1. Articles in category: Pulmonology

    97-120 of 243 « 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ... 9 10 11 »
    1. In vivo lung microvasculature visualized in three dimensions using fiber-optic color Doppler optical coherence tomography

      In vivo lung microvasculature visualized in three dimensions using fiber-optic color Doppler optical coherence tomography

      For the first time, the use of fiber-optic color Doppler optical coherence tomography (CDOCT) to map in vivo the three-dimensional (3-D) vascular network of airway segments in human lungs is demonstrated. Visualizing the 3-D vascular network in the lungs may provide new opportunities for detecting and monitoring lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Our CDOCT instrument employs a rotary fiber-optic probe that provides simultaneous two-dimensional (2-D) real-time structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) and CDOCT imaging at frame rates up to 12.5 frames per second. Controlled pullback of the probe allows 3-D vascular mapping ...

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    2. Melissa Suter: Next-generation OCT for complex imaging of the lung

      Melissa Suter: Next-generation OCT for complex imaging of the lung

      Melissa J. Suter is a researcher in the Pulmonary and Critical Care Unit of the Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. Her lab is particularly interested in the development, use, and clinical translation of optical imaging systems and techniques, notably optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI), to address challenges in pulmonary medicine. Lab members are currently investigating the use of OFDI for studying lung cancer, asthma, and smoke inhalation injury in ex vivo, preclinical, and clinical studies.

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    3. Optical frequency domain imaging of ex vivo pulmonary resection specimens: obtaining one to one image to histopathology correlation

      Optical frequency domain imaging of ex vivo pulmonary resection specimens: obtaining one to one image to histopathology correlation

      Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths 1 . Squamous cell and small cell cancers typically arise in association with the conducting airways, whereas adenocarcinomas are typically more peripheral in location. Lung malignancy detection early in the disease process may be difficult due to several limitations: radiological resolution, bronchoscopic limitations in evaluating tissue underlying the airway mucosa and identifying early pathologic changes, and small sample size and/or incomplete sampling in histology biopsies. High resolution imaging modalities, such as optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI), provide non-destructive, large area 3-dimensional views of tissue microstructure to depths approaching 2 mm in ...

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    4. Tomophase and MOSS, S.p.A. Expand OCTIS Technology Throughout Italy with New Distribution Agreement

      Tomophase and MOSS, S.p.A. Expand OCTIS Technology Throughout Italy with New Distribution Agreement

      Tomophase Press Release - Tomophase Corporation, a leading developer of minimally invasive optical coherence tomography (OCT) tissue imaging devices, announced today that it has signed a distribution agreement with MOSS S.p.A. of Italy . The distribution agreement with MOSS covers the Tomophase product line including the OCT Imaging System, OCTIS™ and the OCTIS Probes in the territory Italy and San Marino . Upon signing, MOSS also purchased two systems for waiting Italian clinicians who are experts in pulmonary imaging. Delivery and installation of OCTIS is scheduled for June. These new systems for Italian medical centers follow the deployment and installation of ...

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    5. NinePoint Medical Imaging Technology Profiled in Three Recent Publications

      NinePoint Medical Imaging Technology Profiled in Three Recent Publications

      NinePoint Medical Press Release - Data Demonstrates OCT Imaging in Pulmonary Applications NinePoint Medical, Inc. , an emerging leader in the development of medical devices for in vivo imaging, today announced that data featuring its core imaging technologies were recently published in three major pulmonary journals. This research from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), highlighting pulmonary applications of advanced optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI), was featured in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine , CHEST and the Journal of Visual Experiments. The technology has been licensed by NinePoint Medical from MGH and is currently in the ...

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    6. Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of lung tissues

      Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of lung tissues

      We have been investigating ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) imaging of lung tissues using fiber based super continuum (SC) sources. The high power, low-noise, Gaussian shaped SC generated with ultrashort pulses and optical fibers at several wavelength regions were used as the broadband light sources for UHROCT. Since the lung consists of tiny alveoli which are separeted by thin wall, the UHR-OCT is supposed to be effective for lung imaging. The normal and diseased lung tissues were observed without invasive procedures to the lung itself. The clear images of alveoli were observed with index matching effect by saline. In ...

