1. Articles in category: Pulmonology

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    1. Aquyre Biosciences Reaches Major Procedure Milestone During Lung Awareness Month

      Aquyre Biosciences Reaches Major Procedure Milestone During Lung Awareness Month

      Aquyre Biosciences recognizes Lung Cancer Awareness Month by reaching a milestone of over 400 lung biopsy procedures completed using the CelTivity ™ microscopic system. CelTivity provides an easy-to-read image, like a PET scan for cells, making cancer cells glow. Physicians found that by using CelTivity they had a significantly higher rate of cancer detection (96%), compared to traditional methods (57%). By using CelTivity, physicians can be more confident in their findings and quickly provide diagnosis guidance to patients. CelTivity is the only microscopic system on the market to provide physicians with a non-destructive Rapid On-Site Evaluation (ROSE) of a biopsy for ...

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    2. Ocular biometry in dense cataracts: Comparison of partial-coherence interferometry, swept-source optical coherence tomography and immersion ultrasound

      Ocular biometry in dense cataracts: Comparison of partial-coherence interferometry, swept-source optical coherence tomography and immersion ultrasound

      Purpose: To assess the axial length (AL) measurement failure rate using partial-coherence interferometry (PCI) and swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in dense cataracts. As a secondary outcome, the SS-OCT biometry was compared to immersion ultrasound. Methods: This is a prospective cross-sectional and comparative study. Seventy eyes from 70 patients with dense cataracts were enrolled in this study. Dense cataract was defined according to the Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III) scores equal to or more than NO4, NC4, C4, and P3. The failure rate of AL measurement was evaluated using PCI and SS-OCT. Anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness ...

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    3. Quantification and visualization of metastatic lung tumors in mice

      Quantification and visualization of metastatic lung tumors in mice

      Histopathological examination is important for the diagnosis of various diseases. Conventional histopathology provides a two-dimensional view of the tissues, and requires the tissue to be extracted, fixed, and processed using histotechnology techniques. However, there is an increasing need for three-dimensional (3D) images of structures in biomedical research. The objective of this study was to develop reliable, objective tools for visualizing and quantifying metastatic tumors in mouse lung using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Melanoma cells were intravenously injected into the tail vein of 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice. The mice were euthanized at ...

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    4. Bronchoscopic Journey of in vivo Real-Time Microscopic Imaging in ILD: A Case Series

      Bronchoscopic Journey of in vivo Real-Time Microscopic Imaging in ILD: A Case Series

      Background: Patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) frequently present with nondiagnostic high-resolution CT (HRCT) scan and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) results, resulting in the need for invasive surgical or cryo-lung biopsy that is associated with significant morbidity. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are high-resolution laser and light-based techniques that provide real-time imaging of the alveolar compartment during bronchoscopy with a different depth and field of view. Objectives: The aim of the study was to correlate OCT and CLE imaging to HRCT imaging in ILD. Methods: This is a retrospective case series of 20 ILD patients who underwent ...

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    5. Optical clearing and testing of lung tissue using inhalation aerosols: prospects for monitoring the action of viral infections

      Optical clearing and testing of lung tissue using inhalation aerosols: prospects for monitoring the action of viral infections

      Optical clearing of the lung tissue aims to make it more transparent to light by minimizing light scattering, thus allowing reconstruction of the three-dimensional structure of the tissue with a much better resolution. This is of great importance for monitoring of viral infection impact on the alveolar structure of the tissue and oxygen transport. Optical clearing agents (OCAs) can provide not only lesser light scattering of tissue components but also may influence the molecular transport function of the alveolar membrane. Air-filled lungs present significant challenges for optical imaging including optical coherence tomography (OCT), confocal and two-photon microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy ...

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    6. Intravital imaging of mucus transport in asthmatic mice using microscopic optical coherence tomography

      Intravital imaging of mucus transport in asthmatic mice using microscopic optical coherence tomography

      Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases. Mucus overproduction is consistently linked to asthma morbidity and mortality. Despite the knowledge of the importance of mucus, little data exists on how mucus is transported in asthma and the immediate effects of therapeutic intervention. We therefore used microscopic optical coherence tomography (mOCT) to study spontaneous and induced mucus transport in an interleukin-13 (IL-13) induced asthma mouse model and examined the effects of isotonic (0.9% NaCl) and hypertonic saline (7% NaCl) which are used to induce mucus transport in cystic fibrosis. Without intervention, no bulk mucus transport was observed by ...

