1. Articles in category: Pulmonology

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    1. Spatiotemporal correlation of optical coherence tomography in-vivo images of rabbit airway for the diagnosis of edema

      Spatiotemporal correlation of optical coherence tomography in-vivo images of rabbit airway for the diagnosis of edema

      Detection of an early stage of subglottic edema is vital for airway management and prevention of stenosis, a life-threatening condition in critically ill neonates. As an observer for the task of diagnosing edema in vivo , we investigated spatiotemporal correlation (STC) of full-range optical coherence tomography (OCT) images acquired in the rabbit airway with experimentally simulated edema. Operating the STC observer on OCT images generates STC coefficients as test statistics for the statistical decision task. Resulting from this, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the diagnosis of airway edema with full-range OCT in-vivo images were extracted and areas under ROC ...

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    2. University of Alabama at Birmingham Receives NIH Grant to Study Functional Anatomic Imaging of Cystic Fibrosis Patients with Early Lung Disease using Micro-OCT.

      University of Alabama at Birmingham Receives NIH Grant to Study Functional Anatomic Imaging of Cystic Fibrosis Patients with Early Lung Disease using Micro-OCT.

      The University of Alabama at Birmingham Receives a 2015 NIH Grant for $498,330 to Study Functional Anatomic Imaging of Cystic Fibrosis Patients with Early Lung Disease using Micro-OCT. The principal investigator is Steven Mark Rowe. The program began in 2012 and elndsi nin 2016. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion transporter of chloride and bicarbonate. Defective or deficient CFTR leads to severe mucoobstructive lung disease and severe morbidity and early mortality due to lung infections. Even though substantial advances in ...

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    3. Long Range Optical Coherence Tomography of the Neonatal Upper Airway for Early Diagnosis of Intubation-related Subglottic Injury

      Long Range Optical Coherence Tomography of the Neonatal Upper Airway for Early Diagnosis of Intubation-related Subglottic Injury

      Subglottic edema and acquired subglottic stenosis are potentially airway -compromising sequelae in neonates following endotracheal intubation . At present, no imaging modality is capable of in vivo diagnosis of subepithelial airway wall pathology as signs of intubation - related injury . OBJECTIVES: To use Fourier domain long - range optical coherence tomography (LR-OCT) to acquire micrometer-resolution images of the airway wall of intubated neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting and to analyze images for histopathology and airway wall thickness. METHODS: LR-OCT of the neonatal laryngotracheal airway was performed a total of 94 times on 72 subjects (age 1-175 days, total intubation ...

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    4. Optical coherence tomography detects structural abnormalities of the nasal mucosa in patients with cystic fibrosis

      Optical coherence tomography detects structural abnormalities of the nasal mucosa in patients with cystic fibrosis

      Background Chronic inflammation and remodeling of the airways remain a hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF). However, knowledge of the associated mucosal micro-anatomical changes is limited. We evaluated the potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for in vivo imaging of the upper airway mucosa in CF patients. Methods A flexible OCT probe was used for cross-sectional imaging of the nasal mucosa in 25 CF patients and 25 healthy controls. Results OCT images showed mucosal details including epithelium, basement membrane, lamina propria with seromucinous glands, and underlying cartilaginous structures. Mean nasal mucosa and epithelial layer thickness were increased in CF compared to ...

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    5. Optical Coherence Tomography of Pulmonary Arterial Walls in Humans and Pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus)

      Optical Coherence Tomography of Pulmonary Arterial Walls in Humans and Pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus)

      Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disorder characterized by progressive elevation of the pulmonary pressures that, in the absence of therapy, results in chronic right-heart failure and premature death. The vascular pathology of PAH is characterized by progressive loss of small (diameter, less than 50 μm) peripheral pulmonary arteries along with abnormal medial thickening, neointimal formation, and intraluminal narrowing of the remaining pulmonary arteries. Vascular pathology correlates with disease severity, given that hemodynamic effects and disease outcomes are worse in patients with advanced compared with lower-grade lesions. Novel imaging tools are urgently needed that demonstrate the extent of vascular ...

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    6. Stanford University Receives NIH Grant to study Molecular Imaging of Protein Glycoslation in Living Subjects

      Stanford University Receives NIH Grant to study Molecular Imaging of Protein Glycoslation in Living Subjects

      Stanford University Receives a 2015 NIH Grant for $392,576 to study Molecular Imaging of Protein Glycoslation in Living Subjects. The principal investigator is Adan De La Zerda. The program began in 2012 and ends in 2017. Below is a summary of the propose work. The broad objective of this project is to develop instrumentation and chemistry imaging technologies to advance the study of protein glycosylation in living subjects. Protein glycosylation is the most abundant and complex posttranslational modification (PTM). Changes in protein glycosylation have been correlated with cancer progression, neurological disorders and many other diseases. Moreover, glycans are dynamic ...

