1. Articles in category: Pulmonology

    1-24 of 304 1 2 3 4 ... 11 12 13 »
    1. Physiology and Structure of the Small Airways in Patients With Chronic Airflow Obstruction or COVID-19

      Physiology and Structure of the Small Airways in Patients With Chronic Airflow Obstruction or COVID-19

      The purpose of this research project is to study small airways physiological function in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease or COVID-19 and explore the relationship with in-vivo microanatomical small airway structure as measured by OCT. Correlating endobronchial assessment with multiple breath nitrogen washout and impulse oscillometry will allow the characterisation of the relationship between small airway structural findings and these validated investigations. A small volume lung wash, endobronchial brushings and the collection of a limited number of endobronchial cryobiopsy samples will be performed to better understand the endobronchial environment of the small airways through inflammatory studies. Following the completion ...

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    2. Application of Polarization Sensitive-Optical Coherence Tomography to the Assessment of Phase Retardation in Subpleural Cancer in Rabbits

      Application of Polarization Sensitive-Optical Coherence Tomography to the Assessment of Phase Retardation in Subpleural Cancer in Rabbits

      Background: Polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) provides the unique advantage of being able to measure the optical characteristics of tissues by using polarized light. Although the well-organized fibers of healthy muscle can change the polarization states of passing light, damaged tissue has different behaviors. There are studies on optical imaging methods applied to the respiratory organs; however, they are restricted to structural imaging. In particular, the intercostal muscle situated under the pleura is very challenging to visualize due to the difficulty of access. Method: In this study, PS-OCT was used to identify subpleural cancer in male New Zealand white rabbits ...

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    3. Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Early Detection and Diagnosis of Lung Cancer with Endomicroscopy

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Early Detection and Diagnosis of Lung Cancer with Endomicroscopy

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2021 NIH Grant for $662,413 for Early Detection and Diagnosis of Lung Cancer with Endomicroscopy. The principal investigator is Melissa Suter. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Early diagnosis of lung cancer is critical to patient survival. Unfortunately the vast majority of cases are detected once symptoms arise and the cancer has spread offering patients little hope for cure (average 5-year survival rate < 15%). The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends individuals at high risk of developing lung cancer undergo yearly screening with low dose computed tomography (LDCT). Screening is highly ...

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    4. Fiber optic endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) to assess human airways: The relationship between anatomy and physiological function during dynamic exercise

      Fiber optic endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) to assess human airways: The relationship between anatomy and physiological function during dynamic exercise

      Airway luminal area (A i ) influences respiratory mechanics during dynamic exercise; however, previous studies have investigated the relationship between airway anatomy and physiological function in different groups of individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of A i on respiratory mechanics by making in vivo measures of airway dimensions and work of breathing (Wb) in the same individuals. Healthy participants (3F/2M; 23-45 years) completed a cycle exercise test to exhaustion. During exercise, Wb was assessed using an esophageal balloon catheter, while simultaneously assessing minute ventilation ( ˙ V E ). On a separate day, subjects underwent a bronchoscopy ...

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    5. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) for bronchoscopic airway imaging

      Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) for bronchoscopic airway imaging

      Introduction: Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is an endoscopic treatment for severe asthma that reduces airway smooth muscle (ASM) by radiofrequent energy. No diagnostic method is currently available to assess ASM, other than invasive, focal airway biopsies. Bronchoscopic standard optical coherence tomography (OCT) generates high resolution images of the airways. Polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) provides tissue-specific contrast that might enable ASM detection and quantification. Aim: Use novel PS-OCT to detect ASM and determine changes in ASM before and after BT in severe asthma. Methods: Bronchoscopic PS-OCT was performed from distal to proximal airways in a severe asthma patient before and after BT ...

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    6. Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Low Risk In Vivo Diagnosis of IPF with Optical Imaging

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Low Risk In Vivo Diagnosis of IPF with Optical Imaging

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $179,280 for Low Risk In Vivo Diagnosis of IPF with Optical Imaging. The principal investigator is Lida Hariri. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, ultimately fatal form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis (IIP), with a 3 year survival rate of 0%. Diagnostic certainty of IPF is critical to patient management and therapeutic decision-making. Two new FDA-approved therapies, pirfenidone and nintedanib, have been shown to slow disease progression in IPF and brought new hope to IPF patients. Due to their high costs, side ...