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    7. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Receives NIH Grant for Predicting the Need for Surgery in Pediatric Subglottic Stenosis using Airway Elastography Derived from Endoscopic OCT and Intraluminal Pressure Measurement

      University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Receives NIH Grant for Predicting the Need for Surgery in Pediatric Subglottic Stenosis using Airway Elastography Derived from Endoscopic OCT and Intraluminal Pressure Measurement

      University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $821,057 for Predicting the Need for Surgery in Pediatric Subglottic Stenosis using Airway Elastography Derived from Endoscopic OCT and Intraluminal Pressure Measurement . The principal investigator is Amy Oldenburg. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Subglottic stenosis (SGS) is one of the most common life-threatening airway disorders in infants and children. Current treatment methods are based on airway endoscopy, which provides only qualitative information. Surgical treatment failures for the most severe grades of SGS range toward 50%, often due to post-operative airway collapse in new ...

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    8. Massachusetts General Hosptial Receives NIH Grant for Assessing Airway Smooth Muscle Tone in Asthma with Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography

      Massachusetts General Hosptial Receives NIH Grant for Assessing Airway Smooth Muscle Tone in Asthma with Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography

      Massachusetts General Hosptial Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $189,000 for Assessing Airway Smooth Muscle Tone in Asthma with Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography. The principal investigator is David Adams. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Asthma affects over 300 million individuals with up to an estimated 10% suffering from “treatment- resistant” asthma, for whom alternative strategies are needed. Airway smooth muscle (ASM) undergoes significant changes in asthma that increase bronchoconstriction and impair lung function. Treatments and therapies that target ASM specifically may therefore offer an alternative approach to controlling asthma, but progress is impeded by the difficulty ...

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    9. OCT Evaluates the Effects of CTEPH Treated by Scoring Balloon

      OCT Evaluates the Effects of CTEPH Treated by Scoring Balloon

      Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a disease of obstructive pulmonary artery remodelling as a consequence of major vessel thromboembolism. The diagnosis of CTEPH is based on findings obtained after at least 3 months of effective anticoagulation in order to discriminate this condition from subacute PE. These findings are mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25mmHg with pulmonary artery wedge pressure ≤15 mmHg, mismatched perfusion defects on lung scan and specific diagnostic signs for CTEPH seen by multidetector CT angiography, MR imaging or conventional pulmonary cineangiography, such as ring-like stenoses, webs/slits and chronic total occlusions (pouch lesions or tapered lesions). Balloon ...

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    10. Direct Visualization and Quantitative Imaging of Small Airway Anatomy In Vivo Using Deep Learning Assisted Diffractive OCT

      Direct Visualization and Quantitative Imaging of Small Airway Anatomy In Vivo Using Deep Learning Assisted Diffractive OCT

      Objective/background: In vivo imaging and quantification of the microstructures of small airways in three dimensions (3D) allows a better understanding and management of airway diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). At present, the resolution and contrast of the currently available conventional optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging technologies operating at 1300 nm remain challenging to directly visualize the fine microstructures of small airways in vivo. Methods: We developed an ultrahigh-resolution diffractive endoscopic OCT at 800 nm to afford a resolving power of 1.7 µm (in tissue) with an improved contrast and a custom deep residual ...

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    11. Flexible, high-resolution micro-optical coherence tomography endobronchial probe toward in vivo imaging of cilia

      Flexible, high-resolution micro-optical coherence tomography endobronchial probe toward in vivo imaging of cilia

      We report the design and fabrication of a flexible, longitudinally scanning high-resolution micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT) endobronchial probe, optimized for micro-anatomical imaging in airways. The 2.4 mm diameter and flexibility of the probe allows it to be inserted into the instrument channel of a standard bronchoscope, enabling real-time video guidance of probe placement. To generate a depth-of-focus enhancing annular beam, we utilized a new fabrication method, whereby a hollow glass ferrule was angle-polished and gold-coated to produce an elongated annular reflector. We present validation data that verifies the preservation of linear scanning, despite the use of flexible materials. When ...

