1. Articles in category: Pulmonology

    1-24 of 175 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 »
    1. A Functional Anatomic Defect of the Cystic Fibrosis Airway

      A Functional Anatomic Defect of the Cystic Fibrosis Airway

      Rationale: The mechanisms underlying cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease pathogenesis are unknown. Objective: To establish mechanisms linking anion transport with the functional microanatomy, we evaluated normal and CF piglet trachea, as well as adult swine trachea in the presence of selective anion inhibitors. Methods: We investigated airway functional microanatomy using micro-optical coherence tomography, a new imaging modality that concurrently quantifies multiple functional parameters of airway epithelium in a co-localized fashion. Main Results: Tracheal explants from wild type swine demonstrated a direct link between periciliary liquid (PCL) hydration and mucociliary transport (MCT) rates, a relationship frequently invoked but never experimentally confirmed ...

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    2. Validation of Airway Wall Measurements by Optical Coherence Tomography in Porcine Airways

      Validation of Airway Wall Measurements by Optical Coherence Tomography in Porcine Airways

      Examining and quantifying changes in airway morphology is critical for studying longitudinal pathogenesis and interventions in diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Here we present fiber-optic optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a nondestructive technique to precisely and accurately measure the 2-dimensional cross-sectional areas of airway wall substructure divided into the mucosa (WA muc ), submucosa (WA sub ), cartilage (WA cart ), and the airway total wall area (WAt). Porcine lung airway specimens were dissected from freshly resected lung lobes (N = 10). Three-dimensional OCT imaging using a fiber-optic rotary-pullback probe was performed immediately on airways greater than 0.9 mm ...

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    3. Postdoctoral Research Fellow Opening in Pulmonary and Critical Care Unit at Massachusetts General Hospital

      Postdoctoral Research Fellow Opening in Pulmonary and Critical Care Unit at Massachusetts General Hospital

      A postdoctoral research opportunity in biomedical optics is available at the Massachusetts General Hospital within the Pulmonary and Critical Care Unit and the Wellman Center for Photomedicine. Harvard Medical School appointment will be at the postdoctoral rank. The successful candidate will work within a highly collaborative research environment focused on the development and use of optical diagnostics for studying lung pathology, structure and function both in preclinical animal studies and in first-in-patient pilot clinical studies. The position will involve the design and fabrication of novel optical imaging systems including polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography, and confocal microscopy systems, and the design ...

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    4. Researchers at Yale Work to Improve Health of Premature Babies

      Researchers at Yale Work to Improve Health of Premature Babies

      There’s ongoing research to help babies born too soon. Yale researchers are looking into improving the health of premature babies by focusing on their under-developed lungs. What Yale researchers are doing is looking at the intricacies of how bacteria and viruses are moved in and out of the lungs in hopes of developing therapies and technology that could someday improve a premature baby’s chance of survival as well as quality of life. Born at 32 weeks, now 8-month-old Jaxon Buchholz has yet to go home from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Yale-New Haven Children’s Hospital. “He ...

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    5. Constructing 3D models of the pediatric upper airway from long range optical coherence tomography image

      Constructing 3D models of the pediatric upper airway from long range optical coherence tomography image

      Long-range optical coherence tomography has been developed to image the upper airway, obtaining high resolution, cross-sectional images of the hollow structure. The information obtained from the anatomical structure of the airway is important to objectively identify regions of airway obstruction. This paper describes a technique to create 3D reconstructions of the upper airway from LR-OCT images. Herein we outline the necessary steps to generate these 3D models, including image processing techniques, manual tissue segmentation in Mimics, anatomical curvature bending, and the final STL model rendition. These 3D models were used to qualitatively analyze structural changes before and after surgical interventions ...