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    7. Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Assessing Airway Smooth Muscle Tone in Asthma with Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Assessing Airway Smooth Muscle Tone in Asthma with Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $187,546 for Assessing Airway Smooth Muscle Tone in Asthma with Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography. The principal investigator is David Adams. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Asthma affects over 300 million individuals with up to an estimated 10% suffering from “treatment- resistant” asthma, for whom alternative strategies are needed. Airway smooth muscle (ASM) undergoes significant changes in asthma that increase bronchoconstriction and impair lung function. Treatments and therapies that target ASM specifically may therefore offer an alternative approach to controlling asthma, but progress is impeded by the difficulty ...

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    8. Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Functional Imaging

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Functional Imaging

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $338,401 for Functional Imaging. The principal investigator is Benjamin Vakoc. Below is a summary of the proposed work. TRD 2 TRD project 2 will develop novel optical coherence tomography (OCT) technologies to address unmet needs in the functional imaging of tissue. Specific Aim #1 addresses the need for high-speed and high- resolution angiographic imaging systems for preclinical research. A new high-speed optical architecture for high-resolution optical coherence microscopy (OCM) will be constructed that is 100 times faster than existing OCM instrumentation. These improvements in speed will be leveraged to expand ...

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    9. CLE and OCT in Acute Respiratory Insufficiency

      CLE and OCT in Acute Respiratory Insufficiency

      Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a severe complication of critical illness. The diagnosis of ARDS is difficult, and it could be important to differentiate ARDS from other causes of acute respiratory failure. Innovative probe-based imaging techniques such as 'Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy' (CLE) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) are high resolution optical techniques that, combined with conventional bronchoscopy, have been found to provide non-invasive, real-time near-histology information about the alveolar compartment in non ventilated non-critically ill patients.

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    10. Phenotype- and patient-specific modelling in asthma: bronchial thermoplasty and uncertainty quantification

      Phenotype- and patient-specific modelling in asthma: bronchial thermoplasty and uncertainty quantification

      Theoretical models can help to overcome experimental limitations to better our understanding of lung physiology and disease. While such efforts often begin in broad terms by determining the effect of a disease process on a relevant biological output, more narrowly defined simulations may inform clinical practice. Two such examples are phenotype-specific and patient-specific models, the former being specific to a group of patients with common characteristics, and the latter to an individual patient, in view of likely differences (heterogeneity) between patients. However, in order for such models to be useful, they must be sufficiently accurate, given the available data about ...

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    11. National Jewish Health Receives NIH Grant for Role of Lung MSDC in Emphysema

      National Jewish Health Receives NIH Grant for Role of Lung MSDC in Emphysema

      National Jewish Health Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $616,754 for Role of Lung MSDC in Emphysema. The principal investigator is Susan Majka. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of mortality in the United States. COPD often is exacerbated by vasculopathy, which substantially worsens prognosis and limits survival. Vasculopathy is characterized by remodeling and loss of microvessels. Recent evidence has also highlighted a role for the alterations to the microvasculature during the early pathogenesis and heterogeneity of COPD, although the underlying mechanisms are not defined. The goal ...

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    12. Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for In Vivo Endobronchial OCT for IPF Diagnosis and Therapy Response Assessment

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for In Vivo Endobronchial OCT for IPF Diagnosis and Therapy Response Assessment

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $848,987 for In Vivo Endobronchial OCT for IPF Diagnosis and Therapy Response Assessment. The principal investigator is Lida Hariri. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, fatal form of interstitial lung disease (ILD), affecting 100,000 per year in the US, with a 3-year survival rate of 50% and a large socio-economic healthcare burden. Early, accurate diagnosis is essential to determine treatment, which differs drastically between IPF and other ILDs. Initiating treatment as early as possible is a key strategy to prevent ...

