1. Articles in category: Pulmonology

    73-96 of 227 « 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 »
    1. Automated quantification of lung structures from optical coherence tomography images

      Automated quantification of lung structures from optical coherence tomography images

      Characterization of the size of lung structures can aid in the assessment of a range of respiratory diseases. In this paper, we present a fully automated segmentation and quantification algorithm for the delineation of large numbers of lung structures in optical coherence tomography images, and the characterization of their size using the stereological measure of median chord length. We demonstrate this algorithm on scans acquired with OCT needle probes in fresh, ex vivo tissues from two healthy animal models: pig and rat. Automatically computed estimates of lung structure size were validated against manual measures. In addition, we present 3D visualizations ...

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    2. Advanced bronchoscopic techniques in diagnosis and staging of lung cancer

      Advanced bronchoscopic techniques in diagnosis and staging of lung cancer

      The role of advanced brochoscopic diagnostic techniques in detection and staging of lung cancer has steeply increased in recent years. Bronchoscopic imaging techniques became widely available and easy to use. Technical improvement led to merging in technologies making autofluorescence or narrow band imaging incorporated into one bronchoscope. New tools, such as autofluorescence imagining (AFI), narrow band imaging (NBI) or fuji intelligent chromo endoscopy (FICE), found their place in respiratory endoscopy suites. Development of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) improved minimally invasive mediastinal staging and diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions. Linear EBUS proven to be complementary to mediastinoscopy. This technique is now available ...

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    3. University of Alabama Receives NIH Grant for Functional Anatomic Imaging of Cystic Fibrosis Patients With Early Lung Disease Using Micro-OCT

      University of Alabama Receives NIH Grant for Functional Anatomic Imaging of Cystic Fibrosis Patients With Early Lung Disease Using Micro-OCT

      University of Alabama at Birmingham received a 2013 NIH Grant for $538,770 for Functional Anatomic Imaging of Cystic Fibrosis Patients With Early Lung Disease Using Micro-OCT. The principal investigator is Steven Rowe. The program started in 2012 and lends in 2016. A summary of the program is given below. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion transporter of chloride and bicarbonate. Defective or deficient CFTR leads to severe mucoobstructive lung disease and severe morbidity and early mortality due to lung infections. Even though substantial advances in our understanding of ...

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    4. Towards the guidance of transbronchial biopsy: Identifying pulmonary nodules with optical coherence tomography

      Towards the guidance of transbronchial biopsy: Identifying pulmonary nodules with optical coherence tomography

      Background: Solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) frequently require transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) or biopsy to determine malignant potential, but have variable diagnostic yields. Confirming needle placement within SPNs during TBNA could significantly increase diagnostic yield. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides non-destructive, high-resolution, microstructural imaging with potential to distinguish SPN from parenchyma. We have previously developed needle-based OCT probes compatible with TBNA. Before OCT can play any significant role in guiding clinical TBNA, OCT interpretation criteria for differentiating SPN from lung parenchyma must be developed and validated. Methods: OCT of SPN and parenchyma was performed in 111 ex vivo resection specimens. OCT ...

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    5. Four-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of total liquid ventilated rats

      Four-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of total liquid ventilated rats

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be utilized for the spatially and temporally resolved visualization of alveolar tissue and its dynamics in rodent models, which allows the investigation of lung dynamics on the microscopic scale of single alveoli. The findings could provide experimental input data for numerical simulations of lung tissue mechanics and could support the development of protective ventilation strategies. Real four-dimensional OCT imaging permits the acquisition of several OCT stacks within one single ventilation cycle. Thus, the entire four-dimensional information is directly obtained. Compared to conventional virtual four-dimensional OCT imaging, where the image acquisition is extended over many ventilation ...

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    6. High speed 3D endoscopic optical frequency domain imaging probe for lung cancer diagnosis

      High speed 3D endoscopic optical frequency domain imaging probe for lung cancer diagnosis

      We present a miniature motorized endoscopic probe for Optical Frequency Domain Imaging with an outer diameter of 1.65 mm and a rotation speed of 3,000 – 12,500 rpm. The probe has a motorized distal end which provides a significant advantage over proximally driven probes since it does not require a drive shaft to transfer the rotational torque to the distal end of the probe and functions without a fiber rotary junction. The probe has a focal Full Width at Half Maximum of 9.6 μm and a working distance of 0.47 mm. We analyzed the non-uniform rotation ...

