1. Articles in category: Pulmonology

    1-24 of 281 1 2 3 4 ... 10 11 12 »
    1. Excess mucus viscosity and airway dehydration impact COPD airway clearance

      Excess mucus viscosity and airway dehydration impact COPD airway clearance

      The mechanisms by which cigarette smoking impairs airway mucus clearance are not well understood. We recently established a ferret model of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibiting chronic bronchitis. We investigated the effects of cigarette smoke on mucociliary transport (MCT). Adult ferrets were exposed to cigarette smoke for 6 months, with in vivo mucociliary clearance (MCC) measured by Tc-labeled DTPA (Tc-DTPA) retention. Excised tracheae were imaged with micro-optical coherence tomography. Mucus changes in primary human airway epithelial cells and ex vivo ferret airways were assessed by histology and particle tracking microrheology. Linear mixed models for repeated measures identified ...

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    2. Advances in Optical Coherence Tomography and Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in Pulmonary Diseases

      Advances in Optical Coherence Tomography and Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in Pulmonary Diseases

      Diagnosing and monitoring pulmonary diseases is highly dependent on imaging, physiological function tests and tissue sampling. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) are novel imaging techniques with near-microscopic resolution that can be easily and safely combined with conventional bronchoscopy. Disease-related pulmonary anatomical compartments can be visualized, real time, using these techniques. In obstructive lung diseases, airway wall layers and related structural remodelling can be identified and quantified. In malignant lung disease, normal and malignant areas of the central airways, lung parenchyma, lymph nodes and pleura can be discriminated. A growing number of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) have ...

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    3. Co-cultured microfluidic model of the airway optimized for microscopy and micro-optical coherence tomography imaging

      Co-cultured microfluidic model of the airway optimized for microscopy and micro-optical coherence tomography imaging

      We have developed a human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cell and endothelial cell co-cultured microfluidic model to mimic the in vivo human airway. This airway-on-a-chip was designed with a central epithelial channel and two flanking endothelial channels, with a three-dimensional monolayers of cells growing along the four walls of the channel, forming central clear lumens. These cultures mimic airways and microvasculature in vivo . The central channel cells are grown at air-liquid interface and show features of airway differentiation including tight-junction formation, mucus production, and ciliated cells. Combined with novel micro-optical coherence tomography, this chip enables functional imaging of the interior of ...

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    4. Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography for Assessing Inhalation Airway Injury: A Technical Review

      Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography for Assessing Inhalation Airway Injury: A Technical Review

      Diagnosis of inhalation injury has been clinically challenging. Currently, assessment of inhalation injury relies on subjective clinical exams and bronchoscopy, which provides little understanding of tissue conditions and results in limited prognostics. Endoscopic Optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology has been recently utilized in the airway for direct assessment of respiratory tract disorders and injuries. Endoscopic OCT is capable of capturing highresolution images of tissue morphology 1-3 mm beneath the surface as well as the complex 3D anatomical shape. Previous studies indicate that changes in airway histopathology can be found in the OCT image almost immediately after inhalation of smoke and ...

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    5. University of Alabama Receives NIH Grant for Clinical and Translational Core.

      University of Alabama Receives NIH Grant  for Clinical and Translational Core.

      University of Alabama Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for $225,529 for Clinical and Translational Core. The principal investigator is Steven Rowe. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Experimental techniques that require measurements in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and tissues have demonstrated clear utility in CF science. Such capabilities have enabled advances including important contributions to our understanding of basic aspects of disease pathogenesis, characterization of novel therapeutics directed towards CF ion transport defects, and the evaluation of CFTR modulators in human subjects. The purpose of Core C is to provide resources, expertise, and support to a wide ...

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    6. University of Alabama Receives NIH Grant for Cell Model Evaluation Core.

      University of Alabama Receives NIH Grant for Cell Model Evaluation Core.

      University of Alabama Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for $241,719 for Cell Model Evaluation Core. The principal investigator is Bradford Woodworth. Below is a summary of the proposed work. A Well-differentiated primary human airway epithelial cells and the assays that can be used with them are an instrumental model for understanding epithelial biology and are highly predictive of in vivo results in clinical trials. Primary cells can be used with methodologies that translate readily to assays of airway function in vivo, including measures of CFTR activity or other ion transporters, airway surface liquid depth and mucus hydration, and mucus ...