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    6. Coregistered autofluorescence-optical coherence tomography imaging of human lung sections

      Coregistered autofluorescence-optical coherence tomography imaging of human lung sections

      Autofluorescence (AF) imaging can provide valuable information about the structural and metabolic state of tissue that can be useful for elucidating physiological and pathological processes. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides high resolution detailed information about tissue morphology. We present coregistered AF-OCT imaging of human lung sections. Adjacent hematoxylin and eosin stained histological sections are used to identify tissue structures observed in the OCT images. Segmentation of these structures in the OCT images allowed determination of relative AF intensities of human lung components. Since the AF imaging was performed on tissue sections perpendicular to the airway axis, the results show the ...

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    7. In vivo detection of inhalation injury in large airway using three-dimensional long-range swept-source optical coherence tomography

      In vivo detection of inhalation injury in large airway using three-dimensional long-range swept-source optical coherence tomography

      We report on the feasibility of using long-range swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect airway changes following smoke inhalation in a sheep model. The long-range OCT system (with axial imaging range of 25 mm) and probe are capable of rapidly obtaining a series of high-resolution full cross-sectional images and three-dimensional reconstructions covering 20-cm length of tracheal and bronchial airways with airway diameter up to 25 mm, regardless of the position of the probe within the airway lumen. Measurements of airway thickness were performed at baseline and postinjury to show mucosal thickness changes following smoke inhalation.

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    8. Temporal correlation of optical coherence tomography in-vivo images of rabbit airway for the diagnosis of edema

      Temporal correlation of optical coherence tomography in-vivo images of rabbit airway for the diagnosis of edema

      Recently, full-range optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems have been developed to image the human airway. These novel systems utilize a fiber-based OCT probe which acquires three-dimensional (3-D) images with micrometer resolution. Following an airway injury, mucosal edema is the first step in the body’s inflammatory response, which occasionally leads to airway stenosis, a life-threatening condition for critically ill newborns. Therefore, early detection of edema is vital for airway management and prevention of stenosis. In order to examine the potential of the full-range OCT to diagnose edema, we investigated temporal correlation of OCT images obtained from the subglottic airway of ...

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    9. Automated segmentation of porcine airway wall layers using optical coherence tomography: comparison with manual segmentation and histology

      Automated segmentation of porcine airway wall layers using optical coherence tomography: comparison with manual segmentation and histology

      The objective was to develop an automated optical coherence tomography (OCT) segmentation method. We evaluated three ex-vivo porcine airway specimens; six non-sequential OCT images were selected from each airway specimen. Histology was also performed for each airway and histology images were co-registered to OCT images for comparison. Manual segmentation of the airway luminal area, mucosa area, submucosa area and the outer airway wall area were performed for histology and OCT images. Automated segmentation of OCT images employed a despecking filter for pre-processing, a hessian-based filter for lumen and outer airway wall area segmentation, and K-means clustering for mucosa and submucosa ...

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    10. Sex differences in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease evaluated using optical coherence tomography

      Sex differences in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease evaluated using optical coherence tomography

      Although there are more women than men dying of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the United States and elsewhere, we still do not have a clear understanding of the differences in the pathophysiology of airflow obstruction between the sexes. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging imaging technology that has the capability of imaging small bronchioles with resolution approaching histology. Therefore, our objective was to compare OCT-derived airway wall measurements between males and females matched for lung size and in anatomically matched small airways. Subjects 50-80 yrs were enrolled in the British Columbia Lung Health Study and underwent OCT ...

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    11. Quantitative upper airway endoscopy with swept-source anatomical optical coherence tomography

      Quantitative upper airway endoscopy with swept-source anatomical optical coherence tomography

      Minimally invasive imaging of upper airway obstructions in children and adults is needed to improve clinical decision-making. Toward this goal, we demonstrate an anatomical optical coherence tomography (aOCT) system delivered via a small-bore, flexible endoscope to quantify the upper airway lumen geometry. Helical scans were obtained from a proximally-scanned fiber-optic catheter of 820 μm outer diameter and >2 mm focal length. Coupled with a long coherence length wavelength-swept light source, the system exhibited an SNR roll-off of < 10 dB over a 10 mm range. Operating at 10 rotations/s, the average accuracy of segmented cross-sectional areas was found to be ...

