1. Articles in category: Pulmonology

    121-144 of 243 « 1 2 ... 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 »
    1. Interventional Pulmonology: Focus on Pulmonary Diagnostics

      Interventional Pulmonology: Focus on Pulmonary Diagnostics

      Interventional pulmonology (IP) allows comprehensive assessment of patients with benign and malignant airway, lung parenchymal and pleural disease. This relatively new branch of pulmonary medicine utilises advanced diagnostic and therapeutic techniques to treat patients with pulmonary diseases. Endobronchial ultrasound revolutionized assessment of pulmonary nodules, mediastinal lymphadenopathy and lung cancer staging allowing minimally-invasive, highly accurate assessment of lung parenchymal and mediastinal disease, with both macro- and microscopic tissue characterization including molecular signature analysis. High spatial resolution, new endobronchial imaging techniques including Autofluorescence Bronchoscopy (ABI), Narrow Band Imaging (NBI), Optical Coherence Tomography and confocal microscopy enable detailed evaluation of airways with increasing ...

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    2. New Techniques for Optical and Molecular Visualization of Lung Cancer

      New Techniques for Optical and Molecular Visualization of Lung Cancer

      Current imaging techniques do not allow visualization of the histology of pulmonary lesions prior to biopsy and, thus, sampling errors may lead to incorrect diagnoses, optimal areas of a tumor may not be sampled for diagnosis and heterogeneous patterns within a single cancer having an impact on treatment may not be sampled. Several imaging modalities are under investigation to provide real-time in vivo histologic images with subcellular resolution, equivalent to traditional histologic sections, and potential identification of molecular targets in vivo, greatly enhancing biopsy procurement and possibly replacing traditional biopsy with “optical biopsy” in the future. Potential benefits of these ...

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    3. Three-dimensional simultaneous optical coherence tomography and confocal fluorescence microscopy for investigation of lung tissue

      Three-dimensional simultaneous optical coherence tomography and confocal fluorescence microscopy for investigation of lung tissue

      Although several strategies exist for a minimal-invasive treatment of patients with lung failure, the mortality rate of acute respiratory distress syndrome still reaches 30% at minimum. This striking number indicates the necessity of understanding lung dynamics on an alveolar level. To investigate the dynamical behavior on a microscale, we used three-dimensional geometrical and functional imaging to observe tissue parameters including alveolar size and length of embedded elastic fibers during ventilation. We established a combined optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal fluorescence microscopy system that is able to monitor the distension of alveolar tissue and elastin fibers simultaneously within three dimensions ...

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    4. Evaluation of optical reflectance techniques for imaging of alveolar structure

      Evaluation of optical reflectance techniques for imaging of alveolar structure

      Three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the fine structures within the lung parenchyma could advance our understanding of alveolar physiology and pathophysiology. Current knowledge has been primarily based on histology, but it is a destructive two-dimensional (2-D) technique that is limited by tissue processing artifacts. Micro-CT provides high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) imaging within a limited sample size, but is not applicable to intact lungs from larger animals or humans. Optical reflectance techniques offer the promise to visualize alveolar regions of the large animal or human lung with sub-cellular resolution in three dimensions. Here, we present the capabilities of three optical reflectance techniques, namely ...

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    5. Feature Of The Week 5/20/12: Dresden University of Technology Investigates Precision Lung Dynamics Using Four-Dimensional OCT

      Feature Of The Week 5/20/12: Dresden University of Technology Investigates Precision Lung Dynamics Using Four-Dimensional OCT

      The treatment of urgent lung diseases, such as the acute respiratory distress syndrome and the acute lung injury, requires the development of protective ventilation strategies with the help of numerical simulations. For this purpose, information about the structure of lung tissue and its dynamics is required on an alveolar level. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can obtain high resolution cross-sectional and volumetric data of lung tissue using rodent models. Access to the lung tissue is obtained by preparing a transparent thorax window. In previous studies, OCT imaging was limited by the depth scan rate and three-dimensional information has been obtained by ...

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    6. Airway Imaging in Disease; Gimmick or Useful Tool?

      Airway Imaging in Disease; Gimmick or Useful Tool?