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    12. Post-Doctoral Fellowship at British Columbia Cancer Research Institute

      Post-Doctoral Fellowship at British Columbia Cancer Research Institute

      POST-DOCTORAL FELLOWSHIP The Optical Cancer Imaging Lab ( OCIL ) at the BC Cancer Research Institute ( BCCRI ) in Vancouver, Canada, has an opening for a Post-Doctoral Fellow. The OCIL develops and validates non-invasive high-resolution optical tools for the early detection and management of cancer. Our research includes all aspects of optical imaging and spectroscopy for the in vivo , ex vivo , and in silica evaluation of tissues from sites including lung, cervix, oral cavity, skin and colon. Further information is available online ( http://www.biophotonics.bccrc.ca). We are seeking a qualified individual to lead a funded research project to develop image-guided biopsy ...

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    13. Post Doc / research group leader for intravital imaging in airway at the Institute of Biomedical Optics, University of Lübeck

      Post Doc / research group leader for intravital imaging in airway at the Institute of Biomedical Optics, University of Lübeck

      Post Doc / research group leader for intravital imaging in airway. The position is funded by long-running grant of the German Center of Lung Research, which fosters translational medical research in pulmonology. Salary will be in accordance with the collective German bargaining agreement for universities. Recent developments in OCT which aim to increase resolution and to improve contrast hold great promise for intravital imaging of human tissue at cellular resolution. Important applications are expected in imaging airways for the diagnosis of asthma, inflammatory, and neoplastic diseases. Within a small interdisciplinary team, the Post Doc shall develop and apply novel multimodal imaging ...

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    14. Pilot Study of Biopsy Scanner for Evaluation of Bronchoscopic Small Biopsy Specimens to Determine Adequacy

      Pilot Study of Biopsy Scanner for Evaluation of Bronchoscopic Small Biopsy Specimens to Determine Adequacy

      In this study, lymph node or lung nodule tissue will be collected by bronchoscopy as part of standard clinical care. The tissue is being collected to help make a diagnosis of a pulmonary condition. The same amount of tissue that is collected per standard of care for diagnosis will be collected during the study; no additional tissue is taken for this study. The biopsy sample will be analyzed by the Aquyre Biopsy Scanner which will provide images of unprocessed lung biopsy tissue taken during your procedure. A pathologist will also analyze the tissue sample in accordance with existing clinical guidelines ...

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    15. software development TO OPTIMIZE THE minimal detectable difference IN huMAN AIRWAY IMAGES CAPTURED USING optical coherence tomography

      software development TO OPTIMIZE THE minimal detectable difference IN huMAN AIRWAY IMAGES CAPTURED USING optical coherence tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging methodology that can be used to assess human airways. OCT avoids the harmful effects of ionizing radiation and has a high spatial resolution making it well suited for imaging the structure of small airways. Analysis of OCT airway images has typically been performed manually by tracing the airway with a relatively high coefficient of variation. The purpose of this study was to develop an analysis tool to reduce the inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of OCT and improve the ability to detect differences in airways. OCT images from healthy, young human volunteers were used ...

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    16. Dynamic microscopic optical coherence tomography to visualize the morphological and functional micro-anatomy of the airways

      Dynamic microscopic optical coherence tomography to visualize the morphological and functional micro-anatomy of the airways

      In the imaging of airway tissue, optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides cross-sectional images of tissue structures, shows cilia movement and mucus secretion, but does not provide sufficient contrast to differentiate individual cells. By using fast sequences of microscopic resolution OCT (mOCT) images, OCT can use small signal fluctuations to overcome lack in contrast and speckle noise. In this way, OCT visualizes airway morphology on a cellular level and allows the tracking of the dynamic behavior of immune cells, as well as mucus transport and secretion. Here, we demonstrate that mOCT, by using temporal tissue fluctuation as contrast (dynamic mOCT), provides ...

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    17. Requirements and limitations of imaging airway smooth muscle throughout the lung in vivo

      Requirements and limitations of imaging airway smooth muscle throughout the lung in vivo

      Clinical visualization and quantification of the amount and distribution of airway smooth muscle (ASM) in the lungs of individuals with asthma has major implications for our understanding of airway wall remodeling as well as treatments targeted at the ASM. This paper theoretically investigates the feasibility of quantifying airway wall thickness (focusing on the ASM) throughout the lung in vivo by means of bronchoscopic polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). Using extensive human biobank data from subjects with and without asthma in conjunction with a mathematical model of airway compliance, we define constraints that airways of various sizes pose to any endoscopic ...