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    7. Early Lung Cancer: Methods for Detection

      Early Lung Cancer: Methods for Detection

      Early detection and surgical resection are essential for the treatment of lung cancer. It would be ideal to be able to detect and treat preinvasive bronchial lesions, defined as dysplasia and carcinoma in situ before progressing to invasive cancer. Advanced airway-assessment techniques have opened an avenue for early detection and surveillance of endobronchial malignancy. This article reviews currently available advanced imaging techniques for early detection of lung cancer, including autofluorescence bronchoscopy, narrow-band imaging, high-magnification bronchovideoscopy, endobronchial ultrasonography, and optical coherence tomography. Also discussed are the more recently developed endocytoscopy system and confocal fluorescence microendoscopy, currently used only for research purposes.

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    8. First Human Clinical Images Available with OCTIS™ Thanks to Tomophase Corporation and the Thoraxklinik, University of Heidelberg

      First Human Clinical Images Available with OCTIS™ Thanks to Tomophase Corporation and the Thoraxklinik, University of Heidelberg

      Tomophase Corporation, a leading developer of minimally invasive optical coherence tomography (OCT) tissue imaging devices, announced today that the Thoraxklinik at the University of Heidelberg, Germany has taken the first OCTIS images in clinical patients with the Tomophase OCT Imaging System (OCTIS™). On Tuesday, May 7th Tomophase OCTIS was used for the first time to examine the airways of a patient undergoing bronchoscopy at the Thoraxklinik. The following day another patient was examined. (Courtesy of the Thoraxklinik, University of Heidelberg) The clinicians were quite intrigued of the results and plan to do further work in due course. The Tomophase OCTIS ...

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    9. In vivo lung microvasculature visualized in three dimensions using fiber-optic color Doppler optical coherence tomography

      In vivo lung microvasculature visualized in three dimensions using fiber-optic color Doppler optical coherence tomography

      For the first time, the use of fiber-optic color Doppler optical coherence tomography (CDOCT) to map in vivo the three-dimensional (3-D) vascular network of airway segments in human lungs is demonstrated. Visualizing the 3-D vascular network in the lungs may provide new opportunities for detecting and monitoring lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Our CDOCT instrument employs a rotary fiber-optic probe that provides simultaneous two-dimensional (2-D) real-time structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) and CDOCT imaging at frame rates up to 12.5 frames per second. Controlled pullback of the probe allows 3-D vascular mapping ...

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    10. Melissa Suter: Next-generation OCT for complex imaging of the lung

      Melissa Suter: Next-generation OCT for complex imaging of the lung

      Melissa J. Suter is a researcher in the Pulmonary and Critical Care Unit of the Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. Her lab is particularly interested in the development, use, and clinical translation of optical imaging systems and techniques, notably optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI), to address challenges in pulmonary medicine. Lab members are currently investigating the use of OFDI for studying lung cancer, asthma, and smoke inhalation injury in ex vivo, preclinical, and clinical studies.

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    11. Optical frequency domain imaging of ex vivo pulmonary resection specimens: obtaining one to one image to histopathology correlation

      Optical frequency domain imaging of ex vivo pulmonary resection specimens: obtaining one to one image to histopathology correlation

      Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths 1 . Squamous cell and small cell cancers typically arise in association with the conducting airways, whereas adenocarcinomas are typically more peripheral in location. Lung malignancy detection early in the disease process may be difficult due to several limitations: radiological resolution, bronchoscopic limitations in evaluating tissue underlying the airway mucosa and identifying early pathologic changes, and small sample size and/or incomplete sampling in histology biopsies. High resolution imaging modalities, such as optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI), provide non-destructive, large area 3-dimensional views of tissue microstructure to depths approaching 2 mm in ...