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    7. Johns Hopkins University Receives NIH Grant to Study Micro Coherence Imaging Technology for Assessing Obstructive Lung Disease In Vivo

      Johns Hopkins University Receives NIH Grant  to Study Micro Coherence Imaging Technology for Assessing Obstructive Lung Disease In Vivo

      Johns Hopkins University Receives a 2015 NIH Grant for $782,083 to Study Micro Coherence Imaging Technology for Assessing Obstructive Lung Disease In Vivo. The principal investigator is Robert Brown. The program began in 2014 and ends in 2019. Below is a summary of the proposed work.

      This Biomedical Research Partnership (BRP) proposal involves a partnership among a biomedical engineering team, a pulmonary physiology team, and a clinical pulmonary medicine team. This research program will incorporate state of the art optical engineering, advanced in vivo physiologic evaluation, and direct application to human obstructive lung diseases (OLD). Optical coherence tomography (OCT ...

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    8. Bronchial thermoplasty in asthma: 2-year follow-up using optical coherence tomography

      Bronchial thermoplasty in asthma: 2-year follow-up using optical coherence tomography

      Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a novel, nonpharmacological procedure for treatment of severe asthma. Recently, the Asthma Intervention Research 2 clinical trial demonstrated asthmatics had fewer hospitalisations following BT, which persisted 5 years after therapy [1]. However, it is well recognised that asthma is a heterogeneous disease with distinct asthma phenotypes and, not surprisingly, not all asthmatics in that trial benefited from BT [2].

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    9. University of Alabama Receives NIH Grant for Developing a Clinical and Translation Core Related to Cystic Fibrosis

      University of Alabama Receives NIH Grant  for Developing a Clinical and Translation Core Related to Cystic Fibrosis

      University of Alabama Receives a 2015 NIH Grant for $193,380 for Developing a Clinical and Translation Core related to Cystic Fibrosis. The principal investigator is steven Rowe. The program began in 2015 and ends in 2016. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Numerous investigators within the current P30 application have indicated a need for 1) primary human airway epithelial cells (from lung transplantation) or nasal epithelial cells from CF and non-CF individuals; 2) measurements of the functional anatomy of respiratory epithelia that track airway surface liquid homeostasis, ciliary beating, and mucociliary transport; or 3) CFTR bioelectric assays ...

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    10. In vivo Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of the Mesothelium Using Developed Window Models

      In vivo Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of the Mesothelium Using Developed Window Models

      The mesothelium is an essential lining for maintaining the normal homeostasis of the closed body cavity and a central component of pathophysiologic processes. The mesothelium has been known as the end target for asbestos which induces asbestos-related lung diseases. Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare and fatal neoplasm predominantly due to asbestos exposure. Adaptation of an advanced and reliable technology is necessary for early detection of MM because it is difficult to diagnose this disease in its early stages. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides cross-sectional images of micro-tissue structures with a resolution of 2-10 μm that can image the mesothelium ...

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    11. Integrated Ultrasound, OCT, PA AND/OR Florescence Imaging Endoscope For Diagnosing Cancers In Gastrointestinal, Respiratory, And Urogenital Tracts

      Integrated Ultrasound, OCT, PA AND/OR Florescence Imaging Endoscope For Diagnosing Cancers In Gastrointestinal, Respiratory, And Urogenital Tracts

      A multimodality imaging system including ultrasound, optical coherence tomography (OCT), photoacoustic (PA) imaging, florescence imaging and endoscopic catheter for imaging inside the gastrointestinal tract with real-time automatic image co-registration capability, including: an ultrasound subsystem for imaging; an optical coherence tomography (OCT) subsystem for imaging, a PA microscopy or tomography subsystem for imaging and a florescence imaging subsystem for imaging. An invasive interventional imaging device is included with an instrumentality to take a tissue biopsy from a location visible on the ultrasound subsystem for imaging, on the optical coherence tomography (OCT) subsystem for imaging, photoacoustic (PA) subsystem for imaging and florescence ...

