1. Articles in category: Pulmonology

    1-24 of 168 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 »
    1. Coregistered autofluorescence-optical coherence tomography imaging of human lung sections

      Coregistered autofluorescence-optical coherence tomography imaging of human lung sections

      Autofluorescence (AF) imaging can provide valuable information about the structural and metabolic state of tissue that can be useful for elucidating physiological and pathological processes. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides high resolution detailed information about tissue morphology. We present coregistered AF-OCT imaging of human lung sections. Adjacent hematoxylin and eosin stained histological sections are used to identify tissue structures observed in the OCT images. Segmentation of these structures in the OCT images allowed determination of relative AF intensities of human lung components. Since the AF imaging was performed on tissue sections perpendicular to the airway axis, the results show the ...

      Read Full Article
    2. In vivo detection of inhalation injury in large airway using three-dimensional long-range swept-source optical coherence tomography

      In vivo detection of inhalation injury in large airway using three-dimensional long-range swept-source optical coherence tomography

      We report on the feasibility of using long-range swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect airway changes following smoke inhalation in a sheep model. The long-range OCT system (with axial imaging range of 25 mm) and probe are capable of rapidly obtaining a series of high-resolution full cross-sectional images and three-dimensional reconstructions covering 20-cm length of tracheal and bronchial airways with airway diameter up to 25 mm, regardless of the position of the probe within the airway lumen. Measurements of airway thickness were performed at baseline and postinjury to show mucosal thickness changes following smoke inhalation.

      Read Full Article
    3. Temporal correlation of optical coherence tomography in-vivo images of rabbit airway for the diagnosis of edema

      Temporal correlation of optical coherence tomography in-vivo images of rabbit airway for the diagnosis of edema

      Recently, full-range optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems have been developed to image the human airway. These novel systems utilize a fiber-based OCT probe which acquires three-dimensional (3-D) images with micrometer resolution. Following an airway injury, mucosal edema is the first step in the body’s inflammatory response, which occasionally leads to airway stenosis, a life-threatening condition for critically ill newborns. Therefore, early detection of edema is vital for airway management and prevention of stenosis. In order to examine the potential of the full-range OCT to diagnose edema, we investigated temporal correlation of OCT images obtained from the subglottic airway of ...

      Read Full Article
    4. Automated segmentation of porcine airway wall layers using optical coherence tomography: comparison with manual segmentation and histology

      Automated segmentation of porcine airway wall layers using optical coherence tomography: comparison with manual segmentation and histology

      The objective was to develop an automated optical coherence tomography (OCT) segmentation method. We evaluated three ex-vivo porcine airway specimens; six non-sequential OCT images were selected from each airway specimen. Histology was also performed for each airway and histology images were co-registered to OCT images for comparison. Manual segmentation of the airway luminal area, mucosa area, submucosa area and the outer airway wall area were performed for histology and OCT images. Automated segmentation of OCT images employed a despecking filter for pre-processing, a hessian-based filter for lumen and outer airway wall area segmentation, and K-means clustering for mucosa and submucosa ...

      Read Full Article
    5. Sex differences in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease evaluated using optical coherence tomography

      Sex differences in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease evaluated using optical coherence tomography

      Although there are more women than men dying of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the United States and elsewhere, we still do not have a clear understanding of the differences in the pathophysiology of airflow obstruction between the sexes. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging imaging technology that has the capability of imaging small bronchioles with resolution approaching histology. Therefore, our objective was to compare OCT-derived airway wall measurements between males and females matched for lung size and in anatomically matched small airways. Subjects 50-80 yrs were enrolled in the British Columbia Lung Health Study and underwent OCT ...

      Read Full Article
    6. Quantitative upper airway endoscopy with swept-source anatomical optical coherence tomography

      Quantitative upper airway endoscopy with swept-source anatomical optical coherence tomography

      Minimally invasive imaging of upper airway obstructions in children and adults is needed to improve clinical decision-making. Toward this goal, we demonstrate an anatomical optical coherence tomography (aOCT) system delivered via a small-bore, flexible endoscope to quantify the upper airway lumen geometry. Helical scans were obtained from a proximally-scanned fiber-optic catheter of 820 μm outer diameter and >2 mm focal length. Coupled with a long coherence length wavelength-swept light source, the system exhibited an SNR roll-off of < 10 dB over a 10 mm range. Operating at 10 rotations/s, the average accuracy of segmented cross-sectional areas was found to be ...

      Read Full Article
    7. Optical coherence tomography of the airways

      Optical coherence tomography of the airways

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution imaging modality that uses near infrared light reflected from the tissue optical interfaces to generate real-time images with near-histology resolution. Bronchoscopic use of OCT has potential applications in the study, diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of asthma, COPD, and histologically benign and malignant central airway disorders. This paper provides an overview of the rationale and principles of OCT imaging, describes the limitations of current technology, and summarizes potential future developments that may overcome the existing challenges.