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    13. Postintubation Tracheal Stenosis Evaluated by Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography: A Canine Model Study

      Postintubation Tracheal Stenosis Evaluated by Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography: A Canine Model Study

      Background: The predictors and airway morphological changes during the development of postintubation tracheal stenosis (PITS) have not been well elucidated. Objectives: To elucidate the validation of endobronchial optical coherence tomography (EB-OCT) in assessing the airway morphological changes in PITS. Methods: We performed oral endotracheal intubation in 12 beagles to establish the PITS model. EB-OCT was performed respectively before modeling and on the 1st, 7th, and 12th day after extubation in 9 canines, and was conducted consecutively in 3 canines during the development of PITS. Histological findings and the thickness and gray-scale value of the tracheal wall assessed by EB-OCT measurements ...

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    14. Pulmonary Optical Coherence Tomography in COVID-19 Patients

      Pulmonary Optical Coherence Tomography in COVID-19 Patients

      To evaluate by intravascular OCT study the presence of microvascular pulmonary thrombosis in patients with COVID-19, high D-dimer levels and contrast CT scan negative for pulmonary thrombosis. We'll also evaluate the extension of microvascular pulmonary thrombosis in patients with contrast CT scan positive for pulmonary embolism in areas where contrast CT scan was negative.

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      Mentions: Cordis
    15. University of Alabama at Birmingham Receives NIH Grant for The Mechanisms Underlying Abnormal Mucus and Its Clearance in the cystic Fibrosis Rat

      University of Alabama at Birmingham Receives NIH Grant for The Mechanisms Underlying Abnormal Mucus and Its Clearance in the cystic Fibrosis Rat

      University of Alabama at Birmingham Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $135,570 for The Mechanisms Underlying Abnormal Mucus and Its Clearance in the cystic Fibrosis Rat. The principal investigator is Susan Briket. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Abnormal mucociliary clearance (MCC) is a critical component of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease, especially in the presence of infection; however, the mechanisms responsible for the defect are not well understood. Until recently, evaluation of this question has been primarily limited to cell culture models which do not replicate the complex nature of the airway surface or include contributions ...

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    16. Intravital microscopic optical coherence tomography imaging to assess mucus mobilizing interventions for muco-obstructive lung disease in mice

      Intravital microscopic optical coherence tomography imaging to assess mucus mobilizing interventions for muco-obstructive lung disease in mice

      Airway mucus obstruction is a hallmark of chronic lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis, asthma and COPD, and the development of more effective mucus mobilizing therapies remains an important unmet need for patients with these muco-obstructive lung diseases. However, methods for sensitive visualization and quantitative assessment of immediate effects of therapeutic interventions on mucus clearance in vivo are lacking. In this study, we determined if newly developed high-speed microscopic optical coherence tomography (mOCT) is sensitive to detect and compare in vivo effects of inhaled isotonic saline, hypertonic saline and bicarbonate on mucus mobilization and clearance in Scnn1b -transgenic mice with ...

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    17. Post-Doctoral Fellow Opening in Translational Biomedical Optics at the Massachusetts General Hospital

      Post-Doctoral Fellow Opening in Translational Biomedical Optics at the Massachusetts General Hospital

      Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine/Department of Pathology Employer: Massachusetts General Hospital The Hariri Optical Imaging Laboratory is a multidisciplinary research group at Massachusetts General Hospital. The focus of the laboratory is on the design, development and clinical translation of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the detection, diagnosis and assessment of pulmonary diseases, including lung fibrosis, lung cancer, and inhalational lung diseases. A highly motivated, independent, innovative and organized individual with an interest in translational optical imaging and medicine is sought for a Post-Doctoral Research Fellow position. The appropriate candidate will work in a highly collaborative research environment ...

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    18. Ultra-High-Resolution (UHR) Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in the Upper Airways: Aspect of Combined High-Speed Films and UHR OCT in the Larynx

      Ultra-High-Resolution (UHR) Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in the Upper Airways: Aspect of Combined High-Speed Films and UHR OCT in the Larynx

      Aim: The present position paper discusses the possibilities of comparing the new ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography with high-speed films in order to optimize diagnosis of the phonating larynx. Method and Results: Till now setups of OCT have had too low frequencies for evaluating the phonating larynx in the clinic. This gives artefacts on the vocal folds movements. Ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography is therefore discussed, possibly combined with high speed films of 2000 frames per second of the vocal folds (Richard Wolf GmbH). The UHR OCT setup is based on a supercontinuum source from NKT Photonics. The system imaging depth and ...