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    18. Visualization and Validation of The Microstructures in The Airway Wall in vivo Using Diffractive Optical Coherence Tomography

      Visualization and Validation of The Microstructures in The Airway Wall in vivo Using Diffractive Optical Coherence Tomography

      Rationale and objectives: At present, there is no available method to study the in vivo microstructures of the airway wall (epithelium, smooth muscle, adventitia, basement membrane, glands, cartilage). Currently, we rely on ex vivo histologic evaluation of airway biopsies. To overcome this obstacle, we have developed an endoscopic ultrahigh-resolution diffractive optical coherence tomography (OCT) system, operating at a wavelength of 800 nm, to non-invasively study the in vivo microstructures of the airway wall. Prior to human study, validation of diffractive OCT's ability to quantitate airway microstructural components is required. Materials and methods: To validate and demonstrate the accuracy of ...

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    19. Dynamic microscopic optical coherence tomography to visualize morphological and functional micro-anatomy of the airways

      Dynamic microscopic optical coherence tomography to visualize morphological and functional micro-anatomy of the airways

      Microscopic evaluation of airway tissue is a long established method in diagnostic and research. Especially the assessment of surgical biopsies is a cornerstone in the diagnostic of airway diseases, but the invasiveness of the preceding excision poses a significant hurdle for a wide application. Furthermore, fixation, dehydration, and staining terminate any biochemical processes and only a static image is created. Therefore, biopsies can not investigate dynamic processes. Airway function, however, is characterized by fast processes such as ciliary beating and mucus transport and in comparison relatively slow processes such as immune cell trafficking. Therefore, techniques that allow imaging of the ...

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    20. Reply to: Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography: Shining New Light on Diagnosing UIP?

      Reply to: Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography: Shining New Light on Diagnosing UIP?

      From the Authors: We thank Kalverda and colleagues for their letter regarding our recently published paper [1], and appreciate the opportunity to provide additional clarity on the points that they raise about the work. Below we address the questions asked by Kalverda and colleagues: Enrollment criteria Our primary objective was to conduct a blinded, prospective study to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of endobronchial OCT (EB-OCT) for microscopic ILD diagnosis as compared to concurrent surgical lung biopsy (SLB) and clinical follow-up diagnosis. Our inclusion criteria were: a) age >21 years, b) fibrotic ILD based on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with unclear ...

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    21. Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography: Shining New Light on Diagnosing UIP?

      Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography: Shining New Light on Diagnosing UIP?

      To the editor: In 15-30% of patients with a fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD) tissue acquisition is indicated as the diagnostic confidence based on clinical and radiological investigations does not justify a specific treatment allocation [1]. However, surgical lung biopsy and transbronchial cryobiopsy are associated with considerable risks of morbidity and even mortality [2]. Minimally invasive imaging techniques have the potential to obviate the need for tissue biopsy in at least a proportion of these patients [3]. Therefore, we are excited by the work of Nandy and colleagues and congratulate them with their work on endobronchial optical coherence tomography (EB-OCT ...

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    22. University of Alabama at Birmingham Receives NIH Grant for Functional Categorization of Ciliary Motion in PCD

      University of Alabama at Birmingham Receives NIH Grant for Functional Categorization of Ciliary Motion in PCD

      University of Alabama at Birmingham Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $159,882 for Functional Categorization of Ciliary Motion in PCD. The principal investigator is George Solomon. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder of motile cilia that results in progressive lung disease due to abrogated mucociliary clearance. While new understandings of the genetics have been helpful for clinical diagnostics, functional testing of cilia are needed to understand and predict phenotypic variation and response to therapy. Recent work in our laboratory has identified a link between ciliary genetics and novel ...

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    23. Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Investigation of Early Detection and Diagnosis of Lung Cancer with Endomicroscopy

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Investigation of Early Detection and Diagnosis of Lung Cancer with Endomicroscopy

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2022 NIH Grant for $582,146 for Investigation of Early Detection and Diagnosis of Lung Cancer with Endomicroscopy. The principal investigator is Melissa Suter. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Early diagnosis of lung cancer is critical to patient survival. Unfortunately the vast majority of cases are detected once symptoms arise and the cancer has spread offering patients little hope for cure (average 5-year survival rate < 15%). The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends individuals at high risk of developing lung cancer undergo yearly screening with low dose computed tomography (LDCT). Screening ...

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