1. Articles in category: Pulmonology

    73-96 of 235 « 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 »
    1. Quantitative upper airway endoscopy with swept-source anatomical optical coherence tomography

      Quantitative upper airway endoscopy with swept-source anatomical optical coherence tomography

      Minimally invasive imaging of upper airway obstructions in children and adults is needed to improve clinical decision-making. Toward this goal, we demonstrate an anatomical optical coherence tomography (aOCT) system delivered via a small-bore, flexible endoscope to quantify the upper airway lumen geometry. Helical scans were obtained from a proximally-scanned fiber-optic catheter of 820 μm outer diameter and >2 mm focal length. Coupled with a long coherence length wavelength-swept light source, the system exhibited an SNR roll-off of < 10 dB over a 10 mm range. Operating at 10 rotations/s, the average accuracy of segmented cross-sectional areas was found to be ...

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    2. Optical coherence tomography of the airways

      Optical coherence tomography of the airways

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution imaging modality that uses near infrared light reflected from the tissue optical interfaces to generate real-time images with near-histology resolution. Bronchoscopic use of OCT has potential applications in the study, diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of asthma, COPD, and histologically benign and malignant central airway disorders. This paper provides an overview of the rationale and principles of OCT imaging, describes the limitations of current technology, and summarizes potential future developments that may overcome the existing challenges.

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    3. Optical imaging of subacute airway remodeling and adipose stem cell engraftment after airway injury

      Optical imaging of subacute airway remodeling and adipose stem cell engraftment after airway injury

      Acquired airway injury is frequently caused by endotracheal intubations, long-term tracheostomies, trauma, airway burns, and some systemic diseases. An effective and less invasive technique for both the early assessment and the early interventional treatment of acquired airway stenosis is therefore needed. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been proposed to have unique potential for early monitoring from the proliferative epithelium to the cartilage in acute airway injury. Additionally, stem cell therapy using adipose stem cells is being investigated as an option for early interventional treatment in airway and lung injury. Over the past decade, it has become possible to monitor the ...

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      Mentions: Joseph A. Izatt
    4. Total liquid ventilation: a new approach to improve 3D OCT image quality of alveolar structures in lung tissue

      Total liquid ventilation: a new approach to improve 3D OCT image quality of alveolar structures in lung tissue

      Little is known about mechanical processes of alveolar tissue during mechanical ventilation. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a three-dimensional and high-resolution imaging modality can be used to visualize subpleural alveoli during artificial ventilation. The quality of OCT images can be increased by matching the refractive index inside the alveoli to the one of tissue via liquid-filling. Thereby, scattering loss can be decreased and higher penetration depth and tissue contrast can be achieved. We show the liquid-filling of alveolar structures verified by optical coherence tomography and intravital microscopy (IVM) and the advantages of index matching for OCT imaging of subpleural alveoli ...

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    5. Predictive value of optical coherence tomography on the outcome of lung adenocarcinoma with choroidal metastases

      Predictive value of optical coherence tomography on the outcome of lung adenocarcinoma with choroidal metastases

      CLINICAL CASE: A 59 year-old male, with the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma stage iv, following palliative systemic chemotherapy treatment. He was referred to our department due to bilateral blurred vision. In the eye-fundus we observed: bilateral choroidal metastases with macular involvement, and in optical coherence tomography (OCT): neurosensory detachment in both eyes. This neurosensory detachment showed improvement with chemotherapy before the clinical and radiologic improvement. DISCUSSION: OCT could be a great tool in order to predict the response to systemic treatment in cases of lung adenocarcinoma associated with choroidal metastases.

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    6. Full-field optical coherence tomography for the analysis of fresh unstained human lobectomy specimens

      Full-field optical coherence tomography for the analysis of fresh unstained human lobectomy specimens

      Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) is a real-time imaging technique that generates high-resolution three-dimensional tomographic images from unprocessed and unstained tissues. Lack of tissue processing and associated artifacts, along with the ability to generate large-field images quickly, warrants its exploration as an alternative diagnostic tool. Materials and Methods: One section each from the tumor and from adjacent non-neoplastic tissue was collected from 13 human lobectomy specimens. They were imaged fresh with FFOCT and then submitted for routine histopathology. Two blinded pathologists independently rendered diagnoses based on FFOCT images. Results: Normal lung architecture (alveoli, bronchi, pleura and blood vessels) was readily ...