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    7. Intranasal micro-optical coherence tomography imaging for cystic fibrosis studies

      Intranasal micro-optical coherence tomography imaging for cystic fibrosis studies

      Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Although impairment of mucociliary clearance contributes to severe morbidity and mortality in people with CF, a clear understanding of the pathophysiology is lacking. This is, in part, due to the absence of clinical imaging techniques capable of capturing CFTR-dependent functional metrics at the cellular level. Here, we report the clinical translation of a 1-μm resolution micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT) technology to quantitatively characterize the functional microanatomy of human upper airways. Using a minimally invasive intranasal imaging approach, we performed a clinical ...

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    8. New intra-nasal imaging technique allows researchers to study airways in patients with cystic fibrosis

      New intra-nasal imaging technique allows researchers to study airways in patients with cystic fibrosis

      A paper published today in Science Translational Medicine describes a simple, minimally invasive new tool for viewing differences in the nasal airways of cystic fibrosis patients in vivo at a cellular level. The new technique provides high-resolution images of the hair-like structures called cilia that line nasal airways as well as detailed features of the clearance of mucus, which is impaired in people with CF, causing significant morbidity. The imaging catheter, which is about 2-millimeters in diameter, uses optical coherence tomography with a resolution of about 1 micrometer — a 50th the size of a human hair — allowing researchers to probe ...

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    9. Innovative tool gives researchers new look at the nasal airway in CF patients

      Innovative tool gives researchers new look at the nasal airway in CF patients

      A paper published today in Science Translational Medicine describes a simple, minimally invasive new tool for viewing differences in the nasal airways of cystic fibrosis patients in vivo at a cellular level. The new technique provides high-resolution images of the hair-like structures called cilia that line nasal airways as well as of the detailed features of the clearance of mucus, which is impaired in people with CF, causing significant morbidity. The imaging catheter, which is about 2 mm in diameter, uses optical coherence tomography with a resolution of about 1 micrometer — a 50th the size of a human hair — allowing ...

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    10. Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Low Risk In Vivo Diagnosis of IPF with Optical Imaging

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant  for Low Risk In Vivo Diagnosis of IPF with Optical Imaging

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for $179,280 for Low Risk In Vivo Diagnosis of IPF with Optical Imaging. The principal investigator is Lida Hariri. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, ultimately fatal form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis (IIP), with a 3 year survival rate of 0%. Diagnostic certainty of IPF is critical to patient management and therapeutic decision-making. Two new FDA-approved therapies, pirfenidone and nintedanib, have been shown to slow disease progression in IPF and brought new hope to IPF patients. Due to their high costs, side ...

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    11. Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Assessing Airway Smooth Muscle Tone in Asthma with Endobroncial Optical Coherence Tomography

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Assessing Airway Smooth Muscle Tone in Asthma with Endobroncial Optical Coherence Tomography

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for $186,711 for Assessing Airway Smooth Muscle Tone in Asthma with Endobroncial Optical Coherence Tomography. The principal investigator is David Adams. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Asthma affects over 300 million individuals with up to an estimated 10% suffering from “treatment- resistant” asthma, for whom alternative strategies are needed. Airway smooth muscle (ASM) undergoes significant changes in asthma that increase bronchoconstriction and impair lung function. Treatments and therapies that target ASM specifically may therefore offer an alternative approach to controlling asthma, but progress is impeded by the difficulty ...

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    12. Evaluation of the normal airway morphology using optical coherence tomography

      Evaluation of the normal airway morphology using optical coherence tomography

      Background The anatomical location of small airways, the distribution of airway cartilage and their correlation with ageing have not been well elucidated. Objective To explore the morphological characteristics of small airways in vivo , and how airway structural changes correlate with age using endobronchial optical coherence tomography (EB-OCT). Methods We recruited 112 subjects with peripheral pulmonary nodules. Participants underwent computed tomography, spirometry, and EB-OCT measurements. We measured the airway internal diamaeter (D mean ), inner area (Ai), airway wall area percentage (Aw%) and the thickness of airway cartilage. EB-OCT airway structural characteristics at different age intervals were analyzed, and the association between ...