      Read Full Article
    8. Optical imaging of subacute airway remodeling and adipose stem cell engraftment after airway injury

      Optical imaging of subacute airway remodeling and adipose stem cell engraftment after airway injury

      Acquired airway injury is frequently caused by endotracheal intubations, long-term tracheostomies, trauma, airway burns, and some systemic diseases. An effective and less invasive technique for both the early assessment and the early interventional treatment of acquired airway stenosis is therefore needed. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been proposed to have unique potential for early monitoring from the proliferative epithelium to the cartilage in acute airway injury. Additionally, stem cell therapy using adipose stem cells is being investigated as an option for early interventional treatment in airway and lung injury. Over the past decade, it has become possible to monitor the ...

      Read Full Article
      Mentions: Joseph A. Izatt
    9. Total liquid ventilation: a new approach to improve 3D OCT image quality of alveolar structures in lung tissue

      Total liquid ventilation: a new approach to improve 3D OCT image quality of alveolar structures in lung tissue

      Little is known about mechanical processes of alveolar tissue during mechanical ventilation. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a three-dimensional and high-resolution imaging modality can be used to visualize subpleural alveoli during artificial ventilation. The quality of OCT images can be increased by matching the refractive index inside the alveoli to the one of tissue via liquid-filling. Thereby, scattering loss can be decreased and higher penetration depth and tissue contrast can be achieved. We show the liquid-filling of alveolar structures verified by optical coherence tomography and intravital microscopy (IVM) and the advantages of index matching for OCT imaging of subpleural alveoli ...

      Read Full Article
    10. Predictive value of optical coherence tomography on the outcome of lung adenocarcinoma with choroidal metastases

      Predictive value of optical coherence tomography on the outcome of lung adenocarcinoma with choroidal metastases

      CLINICAL CASE: A 59 year-old male, with the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma stage iv, following palliative systemic chemotherapy treatment. He was referred to our department due to bilateral blurred vision. In the eye-fundus we observed: bilateral choroidal metastases with macular involvement, and in optical coherence tomography (OCT): neurosensory detachment in both eyes. This neurosensory detachment showed improvement with chemotherapy before the clinical and radiologic improvement. DISCUSSION: OCT could be a great tool in order to predict the response to systemic treatment in cases of lung adenocarcinoma associated with choroidal metastases.

      Read Full Article
    11. Full-field optical coherence tomography for the analysis of fresh unstained human lobectomy specimens

      Full-field optical coherence tomography for the analysis of fresh unstained human lobectomy specimens

      Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) is a real-time imaging technique that generates high-resolution three-dimensional tomographic images from unprocessed and unstained tissues. Lack of tissue processing and associated artifacts, along with the ability to generate large-field images quickly, warrants its exploration as an alternative diagnostic tool. Materials and Methods: One section each from the tumor and from adjacent non-neoplastic tissue was collected from 13 human lobectomy specimens. They were imaged fresh with FFOCT and then submitted for routine histopathology. Two blinded pathologists independently rendered diagnoses based on FFOCT images. Results: Normal lung architecture (alveoli, bronchi, pleura and blood vessels) was readily ...

      Read Full Article
    12. Diagnostic bronchoscopy--current and future perspectives

      Diagnostic bronchoscopy--current and future perspectives

      Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Standard bronchoscopy has limited ability to accurately localise and biopsy pulmonary lesions that cannot be directly visualised. The field of advanced diagnostic bronchoscopy is rapidly evolving due to advances in electronics and miniaturisation. Bronchoscopes with smaller outer working diameters, coupled with miniature radial and convex ultrasound probes, allow accurate central and peripheral pulmonary lesion localisation and biopsy while at the same time avoiding vascular structures. Increases in computational processing power allow three-dimensional reconstruction of computed tomographic raw data to enable virtual bronchoscopy (VB), providing the bronchoscopist with a preview of ...

      Read Full Article
    13. Four-dimensional visualization of subpleural alveolar dynamics in vivo during uninterrupted mechanical ventilation of living swine

      Four-dimensional visualization of subpleural alveolar dynamics in vivo during uninterrupted mechanical ventilation of living swine

      Pulmonary alveoli have been studied for many years, yet no unifying hypothesis exists for their dynamic mechanics during respiration due to their miniature size (100-300 μm dimater in humans) and constant motion, which prevent standard imaging techniques from visualizing four-dimensional dynamics of individual alveoli in vivo . Here we report a new platform to image the first layer of air-filled subpleural alveoli through the use of a lightweight optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) probe that can be placed upon the pleura to move with the lung over the complete range of respiratory motion. This device enables in-vivo acquisition of four-dimensional microscopic ...