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    7. Diagnostic bronchoscopy--current and future perspectives

      Diagnostic bronchoscopy--current and future perspectives

      Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Standard bronchoscopy has limited ability to accurately localise and biopsy pulmonary lesions that cannot be directly visualised. The field of advanced diagnostic bronchoscopy is rapidly evolving due to advances in electronics and miniaturisation. Bronchoscopes with smaller outer working diameters, coupled with miniature radial and convex ultrasound probes, allow accurate central and peripheral pulmonary lesion localisation and biopsy while at the same time avoiding vascular structures. Increases in computational processing power allow three-dimensional reconstruction of computed tomographic raw data to enable virtual bronchoscopy (VB), providing the bronchoscopist with a preview of ...

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    8. Four-dimensional visualization of subpleural alveolar dynamics in vivo during uninterrupted mechanical ventilation of living swine

      Four-dimensional visualization of subpleural alveolar dynamics in vivo during uninterrupted mechanical ventilation of living swine

      Pulmonary alveoli have been studied for many years, yet no unifying hypothesis exists for their dynamic mechanics during respiration due to their miniature size (100-300 μm dimater in humans) and constant motion, which prevent standard imaging techniques from visualizing four-dimensional dynamics of individual alveoli in vivo . Here we report a new platform to image the first layer of air-filled subpleural alveoli through the use of a lightweight optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) probe that can be placed upon the pleura to move with the lung over the complete range of respiratory motion. This device enables in-vivo acquisition of four-dimensional microscopic ...

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    9. Automated quantification of lung structures from optical coherence tomography images

      Automated quantification of lung structures from optical coherence tomography images

      Characterization of the size of lung structures can aid in the assessment of a range of respiratory diseases. In this paper, we present a fully automated segmentation and quantification algorithm for the delineation of large numbers of lung structures in optical coherence tomography images, and the characterization of their size using the stereological measure of median chord length. We demonstrate this algorithm on scans acquired with OCT needle probes in fresh, ex vivo tissues from two healthy animal models: pig and rat. Automatically computed estimates of lung structure size were validated against manual measures. In addition, we present 3D visualizations ...

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    10. Advanced bronchoscopic techniques in diagnosis and staging of lung cancer

      Advanced bronchoscopic techniques in diagnosis and staging of lung cancer

      The role of advanced brochoscopic diagnostic techniques in detection and staging of lung cancer has steeply increased in recent years. Bronchoscopic imaging techniques became widely available and easy to use. Technical improvement led to merging in technologies making autofluorescence or narrow band imaging incorporated into one bronchoscope. New tools, such as autofluorescence imagining (AFI), narrow band imaging (NBI) or fuji intelligent chromo endoscopy (FICE), found their place in respiratory endoscopy suites. Development of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) improved minimally invasive mediastinal staging and diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions. Linear EBUS proven to be complementary to mediastinoscopy. This technique is now available ...

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    11. University of Alabama Receives NIH Grant for Functional Anatomic Imaging of Cystic Fibrosis Patients With Early Lung Disease Using Micro-OCT

      University of Alabama Receives NIH Grant for Functional Anatomic Imaging of Cystic Fibrosis Patients With Early Lung Disease Using Micro-OCT

      University of Alabama at Birmingham received a 2013 NIH Grant for $538,770 for Functional Anatomic Imaging of Cystic Fibrosis Patients With Early Lung Disease Using Micro-OCT. The principal investigator is Steven Rowe. The program started in 2012 and lends in 2016. A summary of the program is given below. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion transporter of chloride and bicarbonate. Defective or deficient CFTR leads to severe mucoobstructive lung disease and severe morbidity and early mortality due to lung infections. Even though substantial advances in our understanding of ...

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    12. Towards the guidance of transbronchial biopsy: Identifying pulmonary nodules with optical coherence tomography

      Towards the guidance of transbronchial biopsy: Identifying pulmonary nodules with optical coherence tomography

      Background: Solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) frequently require transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) or biopsy to determine malignant potential, but have variable diagnostic yields. Confirming needle placement within SPNs during TBNA could significantly increase diagnostic yield. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides non-destructive, high-resolution, microstructural imaging with potential to distinguish SPN from parenchyma. We have previously developed needle-based OCT probes compatible with TBNA. Before OCT can play any significant role in guiding clinical TBNA, OCT interpretation criteria for differentiating SPN from lung parenchyma must be developed and validated. Methods: OCT of SPN and parenchyma was performed in 111 ex vivo resection specimens. OCT ...

