1. Articles in category: Pulmonology

    1-24 of 327 1 2 3 4 ... 12 13 14 »
    1. University of Alabama at Birmingham Receives NIH Grant for Functional Categorization of Ciliary Motion in PCD

      University of Alabama at Birmingham Receives NIH Grant for Functional Categorization of Ciliary Motion in PCD

      University of Alabama at Birmingham Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $159,882 for Functional Categorization of Ciliary Motion in PCD. The principal investigator is George Solomon. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder of motile cilia that results in progressive lung disease due to abrogated mucociliary clearance. While new understandings of the genetics have been helpful for clinical diagnostics, functional testing of cilia are needed to understand and predict phenotypic variation and response to therapy. Recent work in our laboratory has identified a link between ciliary genetics and novel ...

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    2. Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Investigation of Early Detection and Diagnosis of Lung Cancer with Endomicroscopy

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Investigation of Early Detection and Diagnosis of Lung Cancer with Endomicroscopy

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2022 NIH Grant for $582,146 for Investigation of Early Detection and Diagnosis of Lung Cancer with Endomicroscopy. The principal investigator is Melissa Suter. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Early diagnosis of lung cancer is critical to patient survival. Unfortunately the vast majority of cases are detected once symptoms arise and the cancer has spread offering patients little hope for cure (average 5-year survival rate < 15%). The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends individuals at high risk of developing lung cancer undergo yearly screening with low dose computed tomography (LDCT). Screening ...

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    3. Optical coherence tomography for identification of malignant pulmonary nodules based on random forest machine learning algorithm

      Optical coherence tomography for identification of malignant pulmonary nodules based on random forest machine learning algorithm

      Objective: To explore the feasibility of using random forest (RF) machine learning algorithm in assessing normal and malignant peripheral pulmonary nodules based on in vivo endobronchial optical coherence tomography (EB-OCT). Methods: A total of 31 patients with pulmonary nodules were admitted to Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, and underwent chest CT, EB-OCT and biopsy. Attenuation coefficient and up to 56 different image features were extracted from A-line and B-scan of 1703 EB-OCT images. Attenuation coefficient and 29 image features with significant p-values were used to analyze the differences between normal and malignant samples. A RF classifier was ...

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    4. Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography (FFOCT) for Evaluation of Bronchoscopic Small Biopsy Specimens

      Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography (FFOCT) for Evaluation of Bronchoscopic Small Biopsy Specimens

      This study sets out to register imaging of small biopsy specimens obtained during bronchoscopy using full-field optical coherence tomography against standard histologic evaluation. Small biopsy specimens obtained through bronchoscopy are commonly employed for the diagnosis and staging of thoracic malignancies. Diagnostic yield is dependent on tissue quality and quantity in specimens obtained through bronchoscopy, and it is thus important to ensure adequate sampling. Rapid on-site cytology (ROSE) is a method used by having a cytotechnologist at the bedside to prepare and analyze specimens to improve the quality of tissue acquisition during bronchoscopy. Although effective, ROSE expertise is not always available ...

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    5. Automatic correction of the initial rotation angle error improves 3D reconstruction in endoscopic airway optical coherence tomography

      Automatic correction of the initial rotation angle error improves 3D reconstruction in endoscopic airway optical coherence tomography

      Endoscopic airway optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an advanced imaging modality capable of capturing the internal anatomy and geometry of the airway. Due to fiber-optic catheter bending and friction, the rotation speed of the endoscopic probe is usually non-uniform: at each B-scan image, the initial rotation angle of the probe is easily misaligned with that of the previous slices. During the pullback operation, this initial rotation angle error (IRAE) will be accumulated and will result in distortion and deformation of the reconstructed 3D airway structure. Previous attempts to correct this error were mainly manual corrections, which are time-consuming and suffered ...

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    6. Airway luminal area and the resistive work of breathing during exercise in healthy young females and males

      Airway luminal area and the resistive work of breathing during exercise in healthy young females and males

      We examined the relationship between the work of breathing (W b ) during exercise and in vivo measures of airway size in healthy females and males. We hypothesized that sex-differences in airway luminal area (Ai) would explain the larger resistive W b during exercise in females. Healthy participants (n=11 females and n=11 males; 19-30 y) completed a cycle exercise test to exhaustion where W b was assessed using an esophageal balloon catheter. On a separate day, participants underwent a bronchoscopy procedure for optical coherence tomography measures of airways in the left (n=3) and right (n=4) lung. In ...