      Read Full Article
    14. Automated quantification of lung structures from optical coherence tomography images

      Automated quantification of lung structures from optical coherence tomography images

      Characterization of the size of lung structures can aid in the assessment of a range of respiratory diseases. In this paper, we present a fully automated segmentation and quantification algorithm for the delineation of large numbers of lung structures in optical coherence tomography images, and the characterization of their size using the stereological measure of median chord length. We demonstrate this algorithm on scans acquired with OCT needle probes in fresh, ex vivo tissues from two healthy animal models: pig and rat. Automatically computed estimates of lung structure size were validated against manual measures. In addition, we present 3D visualizations ...

      Read Full Article
    15. Advanced bronchoscopic techniques in diagnosis and staging of lung cancer

      Advanced bronchoscopic techniques in diagnosis and staging of lung cancer

      The role of advanced brochoscopic diagnostic techniques in detection and staging of lung cancer has steeply increased in recent years. Bronchoscopic imaging techniques became widely available and easy to use. Technical improvement led to merging in technologies making autofluorescence or narrow band imaging incorporated into one bronchoscope. New tools, such as autofluorescence imagining (AFI), narrow band imaging (NBI) or fuji intelligent chromo endoscopy (FICE), found their place in respiratory endoscopy suites. Development of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) improved minimally invasive mediastinal staging and diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions. Linear EBUS proven to be complementary to mediastinoscopy. This technique is now available ...

      Read Full Article
    16. University of Alabama Receives NIH Grant for Functional Anatomic Imaging of Cystic Fibrosis Patients With Early Lung Disease Using Micro-OCT

      University of Alabama Receives NIH Grant for Functional Anatomic Imaging of Cystic Fibrosis Patients With Early Lung Disease Using Micro-OCT

      University of Alabama at Birmingham received a 2013 NIH Grant for $538,770 for Functional Anatomic Imaging of Cystic Fibrosis Patients With Early Lung Disease Using Micro-OCT. The principal investigator is Steven Rowe. The program started in 2012 and lends in 2016. A summary of the program is given below. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion transporter of chloride and bicarbonate. Defective or deficient CFTR leads to severe mucoobstructive lung disease and severe morbidity and early mortality due to lung infections. Even though substantial advances in our understanding of ...

      Read Full Article
    17. Towards the guidance of transbronchial biopsy: Identifying pulmonary nodules with optical coherence tomography

      Towards the guidance of transbronchial biopsy: Identifying pulmonary nodules with optical coherence tomography

      Background: Solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) frequently require transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) or biopsy to determine malignant potential, but have variable diagnostic yields. Confirming needle placement within SPNs during TBNA could significantly increase diagnostic yield. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides non-destructive, high-resolution, microstructural imaging with potential to distinguish SPN from parenchyma. We have previously developed needle-based OCT probes compatible with TBNA. Before OCT can play any significant role in guiding clinical TBNA, OCT interpretation criteria for differentiating SPN from lung parenchyma must be developed and validated. Methods: OCT of SPN and parenchyma was performed in 111 ex vivo resection specimens. OCT ...

      Read Full Article
    18. Four-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of total liquid ventilated rats

      Four-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of total liquid ventilated rats

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be utilized for the spatially and temporally resolved visualization of alveolar tissue and its dynamics in rodent models, which allows the investigation of lung dynamics on the microscopic scale of single alveoli. The findings could provide experimental input data for numerical simulations of lung tissue mechanics and could support the development of protective ventilation strategies. Real four-dimensional OCT imaging permits the acquisition of several OCT stacks within one single ventilation cycle. Thus, the entire four-dimensional information is directly obtained. Compared to conventional virtual four-dimensional OCT imaging, where the image acquisition is extended over many ventilation ...

      Read Full Article
    19. High speed 3D endoscopic optical frequency domain imaging probe for lung cancer diagnosis

      High speed 3D endoscopic optical frequency domain imaging probe for lung cancer diagnosis

      We present a miniature motorized endoscopic probe for Optical Frequency Domain Imaging with an outer diameter of 1.65 mm and a rotation speed of 3,000 – 12,500 rpm. The probe has a motorized distal end which provides a significant advantage over proximally driven probes since it does not require a drive shaft to transfer the rotational torque to the distal end of the probe and functions without a fiber rotary junction. The probe has a focal Full Width at Half Maximum of 9.6 μm and a working distance of 0.47 mm. We analyzed the non-uniform rotation ...