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    12. Tomophase and MOSS, S.p.A. Expand OCTIS Technology Throughout Italy with New Distribution Agreement

      Tomophase and MOSS, S.p.A. Expand OCTIS Technology Throughout Italy with New Distribution Agreement

      Tomophase Press Release - Tomophase Corporation, a leading developer of minimally invasive optical coherence tomography (OCT) tissue imaging devices, announced today that it has signed a distribution agreement with MOSS S.p.A. of Italy . The distribution agreement with MOSS covers the Tomophase product line including the OCT Imaging System, OCTIS™ and the OCTIS Probes in the territory Italy and San Marino . Upon signing, MOSS also purchased two systems for waiting Italian clinicians who are experts in pulmonary imaging. Delivery and installation of OCTIS is scheduled for June. These new systems for Italian medical centers follow the deployment and installation of ...

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    13. NinePoint Medical Imaging Technology Profiled in Three Recent Publications

      NinePoint Medical Imaging Technology Profiled in Three Recent Publications

      NinePoint Medical Press Release - Data Demonstrates OCT Imaging in Pulmonary Applications NinePoint Medical, Inc. , an emerging leader in the development of medical devices for in vivo imaging, today announced that data featuring its core imaging technologies were recently published in three major pulmonary journals. This research from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), highlighting pulmonary applications of advanced optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI), was featured in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine , CHEST and the Journal of Visual Experiments. The technology has been licensed by NinePoint Medical from MGH and is currently in the ...

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    14. Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of lung tissues

      Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of lung tissues

      We have been investigating ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) imaging of lung tissues using fiber based super continuum (SC) sources. The high power, low-noise, Gaussian shaped SC generated with ultrashort pulses and optical fibers at several wavelength regions were used as the broadband light sources for UHROCT. Since the lung consists of tiny alveoli which are separeted by thin wall, the UHR-OCT is supposed to be effective for lung imaging. The normal and diseased lung tissues were observed without invasive procedures to the lung itself. The clear images of alveoli were observed with index matching effect by saline. In ...

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    15. University of Alabama at Birmingham Receives NIH Grant for Functional Anatomic Imaging of Cystic Fibrosis Patients with Early Lung Disease using MicroOCT

      University of Alabama at Birmingham Receives NIH Grant for Functional Anatomic Imaging of Cystic Fibrosis Patients with Early Lung Disease using MicroOCT

      University of Alabama at Birmingham Received a $599,221 2013 NIH Grant for Functional Anatomic Imaging of Cystic Fibrosis Patients with Early Lung Disease using MicroOCT. The principal investigator is Steven Rowe. The program is part of a multiyear program that started in 2012 and ends in 2016. Below is a summary of the work. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion transporter of chloride and bicarbonate. Defective or deficient CFTR leads to severe mucoobstructive lung disease and severe morbidity and early mortality due to lung infections. Even though substantial ...

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    16. Interventions in Pulmonary Medicine (Book)

      Interventions in Pulmonary Medicine (Book)

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising technique for clinical diagnosis of various types of tissue, because high-resolution tomography is easily obtained by its compact imaging optics. The fundamental principles of OCT evolved from optical one-dimensional low-coherence reflectometry, which uses a Michelson interferometer and a broadband light source. Due to the additional transverse scanning (B-scan), two-dimensional imaging was obtained, and this technique was named OCT by Fujimoto and rapidly expanded to numerous biomedical and clinical applications

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    17. Fluorescence and Navigational Bronchoscopy

      Fluorescence and Navigational Bronchoscopy

      Bronchoscopy is a minimally invasive method for lung cancer diagnosis. Smaller and more maneuverable bronchoscopes with higher image resolution and an adequate biopsy channel are being developed. High-resolution multiplanar computed tomography (CT) is used to produce 3-dimensional virtual images of the bronchial tree. The target lesion can be confirmed by a miniradial ultrasound probe and potentially other technologies such as optical coherence tomography. These tools may provide a safer alternative method to CT-guided transthoracic lung biopsy for peripheral lung lesions that are not pleural based.