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    12. In vivo real-time imaging of airway dynamics during bronchial challenge test

      In vivo real-time imaging of airway dynamics during bronchial challenge test

      Background and Objective Asthmatic patients exhibit airway hyper-responsiveness, which induces bronchoconstriction and results in a ventilation defect. The bronchial challenge test using methacholine is a useful way to measure airway hyper-responsiveness with airway constriction. Anatomical optical coherence tomography has been used to image airway hyper-responsiveness of medium sized bronchus with the aid of an endoscopic probe. Recently, a thoracic window was reported that allows direct visualization of terminal airway such as alveolus. A multi-scale integrated airway dynamics was assessed in this study. We imaged in vivo changes in the right intermedius bronchus and alveolar structure during the bronchial challenge test ...

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    13. Doppler optical coherence tomography and co-registered autofluorescence imaging of peripheral lung cancer

      Doppler optical coherence tomography and co-registered autofluorescence imaging of peripheral lung cancer

      Diagnosis of peripheral lung nodules is challenging because they are rarely visualized endobronchially. Imaging techniques such as endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) are employed to improve tumor localization. The current EBUS probe provides limited nodule characterization and has an outer diameter of 1.4 mm that restricts access to small peripheral airways. We report a novel co-registered autofluoresence Doppler optical coherence tomography (AF/DOCT) system with a 0.9 mm diameter probe to characterize peripheral lung nodules prior to biopsy in vivo. Method: Patients referred for evaluation of peripheral lung nodules underwent bronchoscopy with examination of standard EBUS and the novel AF ...

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    14. Does smooth muscle in an intact airway undergo length adaptation during a sustained change in transmural pressure?

      Does smooth muscle in an intact airway undergo length adaptation during a sustained change in transmural pressure?

      In isolated airway smooth muscle (ASM) strips, an increase or decrease in ASM length away from its current optimum length causes an immediate reduction in force production followed by a gradual time-dependent recovery in force, a phenomenon termed length adaptation. In situ, length adaptation may be initiated by a change in transmural pressure (Ptm), which is a primary physiological determinant of ASM length. The present study sought to determine the effect of sustained changes in Ptm and therefore, ASM perimeter, on airway function. We measured contractile responses in whole porcine bronchial segments in vitro before and after a ...

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    15. Novel endoscopes for microscopic assessment of airway clearance using micro-optical coherence tomography (Thesis)

      Novel endoscopes for microscopic assessment of airway clearance using micro-optical coherence tomography (Thesis)

      The health of the human respiratory system depends critically on airway clearance via motile hair-like structures (cilia), which transport and eliminate unwanted particles trapped within mucus. Impairment of mucociliary clearance (MCC) can lead to life-threatening airway narrowing and lung infections, and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis, primary ciliary dyskinesia and chronic obstructive lung disease. However, no tool for microscopic in-vivo visualization of ciliary function is currently available, limiting studies of disease pathogenesis, refined diagnosis and phenotyping, and the development of novel therapeutics. In this thesis, a novel, 1-pm resolution, optical interferometric imaging ...

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    16. Comparative analysis of combined spectral and optical tomography methods for detection of skin and lung cancers

      Comparative analysis of combined spectral and optical tomography methods for detection of skin and lung cancers

      Malignant skin tumors of different types were studied in vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT), backscattering (BS), and Raman spectroscopy (RS). A multimodal method is proposed for early cancer detection based on complex analysis of OCT images by their relative alteration of scattered-radiation spectral intensities between malignant and healthy tissues. An increase in average accuracy of diagnosis was observed for a variety of cancer types (9% sensitivity, 8% specificity) by a multimodal RS-BS-OCT system in comparison with any of the three methods used separately. The proposed approach equalizes the processing rates for all methods and allows for simultaneous imaging and ...

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      Mentions: Pavel Zakharov
    17. Polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging system for endobronchial imaging

      Polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging system for endobronchial imaging

      A polarization sensitive endoscopic optical frequency domain imaging (PS-OFDI) system with a motorized distal scanning catheter is demonstrated. It employs a passive polarization delay unit to multiplex two orthogonal probing polarization states in depth, and a polarization diverse detection unit to detect interference signal in two orthogonal polarization channels. Per depth location four electro-magnetic field components are measured that can be represented in a complex 2x2 field matrix. A Jones matrix of the sample is derived and the sample birefringence is extracted by eigenvalue decomposition. The condition of balanced detection and the polarization mode dispersion are quantified. A complex field ...

