1. Articles in category: Pulmonology

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    1. Flexible needle with integrated optical coherence tomography probe for imaging during transbronchial tissue aspiration

      Flexible needle with integrated optical coherence tomography probe for imaging during transbronchial tissue aspiration

      Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) of small lesions or lymph nodes in the lung may result in nondiagnostic tissue samples. We demonstrate the integration of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) probe into a 19-gauge flexible needle for lung tissue aspiration. This probe allows simultaneous visualization and aspiration of the tissue. By eliminating the need for insertion and withdrawal of a separate imaging probe, this integrated design minimizes the risk of dislodging the needle from the lesion prior to aspiration and may facilitate more accurate placement of the needle. Results from in situ imaging in a sheep lung show clear distinction between ...

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    2. Optical coherence tomography for identification and quantification of human airway wall layers

      Optical coherence tomography for identification and quantification of human airway wall layers

      Background High-resolution computed tomography has limitations in the assessment of airway wall layers and related remodeling in obstructive lung diseases. Near infrared-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel imaging technique that combined with bronchoscopy generates highly detailed images of the airway wall. The aim of this study is to identify and quantify human airway wall layers both ex-vivo and in-vivo by OCT and correlate these to histology. Methods Patients with lung cancer, prior to lobectomy, underwent bronchoscopy including in-vivo OCT imaging. Ex-vivo OCT imaging was performed in the resected lung lobe after needle insertion for matching with histology. Airway ...

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    3. Automated segmentation and quantification of airway mucus with endobronchial optical coherence tomography

      Automated segmentation and quantification of airway mucus with endobronchial optical coherence tomography

      We propose a novel suite of algorithms for automatically segmenting the airway lumen and mucus in endobronchial optical coherence tomography (OCT) data sets, as well as a novel approach for quantifying the contents of the mucus. Mucus and lumen were segmented using a robust, multi-stage algorithm that requires only minimal input regarding sheath geometry. The algorithm performance was highly accurate in a wide range of airway and noise conditions. Mucus was classified using mean backscattering intensity and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) statistics. We evaluated our techniques in vivo in asthmatic and non-asthmatic volunteers.

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    4. Visualization and Detection of Ciliary Beating Pattern and Frequency in the Upper Airway using Phase Resolved Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography

      Visualization and Detection of Ciliary Beating Pattern and Frequency in the Upper Airway using Phase Resolved Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography

      Ciliary motion plays a critical role in the overall respiratory health of the upper airway. These cilia beat at a native frequency and in a synchronized pattern to continuously transport foreign particulate trapped in a layer of mucous out of the upper airway. Disruption of ciliary motion can lead to severe respiratory diseases and compromised respiratory function. Currently, the study of cilia requires expensive high speed cameras and high powered microscopes which is unsuitable for in vivo imaging and diagnosis. Doppler based optical coherence tomography has the potential to visualize the microscopic motion of cilia during their beating cycle. We ...

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    5. LX Medical Corporation Receives a NIH Grant for High-Resolution Multi-modality Endoscopic Imaging Probes for Diagnosing Rejection in Lung Transplant Recipients

      LX Medical Corporation Receives a NIH Grant for High-Resolution Multi-modality Endoscopic Imaging Probes for Diagnosing Rejection in Lung Transplant Recipients

      LX Medical Corporation Receives a 2017 NIH Grant for $223,403 for High-Resolution Multi-modality Endoscopic Imaging Probes for Diagnosing Rejection in Lung Transplant Recipients. The principal investigator is Andrei Vertikov. The program began in 2017 and ends in 2018. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Lung transplantation is increasingly used to treat patients with end-stage lung diseases. Complications frequently occur with chronic allograft rejection causing most of late morbidity and mortality in lung transplant recipients. Pathological manifestations of chronic rejection mostly affect small airways or bronchioles in the lung, often progressing undetected until the patient presents with an ...