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    7. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography in end-stage lung diseases: an ex vivo pilot study

      Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography in end-stage lung diseases: an ex vivo pilot study

      A non-invasive diagnostic tool to assess remodeling of the lung airways caused by disease is currently missing in the clinic. Measuring key features such as airway smooth muscle (ASM) thickness would increase the ability to improve diagnosis and enable treatment evaluation. In this research, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) has been used to image a total of 24 airways from two healthy lungs and four end-stage diseased lungs ex vivo , including fibrotic sarcoidosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and cystic fibrosis. In the diseased lungs, except COPD, the amount of measured airway smooth muscle was increased. In ...

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    8. Novel Image Features of Optical Coherence Tomography for pathological classification of lung cancer: results from a prospective clinical trial

      Novel Image Features of Optical Coherence Tomography for pathological classification of lung cancer: results from a prospective clinical trial

      Background This study aimed to explore the characteristics of Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for differentiating between benign and malignant lesions, and different pathological types of lung cancer in bronchial lesions, and to preliminarily evaluate the clinical value of OCT. Methods Patients who underwent bronchoscopy biopsy and OCT between February 2019 and December 2019 at the Chinese PLA General Hospital were enrolled in this study. White-light bronchoscopy (WLB), auto-fluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB) and OCT were performed at the lesion location. The main characteristics of OCT imaging for the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions and the prediction of the pathological classification ...

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    9. Rapid non-destructive volumetric tumor yield assessment in fresh lung core needle biopsies using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Rapid non-destructive volumetric tumor yield assessment in fresh lung core needle biopsies using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Adequate tumor yield in core-needle biopsy (CNB) specimens is essential in lung cancer for accurate histological diagnosis, molecular testing for therapeutic decision-making, and tumor biobanking for research. Insufficient tumor sampling in CNB is common, primarily due to inadvertent sampling of tumor-associated fibrosis or atelectatic lung, leading to repeat procedures and delayed diagnosis. Currently, there is no method for rapid, non-destructive intraprocedural assessment of CNBs. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is a high-resolution, volumetric imaging technique that has the potential to meet this clinical need. PS-OCT detects endogenous tissue properties, including birefringence from collagen, and degree of polarization uniformity (DOPU) indicative ...

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    10. Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography for Bronchoscopic Airway Smooth Muscle Detection in Bronchial Thermoplasty-Treated Patients With Asthma

      Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography for Bronchoscopic Airway Smooth Muscle Detection in Bronchial Thermoplasty-Treated Patients With Asthma

      Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by airway remodeling (AR), including thickening of airway smooth muscle (ASM) as a key element of this alteration. 1 Patients with severe asthma may benefit from bronchial thermoplasty (BT), an endoscopic treatment that targets structural AR and induces ASM reduction. 2 Assessment of AR is critical to evaluate the impact of BT and might provide a tool for patient selection for BT. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) imaging has been proposed as a minimally invasive diagnostic method to assess ASM mass as an alternative to focal airway biopsies. Bronchoscopic standard optical coherence ...

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    11. University of North Carolina Receives NIH Grant for Predicting the Need for Surgery in Pediatric Subglottic Stenosis using Airway Elastography Derived from Endoscopic OCT and Intraluminal Pressure Measurement

      University of North Carolina Receives NIH Grant for Predicting the Need for Surgery in Pediatric Subglottic Stenosis using Airway Elastography Derived from Endoscopic OCT and Intraluminal Pressure Measurement

      University of North Carolina Receives a 2021 NIH Grant for $797,092 for Predicting the Need for Surgery in Pediatric Subglottic Stenosis using Airway Elastography Derived from Endoscopic OCT and Intraluminal Pressure Measurement. The principal investigator is Amy Oldenburg. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Subglottic stenosis (SGS) is one of the most common life-threatening airway disorders in infants and children. Current treatment methods are based on airway endoscopy, which provides only qualitative information. Surgical treatment failures for the most severe grades of SGS range toward 50%, often due to post-operative airway collapse in new, unpredicted locations. Treatment ...