      Read Full Article
    20. Early Lung Cancer: Methods for Detection

      Early Lung Cancer: Methods for Detection

      Early detection and surgical resection are essential for the treatment of lung cancer. It would be ideal to be able to detect and treat preinvasive bronchial lesions, defined as dysplasia and carcinoma in situ before progressing to invasive cancer. Advanced airway-assessment techniques have opened an avenue for early detection and surveillance of endobronchial malignancy. This article reviews currently available advanced imaging techniques for early detection of lung cancer, including autofluorescence bronchoscopy, narrow-band imaging, high-magnification bronchovideoscopy, endobronchial ultrasonography, and optical coherence tomography. Also discussed are the more recently developed endocytoscopy system and confocal fluorescence microendoscopy, currently used only for research purposes.

      Read Full Article
    21. First Human Clinical Images Available with OCTIS™ Thanks to Tomophase Corporation and the Thoraxklinik, University of Heidelberg

      First Human Clinical Images Available with OCTIS™ Thanks to Tomophase Corporation and the Thoraxklinik, University of Heidelberg

      Tomophase Corporation, a leading developer of minimally invasive optical coherence tomography (OCT) tissue imaging devices, announced today that the Thoraxklinik at the University of Heidelberg, Germany has taken the first OCTIS images in clinical patients with the Tomophase OCT Imaging System (OCTIS™). On Tuesday, May 7th Tomophase OCTIS was used for the first time to examine the airways of a patient undergoing bronchoscopy at the Thoraxklinik. The following day another patient was examined. (Courtesy of the Thoraxklinik, University of Heidelberg) The clinicians were quite intrigued of the results and plan to do further work in due course. The Tomophase OCTIS ...

      Read Full Article
    22. In vivo lung microvasculature visualized in three dimensions using fiber-optic color Doppler optical coherence tomography

      In vivo lung microvasculature visualized in three dimensions using fiber-optic color Doppler optical coherence tomography

      For the first time, the use of fiber-optic color Doppler optical coherence tomography (CDOCT) to map in vivo the three-dimensional (3-D) vascular network of airway segments in human lungs is demonstrated. Visualizing the 3-D vascular network in the lungs may provide new opportunities for detecting and monitoring lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Our CDOCT instrument employs a rotary fiber-optic probe that provides simultaneous two-dimensional (2-D) real-time structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) and CDOCT imaging at frame rates up to 12.5 frames per second. Controlled pullback of the probe allows 3-D vascular mapping ...

      Read Full Article
    23. Melissa Suter: Next-generation OCT for complex imaging of the lung

      Melissa Suter: Next-generation OCT for complex imaging of the lung

      Melissa J. Suter is a researcher in the Pulmonary and Critical Care Unit of the Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. Her lab is particularly interested in the development, use, and clinical translation of optical imaging systems and techniques, notably optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI), to address challenges in pulmonary medicine. Lab members are currently investigating the use of OFDI for studying lung cancer, asthma, and smoke inhalation injury in ex vivo, preclinical, and clinical studies.

      Read Full Article
    24. Optical frequency domain imaging of ex vivo pulmonary resection specimens: obtaining one to one image to histopathology correlation

      Optical frequency domain imaging of ex vivo pulmonary resection specimens: obtaining one to one image to histopathology correlation

      Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths 1 . Squamous cell and small cell cancers typically arise in association with the conducting airways, whereas adenocarcinomas are typically more peripheral in location. Lung malignancy detection early in the disease process may be difficult due to several limitations: radiological resolution, bronchoscopic limitations in evaluating tissue underlying the airway mucosa and identifying early pathologic changes, and small sample size and/or incomplete sampling in histology biopsies. High resolution imaging modalities, such as optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI), provide non-destructive, large area 3-dimensional views of tissue microstructure to depths approaching 2 mm in ...

      Read Full Article
    1-24 of 168 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 »
  1. Categories

    1. Applications:

      Art, Cardiology, Dentistry, Dermatology, Developmental Biology, Gastroenterology, Gynecology, Microscopy, NDE/NDT, Neurology, Oncology, Ophthalmology, Other Non-Medical, Otolaryngology, Pulmonology, Urology
    2. Business News:

      Acquisition, Clinical Trials, Funding, Other Business News, Partnership, Patents
    3. Technology:

      Broadband Sources, Probes, Tunable Sources, Velocimetry
    4. Miscellaneous:

      Jobs & Studentships, Student Theses, Textbooks
  2. Popular Articles

  3. Organizations in the News

    1. (1 articles) British Columbia Cancer Agency
    2. (1 articles) UC Irvine
  4. People in the News

    1. (1 articles) Stephen Lam
    2. (1 articles) Zhongping Chen
    3. (1 articles) Ram Ramalingam
    4. (1 articles) Matthew Brenner
  5. OCT Companies in the News

    1. (1 articles) OCT Medical Imaging Inc