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    6. Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Low Risk In VIvo Optical Diagnosis of IPF with Optical Imaging

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Low Risk In VIvo Optical Diagnosis of IPF with Optical Imaging

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2017 NIH Grant for $179,120 for Low Risk In VIvo Optical Diagnosis of IPF with Optical Imaging. The principal investigator is Lida Hariri. The program began in 2016 and ends in 2021. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, ultimately fatal form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis (IIP), with a 3 year survival rate of 0%. Diagnostic certainty of IPF is critical to patient management and therapeutic decision-making. Two new FDA-approved therapies, pirfenidone and nintedanib, have been shown to slow disease progression in IPF and brought new ...

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    7. Johns Hopkins University Receives NIH Grant for Micro Coherence Imaging Technology for Assessing Obstructive Lung Disease In Vivo

      Johns Hopkins University Receives NIH Grant for Micro Coherence Imaging Technology for Assessing Obstructive Lung Disease In Vivo

      Johns Hopkins University Receives a 2017 NIH Grant for $750,287 for Micro Coherence Imaging Technology for Assessing Obstructive Lung Disease In Vivo. The principal investigator is Robert Brown. The program began in 2014 and ends in 2019. Below is a summary of the proposed work. This Biomedical Research Partnership (BRP) proposal involves a partnership among a biomedical engineering team, a pulmonary physiology team, and a clinical pulmonary medicine team. This research program will incorporate state of the art optical engineering, advanced in vivo physiologic evaluation, and direct application to human obstructive lung diseases (OLD). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is ...

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    8. Yale University Receives NIH Grant for Quantitative Optical Imaging of Cilia-Driven Fluid Flow

      Yale University Receives NIH Grant for Quantitative Optical Imaging of Cilia-Driven Fluid Flow

      Yale University Receives a 2017 NIH Grant for $416,250 for Quantitative Optical Imaging of Cilia-Driven Fluid Flow. The principal investigator is Mustafa Khokha. The program began in 2013 and ends in 2018. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Respiratory diseases are major causes of pediatric morbidity and mortality. These diseases are incompletely understood, which is a barrier to improving clinical care. Therefore, new mechanisms of disease need to be discovered. Optical imaging (e.g. optical coherence tomography [OCT]) will enable these discoveries since traditional imaging (e.g. x-ray, CT, MRI) cannot visualize structures smaller than ~1 mm ...

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    9. Pulmonary arterial wall disease in COPD and interstitial lung diseases candidates for lung transplantation

      Pulmonary arterial wall disease in COPD and interstitial lung diseases candidates for lung transplantation

      Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with lung disease has the worst prognosis of all types of PH. Pulmonary arterial vasculopathy is an early event in the natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and interstitial lung disease (ILD). The present study characterized the alterations in the structure and function of the pulmonary arterial (PA) wall of COPD and ILD candidates for lung transplantation (LTx). Methods A cohort of 73 patients, 63 pre-LTx (30 COPD, 33 ILD), and ten controls underwent simultaneous right heart catheterisation and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Total pulmonary resistance (TPR), capacitance (Cp), and the TPR-Cp relationship were ...

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    10. Airway compliance measured by anatomic optical coherence tomography

      Airway compliance measured by anatomic optical coherence tomography

      Quantification of airway compliance can aid in the diagnosis and treatment of obstructive airway disorders by detecting regions vulnerable to collapse. Here we evaluate the ability of a swept-source anatomic optical coherence tomography (SSaOCT) system to quantify airway cross-sectional compliance (CC) by measuring changes in the luminal cross-sectional area (CSA) under physiologically relevant pressures of 10–40 cmH 2 O. The accuracy and precision of CC measurements are determined using simulations of non-uniform rotation distortion (NURD) endemic to endoscopic scanning, and experiments performed in a simplified tube phantom and ex vivo porcine tracheas. NURD simulations show that CC measurements are ...

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    11. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for Time-Resolved Imaging of Alveolar Dynamics in Mechanically Ventilated Rats

      Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for Time-Resolved Imaging of Alveolar Dynamics in Mechanically Ventilated Rats

      Though artificial ventilation is an essential life-saving treatment, the mechanical behavior of lung tissue at the alveolar level is still unknown. Therefore, we need to understand the tissue response during artificial ventilation at this microscale in order to develop new and more protective ventilation methods. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) combined with intravital microscopy (IVM) is a promising tool for visualizing lung tissue dynamics with a high spatial and temporal resolution in uninterruptedly ventilated rats. We present a measurement setup using a custom-made animal ventilator and a gating technique for data acquisition of time-resolved sequences.