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    13. Four-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of total liquid ventilated rats

      Four-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of total liquid ventilated rats

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be utilized for the spatially and temporally resolved visualization of alveolar tissue and its dynamics in rodent models, which allows the investigation of lung dynamics on the microscopic scale of single alveoli. The findings could provide experimental input data for numerical simulations of lung tissue mechanics and could support the development of protective ventilation strategies. Real four-dimensional OCT imaging permits the acquisition of several OCT stacks within one single ventilation cycle. Thus, the entire four-dimensional information is directly obtained. Compared to conventional virtual four-dimensional OCT imaging, where the image acquisition is extended over many ventilation ...

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    14. High speed 3D endoscopic optical frequency domain imaging probe for lung cancer diagnosis

      High speed 3D endoscopic optical frequency domain imaging probe for lung cancer diagnosis

      We present a miniature motorized endoscopic probe for Optical Frequency Domain Imaging with an outer diameter of 1.65 mm and a rotation speed of 3,000 – 12,500 rpm. The probe has a motorized distal end which provides a significant advantage over proximally driven probes since it does not require a drive shaft to transfer the rotational torque to the distal end of the probe and functions without a fiber rotary junction. The probe has a focal Full Width at Half Maximum of 9.6 μm and a working distance of 0.47 mm. We analyzed the non-uniform rotation ...

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    15. Early Lung Cancer: Methods for Detection

      Early Lung Cancer: Methods for Detection

      Early detection and surgical resection are essential for the treatment of lung cancer. It would be ideal to be able to detect and treat preinvasive bronchial lesions, defined as dysplasia and carcinoma in situ before progressing to invasive cancer. Advanced airway-assessment techniques have opened an avenue for early detection and surveillance of endobronchial malignancy. This article reviews currently available advanced imaging techniques for early detection of lung cancer, including autofluorescence bronchoscopy, narrow-band imaging, high-magnification bronchovideoscopy, endobronchial ultrasonography, and optical coherence tomography. Also discussed are the more recently developed endocytoscopy system and confocal fluorescence microendoscopy, currently used only for research purposes.

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    16. First Human Clinical Images Available with OCTIS™ Thanks to Tomophase Corporation and the Thoraxklinik, University of Heidelberg

      First Human Clinical Images Available with OCTIS™ Thanks to Tomophase Corporation and the Thoraxklinik, University of Heidelberg

      Tomophase Corporation, a leading developer of minimally invasive optical coherence tomography (OCT) tissue imaging devices, announced today that the Thoraxklinik at the University of Heidelberg, Germany has taken the first OCTIS images in clinical patients with the Tomophase OCT Imaging System (OCTIS™). On Tuesday, May 7th Tomophase OCTIS was used for the first time to examine the airways of a patient undergoing bronchoscopy at the Thoraxklinik. The following day another patient was examined. (Courtesy of the Thoraxklinik, University of Heidelberg) The clinicians were quite intrigued of the results and plan to do further work in due course. The Tomophase OCTIS ...

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    17. In vivo lung microvasculature visualized in three dimensions using fiber-optic color Doppler optical coherence tomography

      In vivo lung microvasculature visualized in three dimensions using fiber-optic color Doppler optical coherence tomography

      For the first time, the use of fiber-optic color Doppler optical coherence tomography (CDOCT) to map in vivo the three-dimensional (3-D) vascular network of airway segments in human lungs is demonstrated. Visualizing the 3-D vascular network in the lungs may provide new opportunities for detecting and monitoring lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Our CDOCT instrument employs a rotary fiber-optic probe that provides simultaneous two-dimensional (2-D) real-time structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) and CDOCT imaging at frame rates up to 12.5 frames per second. Controlled pullback of the probe allows 3-D vascular mapping ...

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    18. Melissa Suter: Next-generation OCT for complex imaging of the lung

      Melissa Suter: Next-generation OCT for complex imaging of the lung

      Melissa J. Suter is a researcher in the Pulmonary and Critical Care Unit of the Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. Her lab is particularly interested in the development, use, and clinical translation of optical imaging systems and techniques, notably optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI), to address challenges in pulmonary medicine. Lab members are currently investigating the use of OFDI for studying lung cancer, asthma, and smoke inhalation injury in ex vivo, preclinical, and clinical studies.