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    12. Diagnostic Accuracy of Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography for the Microscopic Diagnosis of Usual Interstitial Pneumonia

      Diagnostic Accuracy of Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography for the Microscopic Diagnosis of Usual Interstitial Pneumonia

      Rationale: Early, accurate diagnosis of interstitial lung disease (ILD) informs prognosis and therapy, especially in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Current diagnostic methods are imperfect. HRCT resolution is limited while surgical lung biopsy (SLB) carries risks of morbidity/mortality. Endobronchial optical coherence tomography (EB-OCT) is a low-risk, bronchoscope-compatible modality that images large lung volumes in vivo with microscopic resolution, including subpleural lung, and has the potential to improve the diagnostic accuracy of bronchoscopy for ILD diagnosis. Objectives: We performed a prospective diagnostic accuracy study of EB-OCT in ILD patients with a low-confidence diagnosis undergoing SLB. Primary endpoints were EB-OCT sensitivity/specificity ...

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    13. MGH Receives NIH Grant for Assessing Airway Smooth Muscle Tone in Asthma with Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography

      MGH Receives NIH Grant for Assessing Airway Smooth Muscle Tone in Asthma with Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2021 NIH Grant for $198,000 for Assessing Airway Smooth Muscle Tone in Asthma with Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography. The principal investigator is David Adams. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Asthma affects over 300 million individuals with up to an estimated 10% suffering from “treatment- resistant” asthma, for whom alternative strategies are needed. Airway smooth muscle (ASM) undergoes significant changes in asthma that increase bronchoconstriction and impair lung function. Treatments and therapies that target ASM specifically may therefore offer an alternative approach to controlling asthma, but progress is impeded by the difficulty ...

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    14. All-fiber probes for endoscopic optical coherence tomography of the large airways

      All-fiber probes for endoscopic optical coherence tomography of the large airways

      Endoscopic optical coherence tomography of large airways poses unique challenges. A hybrid lens is described that consists of a section of coreless fiber and graded index fiber (GIF), followed by a ball lens section. This design produces low numerical aperture beams better suited for large airway imaging. The performance of this lens is compared against conventional GIF and ball lens designs. Forward- and side-viewing probes were modeled, fabricated, and tested. The impact of a sheath on the beam profile was also investigated. Probes with working distances larger than 10 mm and depth-of-focus exceeding 12 mm are demonstrated with the proposed ...

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    15. Small airway dilation measured by endoscopic optical coherence tomography correlates with chronic lung allograft dysfunction

      Small airway dilation measured by endoscopic optical coherence tomography correlates with chronic lung allograft dysfunction

      Significance: Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) is the leading cause of death in transplant patients who survive past the first year post-transplant. Current diagnosis is based on sustained decline in lung function; there is a need for tools that can identify CLAD onset. Aim: Endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) can visualize structural changes in the small airways, which are of interest in CLAD progression. We aim to identify OCT features in the small airways of lung allografts that correlate with CLAD status. Approach: Imaging was conducted with an endoscopic rotary pullback OCT catheter during routine bronchoscopy procedures (n = 54), collecting ...

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    16. University of Alabama Receives NIH Grant for The Role of Airway Mucus in Infection and Inflammation

      University of Alabama Receives NIH Grant for The Role of Airway Mucus in Infection and Inflammation

      University of Alabama at Birmingham Receives a 2021 NIH Grant for $400,833 for The Role of Airway Mucus in Infection and Inflammation. The principal investigator is Susan Birket. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Abnormal mucociliary clearance (MCC) is a critical component of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease, and is postulated to contribute to the high incidence of chronic pulmonary infections in this patient population; in turn the presence of chronic infection is thought to worsen the MCC defect, creating a cycle of mucus obstruction, infection, and inflammation that is difficult to interrupt or reverse. However, the ...

