, and its limitation to the proximal bronchial tree from which arise only half of the lung cancers that are currently diagnosed. To overcome these limitations, other techniques emerge including video/autofluorescence bronchoscopy, narrow band imaging, optical coherence tomography, and ‘endomicroscopy’ using confocal fluorescent laser microscopy. These emerging techniques provide new insight into bronchology ...
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    24. Tomophase Receives Seventh Patent: Delivering Light via Optical Waveguide and Multiview Optical Probe Head

      Tomophase Receives Seventh Patent: Delivering Light via Optical Waveguide and Multiview Optical Probe Head
      BURLINGTON, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Tomophase Corporation, a leading developer of non-invasive optical coherence tomography (OCT) tissue imaging devices, announced today that it has received notification of the issuance of its seventh patent: Delivering Light via Optical Waveguide and Multi-view Opt
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    145-168 of 232 « 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 »
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