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    7. University of Alabama at Birmingham Receives NIH Grant for Functional Anatomic Imaging of Cystic Fibrosis Patients with Early Lung Disease using MicroOCT

      University of Alabama at Birmingham Receives NIH Grant for Functional Anatomic Imaging of Cystic Fibrosis Patients with Early Lung Disease using MicroOCT

      University of Alabama at Birmingham Received a $599,221 2013 NIH Grant for Functional Anatomic Imaging of Cystic Fibrosis Patients with Early Lung Disease using MicroOCT. The principal investigator is Steven Rowe. The program is part of a multiyear program that started in 2012 and ends in 2016. Below is a summary of the work. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion transporter of chloride and bicarbonate. Defective or deficient CFTR leads to severe mucoobstructive lung disease and severe morbidity and early mortality due to lung infections. Even though substantial ...

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    8. Interventions in Pulmonary Medicine (Book)

      Interventions in Pulmonary Medicine (Book)

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising technique for clinical diagnosis of various types of tissue, because high-resolution tomography is easily obtained by its compact imaging optics. The fundamental principles of OCT evolved from optical one-dimensional low-coherence reflectometry, which uses a Michelson interferometer and a broadband light source. Due to the additional transverse scanning (B-scan), two-dimensional imaging was obtained, and this technique was named OCT by Fujimoto and rapidly expanded to numerous biomedical and clinical applications

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    9. Fluorescence and Navigational Bronchoscopy

      Fluorescence and Navigational Bronchoscopy

      Bronchoscopy is a minimally invasive method for lung cancer diagnosis. Smaller and more maneuverable bronchoscopes with higher image resolution and an adequate biopsy channel are being developed. High-resolution multiplanar computed tomography (CT) is used to produce 3-dimensional virtual images of the bronchial tree. The target lesion can be confirmed by a miniradial ultrasound probe and potentially other technologies such as optical coherence tomography. These tools may provide a safer alternative method to CT-guided transthoracic lung biopsy for peripheral lung lesions that are not pleural based.

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    10. Method for Quantitative Study of Airway Functional Microanatomy Using Micro-Optical Coherence Tomography

      Method for Quantitative Study of Airway Functional Microanatomy Using Micro-Optical Coherence Tomography

      We demonstrate the use of a high resolution form of optical coherence tomography, termed micro-OCT (μOCT), for investigating the functional microanatomy of airway epithelia. μOCT captures several key parameters governing the function of the airway surface (airway surface liquid depth, periciliary liquid depth, ciliary function including beat frequency, and mucociliary transport rate) from the same series of images and without exogenous particles or labels, enabling non-invasive study of dynamic phenomena. Additionally, the high resolution of μOCT reveals distinguishable phases of the ciliary stroke pattern and glandular extrusion. Images and functional measurements from primary human bronchial epithelial cell cultures and excised ...

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    11. Validation of two-dimensional and three-dimensional measurements of subpleural alveolar size parameters by optical coherence tomography

      Validation of two-dimensional and three-dimensional measurements of subpleural alveolar size parameters by optical coherence tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been increasingly used for imaging pulmonary alveoli. Only a few studies, however, have quantified individual alveolar areas, and the validity of alveolar volumes represented within OCT images has not been shown. To validate quantitative measurements of alveoli from OCT images, we compared the cross-sectional area, perimeter, volume, and surface area of matched subpleural alveoli from microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and OCT images of fixed air-filled swine samples. The relative change in size between different alveoli was extremely well correlated ( r > 0.9 , P < 0.0001 ), but OCT images underestimated absolute sizes compared to micro-CT by 27 ...

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    12. High-speed upper-airway imaging using full-range optical coherence tomography

      High-speed upper-airway imaging using full-range optical coherence tomography

      Obstruction in the upper airway can often cause reductions in breathing or gas exchange efficiency and lead to rest disorders such as sleep apnea. Imaging diagnosis of the obstruction region has been accomplished using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However CT requires the use of ionizing radiation, and MRI typically requires sedation of the patient to prevent motion artifacts. Long-range optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to provide high-speed three-dimensional tomographic images with high resolution and without the use of ionizing radiation. In this paper, we present work on the development of a long-range OCT endoscopic ...