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    12. Optical coherence tomography and confocal laser endomicroscopy in pulmonary diseases

      Optical coherence tomography and confocal laser endomicroscopy in pulmonary diseases

      Purpose of review: Current imaging techniques (X-ray, computed tomography scan, ultrasound) have limitations in the identification and quantification of pulmonary diseases, in particular, on highly detailed level. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of innovative light- and laser-based imaging techniques that might fill this gap. Recent findings: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) are high-resolution imaging techniques, which, combined with bronchoscopy, provide 'near histology' detailed imaging of the airway wall, lung parenchyma, mediastinal lymph nodes, and pulmonary vasculature. This article reviews the technical background of OCT and CLE, summarizes ...

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    13. Multi-modal anatomical optical coherence tomography and CT for in vivo dynamic upper airway imaging

      Multi-modal anatomical optical coherence tomography and CT for in vivo dynamic upper airway imaging

      We describe a novel, multi-modal imaging protocol for validating quantitative dynamic airway imaging performed using anatomical Optical Coherence Tomography (aOCT). The aOCT system consists of a catheter-based aOCT probe that is deployed via a bronchoscope, while a programmable ventilator is used to control airway pressure. This setup is employed on the bed of a Siemens Biograph CT system capable of performing respiratory-gated acquisitions. In this arrangement the position of the aOCT catheter may be visualized with CT to aid in co-registration. Utilizing this setup we investigate multiple respiratory pressure parameters with aOCT, and respiratory-gated CT, on both ex vivo porcine ...

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    14. LX Medical Corporation Receives NIH Grant for Biopsy Probes with Real-Time Multi-Modality Image Guidance for Peripheral Lung Nodules

      LX Medical Corporation Receives  NIH Grant for Biopsy Probes with Real-Time Multi-Modality Image Guidance for Peripheral Lung Nodules

      LX Medical Corporation Receives a 2017 NIH Grant for Biopsy Probes with Real-Time Multi-Modality Image Guidance for Peripheral Lung Nodules. The principal investigator is Andrei Vertikov. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Recent technological advances have enabled low-dose spiral CT to become an effective tool for lung cancer screening. The majority of pulmonary nodules detected on CT, however, are small and difficult to diagnose. While CT-guided transthoracic needle biopsy (CT-TTNB) has high diagnostic accuracy (70% to 90% depending on nodule size), the risk of complications such as pneumothorax and bleeding is high. Diagnostic confirmation by transbronchial lung biopsy ...

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    15. Flexible, high-resolution micro-optical coherence tomography endobronchial probe toward in vivo imaging of cilia

      Flexible, high-resolution micro-optical coherence tomography endobronchial probe toward in vivo imaging of cilia

      We report the design and fabrication of a flexible, longitudinally scanning high-resolution micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT) endobronchial probe, optimized for micro-anatomical imaging in airways. The 2.4 mm diameter and flexibility of the probe allows it to be inserted into the instrument channel of a standard bronchoscope, enabling real-time video guidance of probe placement. To generate a depth-of-focus enhancing annular beam, we utilized a new fabrication method, whereby a hollow glass ferrule was angle-polished and gold-coated to produce an elongated annular reflector. We present validation data that verifies the preservation of linear scanning, despite the use of flexible materials. When ...

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    16. University of Alabama Receives NIH Grant for The Mechanisms Underlying Abnormal Mucus and Its Clearance in The Cystic Fibrosis Rat.

      University of Alabama Receives NIH Grant for The Mechanisms Underlying Abnormal Mucus and Its Clearance in The Cystic Fibrosis Rat.