      Airway remodeling is an important pathophysiological mechanism in a variety of chronic airway diseases. Historically investigators have had to use invasive techniques such as histological examination of excised tissue to study airway wall structure. The last several years has seen a proliferation of relatively non-invasive techniques to assess the airway branching pattern, wall thickness and, more recently, airway wall tissue components. These methods include computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and optical coherence tomography. These new imaging technologies have become popular because in order to understand the physiology of lung disease it is important we understand the underlying anatomy. However, these ...

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    7. Optical coherence tomography in conjunction with bronchoscopy

      Optical coherence tomography in conjunction with bronchoscopy

      Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of bronchoscopy in patients with clinical or radiological suspicion of tuberculosis who were unable to produce sputum or with negative sputum smear microscopy results. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study involving 286 patients under clinical or radiological suspicion of having pulmonary tuberculosis and submitted to bronchoscopy-BAL and transbronchial biopsy (TBB). The BAL specimens were submitted to direct testing and culture for AFB and fungi, whereas the TBB specimens were submitted to histopathological examination. Results: Of the 286 patients studied, 225 (79%) were diagnosed on the basis of bronchoscopic findings, as follows: pulmonary tuberculosis, in 127 ...

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    8. Refractive errors and corrections for OCT images in an inflated lung phantom

      Refractive errors and corrections for OCT images in an inflated lung phantom

      Visualization and correct assessment of alveolar volume via intact lung imaging is important to study and assess respiratory mechanics. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), a real-time imaging technique based on near-infrared interferometry, can image several layers of distal alveoli in intact, ex vivo lung tissue. However optical effects associated with heterogeneity of lung tissue, including the refraction caused by air-tissue interfaces along alveoli and duct walls, and changes in speed of light as it travels through the tissue, result in inaccurate measurement of alveolar volume. Experimentally such errors have been difficult to analyze because of lack of ’ground truth,’ as the ...

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    9. Four-dimensional imaging of murine subpleural alveoli using high-speed optical coherence tomography

      Four-dimensional imaging of murine subpleural alveoli using high-speed optical coherence tomography

      The investigation of lung dynamics on alveolar scale is crucial for the understanding and treatment of lung diseases, such as acute lung injury and ventilator induced lung injury, and to promote the development of protective ventilation strategies. One approach to this is the establishment of numerical simulations of lung tissue mechanics where detailed knowledge about three-dimensional alveolar structure changes during the ventilation cycle is required. We suggest four-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging as a promising modality for visualizing the structural dynamics of single alveoli in subpleural lung tissue with high temporal resolution using a mouse model. A high-speed OCT ...

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    10. Modeling the effect of refraction on OCT imaging of lung tissue: a ray-tracing approach

      Modeling the effect of refraction on OCT imaging of lung tissue: a ray-tracing approach

      Determining the structure of lung tissue is difficult in ex-vivo samples. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can image alveoli but ignores optical effects that distort the images. For example, light refracts and changes speed at the alveolar air-tissue surface. We employ ray-tracing to model OCT imaging with directional and speed changes included, using spherical shapes in 2D. Results show apparent thickening of inter-aveolar walls and distortion of shape and depth. Our approach suggests a correction algorithm by combining the model with image analysis. Distortion correction will allow inference of tissue mechanical properties and deeper imaging.

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    11. Multimodal imaging of lung tissue using optical coherence tomography and two photon microscopy

      Multimodal imaging of lung tissue using optical coherence tomography and two photon microscopy

      In the context of protective artificial ventilation strategies for patients with severe lung diseases, the contribution of ventilator settings to tissue changes on the alveolar level of the lung is still a question under debate. To understand the impact of respiratory settings as well as the dynamic process of respiration, high-resolution monitoring and visualization of the dynamics of lung alveoli are essential. An instrument allowing 3D imaging of lung tissue as well as imaging of functional constituents, such as elastin fibers, in in situ experimental conditions is presented in this study using a combination of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography ...

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    12. Quantitative investigation of alveolar structures with OCT using total liquid ventilation during mechanical ventilation

      Quantitative investigation of alveolar structures with OCT using total liquid ventilation during mechanical ventilation

      To develop new treatment possibilities for patients with severe lung diseases it is crucial to understand the lung function on an alveolar level. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) in combination with intravital microscopy (IVM) are used for imaging subpleural alveoli in animal models to gain information about dynamic and morphological changes of lung tissue during mechanical ventilation. The image content suitable for further analysis is influenced by image artifacts caused by scattering, refraction, reflection, and absorbance. Because the refractive index varies with each air-tissue interface in lung tissue, these effects decrease OCT image quality exceedingly. The quality of OCT images can ...