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    13. Assessment of the effects of ultrasound-mediated glucose on permeability of normal, benign, and cancerous human lung tissues with the Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

      Assessment of the effects of ultrasound-mediated glucose on permeability of normal, benign, and cancerous human lung tissues with the Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

      The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ultrasound-mediated analyte diffusion on permeability of normal, benign, and cancerous human lung tissue in vitro and to find more effective sonophoretic (SP) delivery in combination with the optical clearing agents (OCAs) method to distinguish normal and diseased lung tissues. The permeability coefficients of SP in combination with OCAs diffusion in lung tissue were measured with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). 30% glucose and SP with a frequency of 1 MHz and an intensity of 0.80     W / cm 2 over a 3 cm probe was simultaneously applied for 15 ...

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    14. Our Experience With Photodynamic Diagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy for Lung Cancer

      Our Experience With Photodynamic Diagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy for Lung Cancer

      he diagnosis of lung cancer was significantly enhanced by the development of the fiberoptic bronchoscope in 1965. Since then, advances in photosensitizers and light sources have brought photodynamic medicine into the light. This article offers an historic overview of the emergence of photodynamic medicine through the perspective of a pioneer with more than 30 years’ experience. Along with a discussion of photodynamic diagnosis of lung cancers via optical coherence tomography, the curative, palliative, and neoadjuvant roles of photodynamic therapy for early and advanced lung cancers are explored. An emerging strategy of using PDM to treat peripheral early-stage lung tumors is ...

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    15. Feature Of The Week 9/23/12: MGH Researchers Demonstrate Flexible Transbronchial OCT Imaging Needles for Biopsy Guidance

      Feature Of The Week 9/23/12: MGH Researchers Demonstrate Flexible Transbronchial OCT Imaging Needles for Biopsy Guidance

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems routinely use single-mode optical fibers to transfer light to and from biological samples.  The tiny cross section, low-cost, and flexibility of single-mode optical fibers have proven to be a powerful attribute that allows for a wide variety optical coherence tomography (OCT) probes to be constructed including ultra small catheters, guidewires, and endoscope to get light to and from hard to reach places in the human body.  OCT equipped fiber optic needle probes are increasingly proving to be powerful technique for guidance of needle placement (search "needle" in the search box to see some of the ...

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    16. Four-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of subpleural alveoli in mice

      Four-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of subpleural alveoli in mice

      The development of protective ventilation strategies for patients suffering from life-threatening lung diseases and the promotion of numerical simulation of lung tissue mechanics requires detailed knowledge about the three-dimensional alveolar micro-structure, their dynamics and elastic properties. Subpleural lung tissue can be observed in animal models utilizing optical coherence tomography (OCT) with a high spatial resolution. We present four-dimensional high-speed OCT imaging of single alveoli as a suitable technique for the visualization of the temporal changes of the three-dimensional structure during the ventilation with a temporal resolution of 17 stacks per ventilation cycle. The acquired four-dimensional information allows a quantitative evaluation ...

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    17. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Receives a 2012 NIH Grant for Development of a Method for In Situ Nanorehology of Human Airway Mucus

      University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Receives a 2012 NIH Grant for Development of a Method for In Situ Nanorehology of Human Airway Mucus

      University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Receives a 2012 NIH Grant for $223,507 Development of a Method for In Situ Nanorehology of Human Airway Mucus. The program is a multi-year program and started in 2012 and ends in 2014. The principle investigator is Amy Oldenburg. A brief description of the project is given below. We propose to develop a novel nanorheology platform to simultaneously map mucus viscoelasticity and mucus flow in situ. Increase in airway mucus complex viscoelastic shear modulus (G*) hinders mucus clearance and is associated with respiratory diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic ...