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    18. Diagnosing Lung Carcinomas with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Diagnosing Lung Carcinomas with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Rationale: Lung carcinoma diagnosis on tissue biopsy can be challenging due to insufficient tumor and lack of architectural information. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution imaging modality that visualizes tissue microarchitecture in volumes orders of magnitude larger than biopsy. It has been proposed that OCT could potentially replace tissue biopsy. Objectives: We aim to determine if OCT could replace histology in diagnosing lung carcinomas . We develop and validate OCT interpretation criteria for common primary lung carcinomas : adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and poorly differentiated carcinoma . Methods: A total of 82 ex vivo tumor samples were included in a blinded ...

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    19. Advanced imaging in COPD: insights into pulmonary pathophysiology

      Advanced imaging in COPD: insights into pulmonary pathophysiology

      Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) involves a complex interaction of structural and functional abnormalities. The two have long been studied in isolation. However, advanced imaging techniques allow us to simultaneously assess pathological processes and their physiological consequences. This review gives a comprehensive account of the various advanced imaging modalities used to study COPD, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the nuclear medicine techniques positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Some more recent developments in imaging technology, including micro-CT, synchrotron imaging, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and electrical impedance tomography (EIT), are also described. The ...

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    20. Cystic Fibrosis, COPD Patients Could Benefit From Nanoparticle-based Mucus

      Cystic Fibrosis, COPD Patients Could Benefit From Nanoparticle-based Mucus

      An Optical Society release notes that while people might typically regard mucus as an “icky bodily secretion best left wrapped in a tissue,” for a group of researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , “snot is an endlessly fascinating subject.” The team has developed a way to use gold nanoparticles and lasers to measure the viscosity (“stickiness”) of the slimy secretion that lines our airways. The new method could help doctors better monitor and treat lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease .

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    21. Influence of different sized nanoparticles combined with ultrasound on the optical properties of invitro normal and cancerous human lung tissue studied with OCT and diffuse reflectance spectra

      Influence of different sized nanoparticles combined with ultrasound on the optical properties of invitro normal and cancerous human lung tissue studied with OCT and diffuse reflectance spectra

      The present study is concerned with the in vitro study of different sized titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles' (NPs) penetration and accumulation in human normal lung (NL) tissue and lung adenocarcinoma tumor (LAT) tissue by the methods of continuous optical coherence tomography (OCT) monitoring and diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra measurement, and their evaluating the effects of TiO 2 NPs in two sizes (60 nm and 100 nm) and their combination with ultrasound (US) on the optical properties of human NL and LAT tissue. Spectral measurements indicate that TiO 2 NPs penetrate and accumulate into the tissues and thus induce enhancement ...

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    22. Johns Hopkins University Receives NIH Grant for Micro Coherence Imaging Technology for Assessing Obstructive Lung Disease In Vivo

      Johns Hopkins University Receives NIH Grant  for Micro Coherence Imaging Technology for Assessing Obstructive Lung Disease In Vivo

      Johns Hopkins University Receives a 2014 NIH Grant for $681,519 for Micro Coherence Imaging Technology for Assessing Obstructive Lung Disease In Vivo. The principal investigator is Robert Brown. The program began in 2014 and ends in 2019. Below is a summary of the proposed work. This Biomedical Research Partnership (BRP) proposal involves a partnership among a biomedical engineering team, a pulmonary physiology team, and a clinical pulmonary medicine team. This research program will incorporate state of the art optical engineering, advanced in vivo physiologic evaluation, and direct application to human obstructive lung diseases (OLD). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is ...

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    23. Optical Coherence Tomography in Respiratory Science and Medicine: From Airways to Alveoli

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Respiratory Science and Medicine: From Airways to Alveoli

      Optical coherence tomography is a rapidly maturing optical imaging technology, enabling study of the in vivo structure of lung tissue at a scale of tens of micrometers. It has been used to assess the layered structure of airway walls, quantify both airway lumen caliber and compliance, and image individual alveoli. This article provides an overview of the technology and reviews its capability to provide new insights into respiratory disease.

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    24. A high-efficiency fiber-based imaging system for co-registered autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography

      A high-efficiency fiber-based imaging system for co-registered autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography

      We present a power-efficient fiber-based imaging system capable of co-registered autofluorescence imaging and optical coherence tomography (AF/OCT). The system employs a custom fiber optic rotary joint (FORJ) with an embedded dichroic mirror to efficiently combine the OCT and AF pathways. This three-port wavelength multiplexing FORJ setup has a throughput of more than 83% for collected AF emission, significantly more efficient compared to previously reported fiber-based methods. A custom 900 µm diameter catheter ‒ consisting of a rotating lens assembly, double-clad fiber (DCF), and torque cable in a stationary plastic tube ‒ was fabricated to allow AF/OCT imaging of small airways ...

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