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    13. Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of diseased rat lung using Gaussian shaped super continuum sources

      Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of diseased rat lung using Gaussian shaped super continuum sources

      We have been investigating ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) imaging of lung tissues using fiber super continuum sources. The high power, low-noise, Gaussian shaped supercontinuum generated with ultrashort pulses and optical fibers at several wavelengths were used as the broadband light sources for UHR-OCT. For the 800 nm wavelength region, the axial resolution was 3.0 um in air and 2.0 um in tissue. Since the lung consists of tiny alveoli which are separated by thin wall, the UHR-OCT is supposed to be effective for lung imaging. The clear images of alveoli of rat were observed with and ...

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    14. Lung vasculature imaging using speckle variance optical coherence tomography

      Lung vasculature imaging using speckle variance optical coherence tomography

      Architectural changes in and remodeling of the bronchial and pulmonary vasculature are important pathways in diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer. However, there is a lack of methods that can find and examine small bronchial vasculature in vivo. Structural lung airway imaging using optical coherence tomography (OCT) has previously been shown to be of great utility in examining bronchial lesions during lung cancer screening under the guidance of autofluorescence bronchoscopy. Using a fiber optic endoscopic OCT probe, we acquire OCT images from in vivo human subjects. The side-looking, circumferentially-scanning probe is inserted down the ...

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    15. Quantification of Glucose Diffusion in Human Lung Tissues by Using Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Quantification of Glucose Diffusion in Human Lung Tissues by Using Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      In this study, we report permeability coefficients of 30% glucose diffusion by the optical coherence tomography signal slope (OCTSS) method in four kind of human lung tissue in vitro: normal lung tissue, benign granulomatosis lung tissue, squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma tumor. To quantify the permeability coefficient of the agent, the monitored region was the 80 um thickness at a tissue depth of approximately 230 um from the surface. The permeability coefficients of 30% glucose from 10 independent experiments were averaged and found to be (1.35 ± 0.13)×10 −5 cm/s from the normal lung tissue, (1.78 ...

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    16. Frontiers in Bronchoscopic Imaging

      Frontiers in Bronchoscopic Imaging
      Bronchoscopy is a minimally-invasive method for diagnosis of diseases of the airways and the lung parenchyma. Standard bronchoscopy uses the reflectance/scattering properties of white light from tissue to examine the macroscopic appearance of airways. It does not exploit the full spectrum of the optical properties of bronchial tissues. Advances in optical imaging such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), confocal endomicroscopy, autofluorescence imaging and laser Raman spectroscopy are at the forefront to allow in-vivo high resolution probing of the microscopic structure, biochemical compositions and even molecular alterations in disease states. OCT can visualize cellular and extracellular structures at and below ...
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    17. Early detection and treatment of squamous cell lung cancer

      Early detection and treatment of squamous cell lung cancer
      In this review, we discuss the detection, staging, and treatment of early-stage squamous cell lung cancer, with a focus on bronchoscopic techniques, including electrocauterization, argon plasma coagulation, cryotherapy, neodymium:yttriumaluminum- garnet laser therapy, photodynamic therapy, and intraluminal brachytherapy. The cure rate achieved with bronchoscopic techniques is 43-97%. Most bronchoscopic strategies are less morbid and less toxic than is non-bronchoscopic radiation therapy. Success depends on the application of stringent selection criteria for appropriate tumors, smaller tumors responding better. In some cases, electrocauterization, argon plasma coagulation, and cryotherapy can be conducted safely in an outpatient setting. There is sufficient technology available for ...
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    18. Investigating in vivo airway wall mechanics during tidal breathing with optical coherence tomography

      Investigating in vivo airway wall mechanics during tidal breathing with optical coherence tomography
      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a nondestructive imaging technique offering high temporal and spatial resolution, which makes it a natural choice for assessing tissue mechanical properties. We have developed methods to mechanically analyze the compliance of the rabbit trachea in vivo using tissue deformations induced by tidal breathing, offering a unique tool to assess the behavior of the airways during their normal function. Four-hundred images were acquired during tidal breathing with a custom-built endoscopic OCT system. The surface of the tissue was extracted from a set of these images via image processing algorithms, filtered with a bandpass filter set at ...
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    19. Recent advances in optical coherence tomography for the diagnoses of lung disorders