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    18. University of California Irvine receives a 2012 NIH Grant for Linking Biological, Optical, and Mechanical Properties in the Airway Mucosa

      University of California Irvine receives a 2012 NIH Grant for Linking Biological, Optical, and Mechanical Properties in the Airway Mucosa

      University of California Irvine receives a 2012 NIH Grant for $443,776 for Linking Biological, Optical, and Mechanical Properties in the Airway Mucosa. The program is a multi-year program and started in 2001 and ends in 2013. The principle investigator is Steven George. A brief description of the project is given below. Airway epithelial injury occurs following inhalation of toxic agents, infection, intubation, and in a chronic repetitive disease such as asthma which impacts approximately 10% of the population in the United States. The wound repair response of the epithelium can induce changes in the structure and mechanical properties of ...

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    19. Flexible transbronchial optical frequency domain imaging smart needle for biopsy guidance

      Flexible transbronchial optical frequency domain imaging smart needle for biopsy guidance

      Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is a procedure routinely performed to diagnose peripheral pulmonary lesions. However, TBNA is associated with a low diagnostic yield due to inappropriate needle placement. We have developed a flexible transbronchial optical frequency domain imaging (TB-OFDI) catheter that functions as a “smart needle” to confirm the needle placement within the target lesion prior to biopsy. The TB-OFDI smart needle consists of a flexible and removable OFDI catheter (430 µm dia.) that operates within a standard 21-gauge TBNA needle. The OFDI imaging core is based on an angle polished ball lens design with a working distance of 160 ...

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    20. Monitoring airway mucus flow and ciliary activity with optical coherence tomography

      Monitoring airway mucus flow and ciliary activity with optical coherence tomography

      Muco-ciliary transport in the human airway is a crucial defense mechanism for removing inhaled pathogens. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is well-suited to monitor functional dynamics of cilia and mucus on the airway epithelium. Here we demonstrate several OCT-based methods upon an actively transporting in vitro bronchial epithelial model and ex vivo mouse trachea. We show quantitative flow imaging of optically turbid mucus, semi-quantitative analysis of the ciliary beat frequency, and functional imaging of the periciliary layer. These may translate to clinical methods for endoscopic monitoring of muco-ciliary transport in diseases such as cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

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    21. The Role and Potential of Imaging in COPD

      The Role and Potential of Imaging in COPD

      Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a heterogeneous condition of the lungs and body. Techniques in chest imaging and quantitative image analysis provide novel in vivo insight into the disease and potentially examine divergent responses to therapy. This article reviews the strengths and limitations of the leading imaging techniques: computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and optical coherence tomography. Following an explanation of the technique, each section details some of the useful information obtained with these examinations. Future clinical care and investigation will likely include some combination of these imaging modalities and more standard assessments of disease severity.

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    22. Feature Of The Week 7/15/12: 3D Simultaneous Optical Coherence Tomography and Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy for Investigation of Lung Tissue

      Feature Of The Week 7/15/12: 3D Simultaneous Optical Coherence Tomography and Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy for Investigation of Lung Tissue

      The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening condition of the lung leading to a state of decreased lung compliance and blood oxygenation efficiency. The treatment of patients utilizes artificial ventilation, which has a tremendous impact on the lung’s sensitive microenvironment and can even lead to further damage in the form of ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). As a basis for the understanding of physiological processes occurring on the microscale of lung tissue, the alveolar tissue, contact free imaging can elucidate dynamic changes during artificial ventilation. The main interest focuses here on the rearrangement of alveolar geometry and ...

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    23. Corrections and improvements of lung imaging under Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) (Thesis)

      Corrections and improvements of lung imaging under Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)  (Thesis)

      Visualization and correct assessment of alveolar volume via intact lung imaging is important to study and assess respiratory mechanics. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), a real time imaging technique based on near-infrared interferometry, can image several layers of distal alveoli in intact, ex-vivo lung tissue. However optical effects associated with heterogeneity of lung tissue, including the refraction caused by air-tissue interfaces along alveoli and duct walls, and changes in speed of light as it travels through the tissue, result in inaccurate measurement of alveolar volume. Experimentally such errors have been difficult to analyze because of lack of ''ground truth,'' as the ...

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    97-120 of 243 « 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ... 9 10 11 »
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