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      Mentions: NKT Photonics
    19. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with acute respiratory failure on the ICU

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with acute respiratory failure on the ICU

      Introduction: Differentiating ARDS from other forms of respiratory failure can be difficult. By advancing an optic fiber through a diagnostic bronchoscope, followed by an automatic pullback mechanism, OCT enables real-time 3D imaging of the alveolar compartment and peripheral airways. Aim: To investigate feasibility of bronchoscopic OCT, and to describe different OCT patterns of the alveolar compartment in mechanically ventilated patients. Methods: Observational study of OCT imaging in mechanically ventilated patients for non-resolving acute respiratory failure with an indication for diagnostic bronchoscopy. Results: 9 patients were included with clinical features of acute respiratory failure and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates not fully explained ...

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    20. Small airway dilation visualized by optical coherence tomography (OCT) correlates with the diagnosis of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD)

      Small airway dilation visualized by optical coherence tomography (OCT) correlates with the diagnosis of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD)

      Background: Small airways and the surrounding tissue of the lung allograft are often affected by pathological processes including acute cellular rejection (ACR), infections and different phenotypes of CLAD. OCT with superior resolution but shallow penetration, allows the visualization of these structures in contrast to routine radiographic imaging. Methods: We studied 54 lung transplant (LTx) recipients with OCT imaging during surveillance (n=36) or event (n=19) bronchoscopies. Volumetric images of 3 segmental airways were collected from each patient. OCT features were scored by 4 raters blinded to the clinical status of LTx recipients. Pearson correlation coefficients (R) were used to ...

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    21. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) detects collagen within the airway wall extracellular matrix

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) detects collagen within the airway wall extracellular matrix

      Introduction: Airway diseases are characterized by structural airway remodeling, including extracellular matrix (ECM) changes. Although a key feature, no diagnostic test currently assesses airway remodeling other than invasive airway biopsies. Real-time optical coherence tomography (OCT) generates infrared-based cross-sectional images of airway segments. Previously we reported that OCT identifies and quantifies airway wall layers. We hypothesized that OCT is able to detect collagen deposition areas within the airway wall ECM. Methods: In 5 lobectomy specimens 13 airways were dissected, marked with needles for matching histology and imaged by OCT. Sections were stained for total collagen (TC; pico sirius red) and collagen ...

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    22. Excess mucus viscosity and airway dehydration impact COPD airway clearance

      Excess mucus viscosity and airway dehydration impact COPD airway clearance

      The mechanisms by which cigarette smoking impairs airway mucus clearance are not well understood. We recently established a ferret model of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibiting chronic bronchitis. We investigated the effects of cigarette smoke on mucociliary transport (MCT). Adult ferrets were exposed to cigarette smoke for 6 months, with in vivo mucociliary clearance (MCC) measured by Tc-labeled DTPA (Tc-DTPA) retention. Excised tracheae were imaged with micro-optical coherence tomography. Mucus changes in primary human airway epithelial cells and ex vivo ferret airways were assessed by histology and particle tracking microrheology. Linear mixed models for repeated measures identified ...

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    23. Advances in Optical Coherence Tomography and Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in Pulmonary Diseases

      Advances in Optical Coherence Tomography and Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in Pulmonary Diseases

      Diagnosing and monitoring pulmonary diseases is highly dependent on imaging, physiological function tests and tissue sampling. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) are novel imaging techniques with near-microscopic resolution that can be easily and safely combined with conventional bronchoscopy. Disease-related pulmonary anatomical compartments can be visualized, real time, using these techniques. In obstructive lung diseases, airway wall layers and related structural remodelling can be identified and quantified. In malignant lung disease, normal and malignant areas of the central airways, lung parenchyma, lymph nodes and pleura can be discriminated. A growing number of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) have ...

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