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    19. Optical frequency domain imaging of ex vivo pulmonary resection specimens: obtaining one to one image to histopathology correlation

      Optical frequency domain imaging of ex vivo pulmonary resection specimens: obtaining one to one image to histopathology correlation

      Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths 1 . Squamous cell and small cell cancers typically arise in association with the conducting airways, whereas adenocarcinomas are typically more peripheral in location. Lung malignancy detection early in the disease process may be difficult due to several limitations: radiological resolution, bronchoscopic limitations in evaluating tissue underlying the airway mucosa and identifying early pathologic changes, and small sample size and/or incomplete sampling in histology biopsies. High resolution imaging modalities, such as optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI), provide non-destructive, large area 3-dimensional views of tissue microstructure to depths approaching 2 mm in ...

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    20. Tomophase and MOSS, S.p.A. Expand OCTIS Technology Throughout Italy with New Distribution Agreement

      Tomophase and MOSS, S.p.A. Expand OCTIS Technology Throughout Italy with New Distribution Agreement

      Tomophase Press Release - Tomophase Corporation, a leading developer of minimally invasive optical coherence tomography (OCT) tissue imaging devices, announced today that it has signed a distribution agreement with MOSS S.p.A. of Italy . The distribution agreement with MOSS covers the Tomophase product line including the OCT Imaging System, OCTIS™ and the OCTIS Probes in the territory Italy and San Marino . Upon signing, MOSS also purchased two systems for waiting Italian clinicians who are experts in pulmonary imaging. Delivery and installation of OCTIS is scheduled for June. These new systems for Italian medical centers follow the deployment and installation of ...

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    21. NinePoint Medical Imaging Technology Profiled in Three Recent Publications

      NinePoint Medical Imaging Technology Profiled in Three Recent Publications

      NinePoint Medical Press Release - Data Demonstrates OCT Imaging in Pulmonary Applications NinePoint Medical, Inc. , an emerging leader in the development of medical devices for in vivo imaging, today announced that data featuring its core imaging technologies were recently published in three major pulmonary journals. This research from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), highlighting pulmonary applications of advanced optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI), was featured in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine , CHEST and the Journal of Visual Experiments. The technology has been licensed by NinePoint Medical from MGH and is currently in the ...

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    22. Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of lung tissues

      Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of lung tissues

      We have been investigating ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) imaging of lung tissues using fiber based super continuum (SC) sources. The high power, low-noise, Gaussian shaped SC generated with ultrashort pulses and optical fibers at several wavelength regions were used as the broadband light sources for UHROCT. Since the lung consists of tiny alveoli which are separeted by thin wall, the UHR-OCT is supposed to be effective for lung imaging. The normal and diseased lung tissues were observed without invasive procedures to the lung itself. The clear images of alveoli were observed with index matching effect by saline. In ...

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    23. University of Alabama at Birmingham Receives NIH Grant for Functional Anatomic Imaging of Cystic Fibrosis Patients with Early Lung Disease using MicroOCT

      University of Alabama at Birmingham Receives NIH Grant for Functional Anatomic Imaging of Cystic Fibrosis Patients with Early Lung Disease using MicroOCT

      University of Alabama at Birmingham Received a $599,221 2013 NIH Grant for Functional Anatomic Imaging of Cystic Fibrosis Patients with Early Lung Disease using MicroOCT. The principal investigator is Steven Rowe. The program is part of a multiyear program that started in 2012 and ends in 2016. Below is a summary of the work. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion transporter of chloride and bicarbonate. Defective or deficient CFTR leads to severe mucoobstructive lung disease and severe morbidity and early mortality due to lung infections. Even though substantial ...

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    24. Interventions in Pulmonary Medicine (Book)

      Interventions in Pulmonary Medicine (Book)

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising technique for clinical diagnosis of various types of tissue, because high-resolution tomography is easily obtained by its compact imaging optics. The fundamental principles of OCT evolved from optical one-dimensional low-coherence reflectometry, which uses a Michelson interferometer and a broadband light source. Due to the additional transverse scanning (B-scan), two-dimensional imaging was obtained, and this technique was named OCT by Fujimoto and rapidly expanded to numerous biomedical and clinical applications

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    73-96 of 235 « 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 »
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