      University of Alabama at Birmingham Receives a 2017 NIH Grant for $117,056 for The Mechanisms Underlying Abnormal Mucus and Its Clearance in The Cystic Fibrosis Rat. The principal investigator is Susan Birket. The program began in 2017 and ends in 2022. Below is a summary of the propose work. Abnormal mucociliary clearance (MCC) is a critical component of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease, especially in the presence of infection; however, the mechanisms responsible for the defect are not well understood. Until recently, evaluation of this question has been primarily limited to cell culture models which do not replicate the ...

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    17. Anatomically correct visualization of the human upper airway using a high-speed long range optical coherence tomography system with an integrated positioning sensor

      Anatomically correct visualization of the human upper airway using a high-speed long range optical coherence tomography system with an integrated positioning sensor

      The upper airway is a complex tissue structure that is prone to collapse. Current methods for studying airway obstruction are inadequate in safety, cost, or availability, such as CT or MRI, or only provide localized qualitative information such as flexible endoscopy. Long range optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to visualize the human airway in vivo , however the limited imaging range has prevented full delineation of the various shapes and sizes of the lumen. We present a new long range OCT system that integrates high speed imaging with a real-time position tracker to allow for the acquisition of an ...

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    18. Birefringence microscopy platform for assessing airway smooth muscle structure and function in vivo

      Birefringence microscopy platform for assessing airway smooth muscle structure and function in vivo

      The inability to visualize airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells in vivo is a major obstacle in understanding their role in normal physiology and diseases. At present, there is no imaging modality available to assess ASM in vivo. Confocal endomicroscopy lacks the penetration depth and field of view, and conventional optical coherence tomography (OCT) does not have sufficient contrast to differentiate ASM from surrounding tissues. We have developed a birefringence microscopy platform that leverages the micro-organization of tissue to add further dimension to traditional OCT. We have used this technology to validate ASM measurements in ex vivo swine and canine studies ...

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    19. Mass. General studies identify differences underlying the airway responses of patients with asthma

      Mass. General studies identify differences underlying the airway responses of patients with asthma

      Novel imaging and other tools reveal thicker airway smooth muscle, stronger immune response to allergens in asthmatic individuals More than 300 million people worldwide are affected by asthma, 25 million in the U.S. alone, and for most of them, allergy is an underlying cause. But why do some individuals allergic to airborne allergens develop asthma while many do not? Now two research teams from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) have used innovative imaging technology and other novel approaches to identify some key differences in both the immune response and the sensitivity of airway cells to inflammation between allergic individuals with ...

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    20. Measuring Airway Remodeling in Patients with Different COPD Staging Using Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography

      Measuring Airway Remodeling in Patients with Different COPD Staging Using Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography

      Background Although forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ) remains the gold standard for staging COPD, the association between airway remodeling and airflow limitation remains unclear. Objective Endobronchial optical coherence tomography (EB-OCT) was performed to assess the association between disorders of large- and medium-to-small-sized airways and COPD staging. We also evaluated small-airway architecture in heavy-smokers with normal FEV 1 (S NL ) and healthy never-smokers. Methods We recruited 48 COPD patients (stage Ⅰ, n=14; stage Ⅱ, n=15; stage Ⅲ-Ⅳ, n=19), 21 S NL , and 17 healthy never-smokers. Smoking history inquiry, spirometry, chest computed tomography, bronchoscopy and EB-OCT ...

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      Mentions: Wei Wang
    21. University of North Carolina Receives NIH Grant for Imaging Nanophysical Properties of Actively Transporting Bronchial Mucus

      University of North Carolina Receives NIH Grant for Imaging Nanophysical Properties of Actively Transporting Bronchial Mucus

      University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Receives a 2016 NIH Grant for $234,624 for Imaging Nanophysical Properties of Actively Transporting Bronchial Mucus. The principal investigator is Amy Oldenburg. The program began in 2016 and ends in 2018. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Mucus coats the lung epithelium and traps thousands of pathogens that we inhale every day. Human bronchial epithelial (hBE) cells lining the lung have cilia that propel mucus via shear forces, a mechanism known as muco-ciliary transport (MCT). MCT acts to clear mucus, providing a primary defense against trapped pathogens. In respiratory diseases ...

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