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    12. Optical coherence tomography of the airways

      Optical coherence tomography of the airways

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution imaging modality that uses near infrared light reflected from the tissue optical interfaces to generate real-time images with near-histology resolution. Bronchoscopic use of OCT has potential applications in the study, diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of asthma, COPD, and histologically benign and malignant central airway disorders. This paper provides an overview of the rationale and principles of OCT imaging, describes the limitations of current technology, and summarizes potential future developments that may overcome the existing challenges.

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    13. Optical imaging of subacute airway remodeling and adipose stem cell engraftment after airway injury

      Optical imaging of subacute airway remodeling and adipose stem cell engraftment after airway injury

      Acquired airway injury is frequently caused by endotracheal intubations, long-term tracheostomies, trauma, airway burns, and some systemic diseases. An effective and less invasive technique for both the early assessment and the early interventional treatment of acquired airway stenosis is therefore needed. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been proposed to have unique potential for early monitoring from the proliferative epithelium to the cartilage in acute airway injury. Additionally, stem cell therapy using adipose stem cells is being investigated as an option for early interventional treatment in airway and lung injury. Over the past decade, it has become possible to monitor the ...

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      Mentions: Joseph A. Izatt
    14. Total liquid ventilation: a new approach to improve 3D OCT image quality of alveolar structures in lung tissue

      Total liquid ventilation: a new approach to improve 3D OCT image quality of alveolar structures in lung tissue

      Little is known about mechanical processes of alveolar tissue during mechanical ventilation. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a three-dimensional and high-resolution imaging modality can be used to visualize subpleural alveoli during artificial ventilation. The quality of OCT images can be increased by matching the refractive index inside the alveoli to the one of tissue via liquid-filling. Thereby, scattering loss can be decreased and higher penetration depth and tissue contrast can be achieved. We show the liquid-filling of alveolar structures verified by optical coherence tomography and intravital microscopy (IVM) and the advantages of index matching for OCT imaging of subpleural alveoli ...

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    15. Predictive value of optical coherence tomography on the outcome of lung adenocarcinoma with choroidal metastases

      Predictive value of optical coherence tomography on the outcome of lung adenocarcinoma with choroidal metastases

      CLINICAL CASE: A 59 year-old male, with the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma stage iv, following palliative systemic chemotherapy treatment. He was referred to our department due to bilateral blurred vision. In the eye-fundus we observed: bilateral choroidal metastases with macular involvement, and in optical coherence tomography (OCT): neurosensory detachment in both eyes. This neurosensory detachment showed improvement with chemotherapy before the clinical and radiologic improvement. DISCUSSION: OCT could be a great tool in order to predict the response to systemic treatment in cases of lung adenocarcinoma associated with choroidal metastases.

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    16. Full-field optical coherence tomography for the analysis of fresh unstained human lobectomy specimens

      Full-field optical coherence tomography for the analysis of fresh unstained human lobectomy specimens

      Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) is a real-time imaging technique that generates high-resolution three-dimensional tomographic images from unprocessed and unstained tissues. Lack of tissue processing and associated artifacts, along with the ability to generate large-field images quickly, warrants its exploration as an alternative diagnostic tool. Materials and Methods: One section each from the tumor and from adjacent non-neoplastic tissue was collected from 13 human lobectomy specimens. They were imaged fresh with FFOCT and then submitted for routine histopathology. Two blinded pathologists independently rendered diagnoses based on FFOCT images. Results: Normal lung architecture (alveoli, bronchi, pleura and blood vessels) was readily ...

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    17. Diagnostic bronchoscopy--current and future perspectives

      Diagnostic bronchoscopy--current and future perspectives

      Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Standard bronchoscopy has limited ability to accurately localise and biopsy pulmonary lesions that cannot be directly visualised. The field of advanced diagnostic bronchoscopy is rapidly evolving due to advances in electronics and miniaturisation. Bronchoscopes with smaller outer working diameters, coupled with miniature radial and convex ultrasound probes, allow accurate central and peripheral pulmonary lesion localisation and biopsy while at the same time avoiding vascular structures. Increases in computational processing power allow three-dimensional reconstruction of computed tomographic raw data to enable virtual bronchoscopy (VB), providing the bronchoscopist with a preview of ...