      Recent advances in optical coherence tomography for the diagnoses of lung disorders
      There have been many advances in the field of diagnostic and therapeutic pulmonary medicine in the past several years, with major progress in the field of imaging. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution (micron level) imaging modality currently being advanced with the potential to image airway wall structures in real time and at higher resolution than previously possible. OCT has the potential to increase the sensitivity and specificity of biopsies, create 3D images of the airway to guide diagnostics, and may have a future role in diverse areas such as the evaluation and treatment of patients with obstructive sleep ...
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    20. Ultrathin side-viewing needle probe for optical coherence tomography

      Ultrathin side-viewing needle probe for optical coherence tomography

      We present the smallest reported side-viewing needle probe for optical coherence tomography (OCT). Design, fabrication, optical characterization, and initial application of a 30-gauge (outer diameter 0.31 mm) needle probe are demonstrated. Extreme miniaturization is achieved by using a simple all-fiber probe design incorporating an angle-polished and reflection-coated fiber-tip beam deflector. When inserted into biological tissue, aqueous interstitial fluids reduce the probe’s inherent astigmatism ratio to 1.8, resulting in a working distance of 300 μm and a depth-of-field of 550 μm with beam diameters below 30 μm. The needle probe was interfaced with an 840 nm spectral-domain OCT ...

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    21. Early Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease Studies in Humans, NHLBI (R01)

      Early Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease Studies in Humans, NHLBI (R01)
      This FOA, issued by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institutes of Health, invites Research Project Grant (R01) applications that propose to investigate the early origins of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease and the mechanisms involved in development and progression of pulmonary abnormalities in young children with this condition. Studies may explore novel strategies for detecting early lung disease in infants and young children with CF, including minimally invasive biomarkers and/or imaging approaches, and utilize these methods to elucidate the molecular and cellular mechanisms of early lung disease onset and progression. The ultimate goal is development ...
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    22. B.C. Cancer Research Center Receives CIHR Grant To Investigate High-Resolution OCT Imaging of Bronchial Epithelium

      B.C. Cancer Research Center Receives CIHR Grant To Investigate High-Resolution OCT Imaging of Bronchial Epithelium
      B.C. Cancer Research Center received an operating grant from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research for $84,255 (Canadian Dollars) to investigate high-resolution OCT Imaging of Bronchial Epithelium. The principal investigator is Pierre Lane. Below is a summary of that work. Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death world-wide. More than 1.3 million people die annually and the 5-year survival rates have improved only marginally in the last three decades. We propose to combine autofluorescence bronchoscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to manage this disease through earlier detection and treatment. Autofluorescence bronchoscopy is a technique ...
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    23. UC Irvine Wins NIH Grant for Linking Biological, Optical, and Mechanical Properties in the Airway Mucosa.

      UC Irvine Wins NIH Grant for Linking Biological, Optical, and Mechanical Properties in the Airway Mucosa.
      The University of California at Irvine received a $396,400 NIH grant for linking biological, optical, and mechanical properties in the airway mucosa.  The principal investigator is Steven George.  Below is a summary of that work. Airway epithelial injury occurs following inhalation of toxic agents, infection, intubation, and in a chronic repetitive disease such as asthma which impacts approximately 10% of the population in the United States. The wound repair response of the epithelium can induce changes in the structure and mechanical properties of the underlying connective tissue that can alter normal lung function. In bronchial asthma, alterations in the ...
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    24. UC Irvine Receives NIH Grant for Work on High Resolution OCT for Early Airway Cancer Detection

      UC Irvine Receives NIH Grant for Work on High Resolution OCT for Early Airway Cancer Detection
      The University of California at Irvine received a $252,952 NIH grant for work on high resolution optical coherence tomography for early airway cancer detection.  The Principal investigator is Matthew Brenner.  Below is a summary of that work.  Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the US. Development of novel high resolution endoscopy is essential for more accurate diagnosis, staging, and treatment of endobronchial malignancy. Recent advances in rapid acquisition high-resolution flexible fiberoptic and rigid probe optical coherence tomography (OCT) offer the potential for endoscopic real-time near histologic level optical maging to substantially advance detection, diagnostics ...
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    121-144 of 243 « 1 2 ... 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 »
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