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    18. Method for Quantitative Study of Airway Functional Microanatomy Using Micro-Optical Coherence Tomography

      Method for Quantitative Study of Airway Functional Microanatomy Using Micro-Optical Coherence Tomography

      We demonstrate the use of a high resolution form of optical coherence tomography, termed micro-OCT (μOCT), for investigating the functional microanatomy of airway epithelia. μOCT captures several key parameters governing the function of the airway surface (airway surface liquid depth, periciliary liquid depth, ciliary function including beat frequency, and mucociliary transport rate) from the same series of images and without exogenous particles or labels, enabling non-invasive study of dynamic phenomena. Additionally, the high resolution of μOCT reveals distinguishable phases of the ciliary stroke pattern and glandular extrusion. Images and functional measurements from primary human bronchial epithelial cell cultures and excised ...

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    19. Validation of two-dimensional and three-dimensional measurements of subpleural alveolar size parameters by optical coherence tomography

      Validation of two-dimensional and three-dimensional measurements of subpleural alveolar size parameters by optical coherence tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been increasingly used for imaging pulmonary alveoli. Only a few studies, however, have quantified individual alveolar areas, and the validity of alveolar volumes represented within OCT images has not been shown. To validate quantitative measurements of alveoli from OCT images, we compared the cross-sectional area, perimeter, volume, and surface area of matched subpleural alveoli from microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and OCT images of fixed air-filled swine samples. The relative change in size between different alveoli was extremely well correlated ( r > 0.9 , P < 0.0001 ), but OCT images underestimated absolute sizes compared to micro-CT by 27 ...

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    20. High-speed upper-airway imaging using full-range optical coherence tomography

      High-speed upper-airway imaging using full-range optical coherence tomography

      Obstruction in the upper airway can often cause reductions in breathing or gas exchange efficiency and lead to rest disorders such as sleep apnea. Imaging diagnosis of the obstruction region has been accomplished using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However CT requires the use of ionizing radiation, and MRI typically requires sedation of the patient to prevent motion artifacts. Long-range optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to provide high-speed three-dimensional tomographic images with high resolution and without the use of ionizing radiation. In this paper, we present work on the development of a long-range OCT endoscopic ...

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    21. Assessment of the effects of ultrasound-mediated glucose on permeability of normal, benign, and cancerous human lung tissues with the Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

      Assessment of the effects of ultrasound-mediated glucose on permeability of normal, benign, and cancerous human lung tissues with the Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

      The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ultrasound-mediated analyte diffusion on permeability of normal, benign, and cancerous human lung tissue in vitro and to find more effective sonophoretic (SP) delivery in combination with the optical clearing agents (OCAs) method to distinguish normal and diseased lung tissues. The permeability coefficients of SP in combination with OCAs diffusion in lung tissue were measured with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). 30% glucose and SP with a frequency of 1 MHz and an intensity of 0.80     W / cm 2 over a 3 cm probe was simultaneously applied for 15 ...

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    22. Our Experience With Photodynamic Diagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy for Lung Cancer

      Our Experience With Photodynamic Diagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy for Lung Cancer

      he diagnosis of lung cancer was significantly enhanced by the development of the fiberoptic bronchoscope in 1965. Since then, advances in photosensitizers and light sources have brought photodynamic medicine into the light. This article offers an historic overview of the emergence of photodynamic medicine through the perspective of a pioneer with more than 30 years’ experience. Along with a discussion of photodynamic diagnosis of lung cancers via optical coherence tomography, the curative, palliative, and neoadjuvant roles of photodynamic therapy for early and advanced lung cancers are explored. An emerging strategy of using PDM to treat peripheral early-stage lung tumors is ...

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    23. Feature Of The Week 9/23/12: MGH Researchers Demonstrate Flexible Transbronchial OCT Imaging Needles for Biopsy Guidance

      Feature Of The Week 9/23/12: MGH Researchers Demonstrate Flexible Transbronchial OCT Imaging Needles for Biopsy Guidance

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems routinely use single-mode optical fibers to transfer light to and from biological samples.  The tiny cross section, low-cost, and flexibility of single-mode optical fibers have proven to be a powerful attribute that allows for a wide variety optical coherence tomography (OCT) probes to be constructed including ultra small catheters, guidewires, and endoscope to get light to and from hard to reach places in the human body.  OCT equipped fiber optic needle probes are increasingly proving to be powerful technique for guidance of needle placement (search "needle" in the search box to see some of the ...

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    73-96 of 227 « 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 »
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