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    18. Four-dimensional visualization of subpleural alveolar dynamics in vivo during uninterrupted mechanical ventilation of living swine

      Four-dimensional visualization of subpleural alveolar dynamics in vivo during uninterrupted mechanical ventilation of living swine

      Pulmonary alveoli have been studied for many years, yet no unifying hypothesis exists for their dynamic mechanics during respiration due to their miniature size (100-300 μm dimater in humans) and constant motion, which prevent standard imaging techniques from visualizing four-dimensional dynamics of individual alveoli in vivo . Here we report a new platform to image the first layer of air-filled subpleural alveoli through the use of a lightweight optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) probe that can be placed upon the pleura to move with the lung over the complete range of respiratory motion. This device enables in-vivo acquisition of four-dimensional microscopic ...

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    19. Automated quantification of lung structures from optical coherence tomography images

      Automated quantification of lung structures from optical coherence tomography images

      Characterization of the size of lung structures can aid in the assessment of a range of respiratory diseases. In this paper, we present a fully automated segmentation and quantification algorithm for the delineation of large numbers of lung structures in optical coherence tomography images, and the characterization of their size using the stereological measure of median chord length. We demonstrate this algorithm on scans acquired with OCT needle probes in fresh, ex vivo tissues from two healthy animal models: pig and rat. Automatically computed estimates of lung structure size were validated against manual measures. In addition, we present 3D visualizations ...

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    20. Advanced bronchoscopic techniques in diagnosis and staging of lung cancer

      Advanced bronchoscopic techniques in diagnosis and staging of lung cancer

      The role of advanced brochoscopic diagnostic techniques in detection and staging of lung cancer has steeply increased in recent years. Bronchoscopic imaging techniques became widely available and easy to use. Technical improvement led to merging in technologies making autofluorescence or narrow band imaging incorporated into one bronchoscope. New tools, such as autofluorescence imagining (AFI), narrow band imaging (NBI) or fuji intelligent chromo endoscopy (FICE), found their place in respiratory endoscopy suites. Development of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) improved minimally invasive mediastinal staging and diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions. Linear EBUS proven to be complementary to mediastinoscopy. This technique is now available ...

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    21. University of Alabama Receives NIH Grant for Functional Anatomic Imaging of Cystic Fibrosis Patients With Early Lung Disease Using Micro-OCT

      University of Alabama Receives NIH Grant for Functional Anatomic Imaging of Cystic Fibrosis Patients With Early Lung Disease Using Micro-OCT

      University of Alabama at Birmingham received a 2013 NIH Grant for $538,770 for Functional Anatomic Imaging of Cystic Fibrosis Patients With Early Lung Disease Using Micro-OCT. The principal investigator is Steven Rowe. The program started in 2012 and lends in 2016. A summary of the program is given below. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion transporter of chloride and bicarbonate. Defective or deficient CFTR leads to severe mucoobstructive lung disease and severe morbidity and early mortality due to lung infections. Even though substantial advances in our understanding of ...

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    22. Towards the guidance of transbronchial biopsy: Identifying pulmonary nodules with optical coherence tomography

      Towards the guidance of transbronchial biopsy: Identifying pulmonary nodules with optical coherence tomography

      Background: Solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) frequently require transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) or biopsy to determine malignant potential, but have variable diagnostic yields. Confirming needle placement within SPNs during TBNA could significantly increase diagnostic yield. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides non-destructive, high-resolution, microstructural imaging with potential to distinguish SPN from parenchyma. We have previously developed needle-based OCT probes compatible with TBNA. Before OCT can play any significant role in guiding clinical TBNA, OCT interpretation criteria for differentiating SPN from lung parenchyma must be developed and validated. Methods: OCT of SPN and parenchyma was performed in 111 ex vivo resection specimens. OCT ...

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    1-24 of 175 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 »
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