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    17. Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for In Vivo Endobronchial OCT for IPF Diagnosis and Therapy Response Assessment

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for In Vivo Endobronchial OCT for IPF Diagnosis and Therapy Response Assessment

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2021 NIH Grant for $872,315 for In Vivo Endobronchial OCT for IPF Diagnosis and Therapy Response Assessment. The principal investigator is Lida Hariri. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, fatal form of interstitial lung disease (ILD), affecting 100,000 per year in the US, with a 3-year survival rate of 50% and a large socio-economic healthcare burden. Early, accurate diagnosis is essential to determine treatment, which differs drastically between IPF and other ILDs. Initiating treatment as early as possible is a key strategy to prevent ...

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    18. In vivo assessment of changes to canine airway smooth muscle volume following bronchial thermoplasty with OR-OCT

      In vivo assessment of changes to canine airway smooth muscle volume following bronchial thermoplasty with OR-OCT

      The inability to assess and measure changes to the airway smooth muscle (ASM) in vivo is a major challenge to evaluating asthma and its clinical outcomes. Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a therapy for asthma that aims to reduce the severity of excessive bronchoconstriction by ablating ASM. While multiple long-term clinical studies of BT have produced encouraging results, the outcomes of BT treatment in practice have been variable, and questions remain regarding the selection of patients. Previously we have demonstrated an imaging platform called orientation-resolved optical coherence tomography that can assess ASM endoscopically using an imaging catheter compatible with bronchoscopy. In ...

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    19. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) for bronchoscopic airway smooth muscle detection in bronchial thermoplasty treated asthma patients

      Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) for bronchoscopic airway smooth muscle detection in bronchial thermoplasty treated asthma patients

      To the editor, 79 Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by airway remodeling (AR), 80 including thickening of airway smooth muscle (ASM) as a key element of this alteration (1). 81 Severe asthma patients may benefit from bronchial thermoplasty (BT), an endoscopic 82 treatment that targets structural AR and induces ASM reduction (2). Assessment of AR is 83 critical to evaluate the impact of BT and might provide a tool for BT patient selection. 84 Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) has been proposed as a 85 minimally invasive diagnostic method to assess ASM mass as alternative to focal ...

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    20. Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for In Vivo Endobronchial OCT for IPF Diagnosis and Therapy

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for In Vivo Endobronchial OCT for IPF Diagnosis and Therapy

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2021 NIH Grant for $848,987 for In Vivo Endobronchial OCT for IPF Diagnosis and Therapy. The principal investigator is Lida Hariri. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, fatal form of interstitial lung disease (ILD), affecting 100,000 per year in the US, with a 3-year survival rate of 50% and a large socio-economic healthcare burden. Early, accurate diagnosis is essential to determine treatment, which differs drastically between IPF and other ILDs. Initiating treatment as early as possible is a key strategy to prevent irreversible loss ...

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    21. Optical coherence tomography angiography in miliary tuberculosis

      Optical coherence tomography angiography in miliary tuberculosis

      A 14-year-old female was admitted with a history of high-grade fever. On admission, she underwent a comprehensive clinical, laboratory, and radiological evaluation. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest revealed multiple, tiny, nodular opacities in a ground-glass pattern bilaterally. Sputum studies were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Dilated fundus examination revealed multiple, yellow-white, deep choroidal lesions consistent with choroidal tubercles. She underwent optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in both eyes, which revealed normal superficial and deep retinal plexuses but multiple areas of flow void in the choriocapillaris. The optical coherence tomography (OCT) sections showed hyperreflective areas in the choriocapillaris ...

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    22. Physiology and Structure of the Small Airways in Patients With Chronic Airflow Obstruction or COVID-19

      Physiology and Structure of the Small Airways in Patients With Chronic Airflow Obstruction or COVID-19

      The purpose of this research project is to study small airways physiological function in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease or COVID-19 and explore the relationship with in-vivo microanatomical small airway structure as measured by OCT. Correlating endobronchial assessment with multiple breath nitrogen washout and impulse oscillometry will allow the characterisation of the relationship between small airway structural findings and these validated investigations. A small volume lung wash, endobronchial brushings and the collection of a limited number of endobronchial cryobiopsy samples will be performed to better understand the endobronchial environment of the small airways through inflammatory studies. Following the completion ...

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    1-24 of 327 1 2 3 4 ... 12 13 14 »
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