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    13. En-face optical coherence tomography/fluorescence endomicroscopy for minimally invasive imaging using a robotic scanner

      En-face optical coherence tomography/fluorescence endomicroscopy for minimally invasive imaging using a robotic scanner

      We report a compact rigid instrument capable of delivering en-face optical coherence tomography (OCT) images alongside (epi)-fluorescence endomicroscopy (FEM) images by means of a robotic scanning device. Two working imaging channels are included: one for a one-dimensional scanning, forward-viewing OCT probe and another for a fiber bundle used for the FEM system. The robotic scanning system provides the second axis of scanning for the OCT channel while allowing the field of view (FoV) of the FEM channel to be increased by mosaicking. The OCT channel has resolutions of 25  /  60  μm (axial/lateral) and can provide en-face images with ...

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    14. Localized compliance measurement of the airway wall using anatomic optical coherence elastography

      Localized compliance measurement of the airway wall using anatomic optical coherence elastography

      We describe an elastographic method to circumferentially-resolve airway wall compliance using endoscopic, anatomic optical coherence tomography (aOCT) combined with an intraluminal pressure catheter. The method was first demonstrated on notched silicone phantoms of known elastic modulus under respiratory ventilation, where localized compliance measurements were validated against those predicted by finite element modeling. Then, ex vivo porcine tracheas were scanned, and the pattern of compliance was found to be consistent with histological identification of the locations of (stiff) cartilage and (soft) muscle. This quantitative method may aid in diagnosis and monitoring of collapsible airway wall tissues in obstructive respiratory disorders.

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    15. In vivo multifunctional optical coherence tomography at the periphery of the lungs

      In vivo multifunctional optical coherence tomography at the periphery of the lungs

      Remodeling of tissue, such as airway smooth muscle (ASM) and extracellular matrix, is considered a key feature of airways disease. No clinically accepted diagnostic method is currently available to assess airway remodeling or the effect of treatment modalities such as bronchial thermoplasty in asthma, other than invasive airway biopsies. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) generates cross-sectional, near-histological images of airway segments and enables identification and quantification of airway wall layers based on light scattering properties only. In this study, we used a custom motorized OCT probe that combines standard and polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) to visualize birefringent tissue in vivo in ...

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    16. Automatic Proximal Airway Volume Segmentation Using Optical Coherence Tomography for Assessment of Inhalation Injury

      Automatic Proximal Airway Volume Segmentation Using Optical Coherence Tomography for Assessment of Inhalation Injury

      Background Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe form of acute lung injury with a mortality rate of up to 40%. Early management of ARDS has been difficult due to the lack of sensitive imaging tools and robust analysis software. We previously designed an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system to evaluate mucosa thickness (MT) post smoke inhalation, but the analysis relied on manual segmentation. The aim of this study is to assess in vivo proximal airway volume (PAV) after inhalation injury using automated OCT segmentation and correlate the PAV to lung function for rapid indication of ARDS. Methods Anesthetized ...

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    17. Geometric Validation of Continuous, Finely Sampled 3-D Reconstructions From aOCT and CT in Upper Airway Models

      Geometric Validation of Continuous, Finely Sampled 3-D Reconstructions From aOCT and CT in Upper Airway Models

      Identification and treatment of obstructive airway disorders (OADs) are greatly aided by imaging of the geometry of the airway lumen. Anatomical optical coherence tomography (aOCT) is a promising high-speed and minimally invasive endoscopic imaging modality for providing micrometer-resolution scans of the upper airway. Resistance to airflow in OADs is directly caused by the reduction in luminal cross-sectional area (CSA). It is hypothesized that aOCT can produce airway CSA measurements as accurate as that from computed tomography (CT). Scans of machine hollowed cylindrical tubes were used to develop methods for segmentation and measurement of airway lumen in CT and aOCT. Simulated ...

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    18. MUcociliary Clearance IN Stroke

      MUcociliary Clearance IN Stroke

      Survival and functional outcome of stroke is strongly depending on the occurence of pneumonia (stroke-associated pneumonia, SAP). Early diagnose and treatment of SAP is paramount in the treatment of stroke patients. While dysphagia strongly contributes to its pathogenesis, recent years have also shown a strong risk-modulation by CNS injury induced immunosuppression, making stroke patients more susceptible to SAP. Additionally, murine models of stroke showed changes in mucociliary clearance as possible contributors to SAP. It remains unclear, whether structural integrity and mucociliary clearance of the respiratory epithel change in stroke patients, and whether these changes might contribute to the occurence of ...

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    19. Optical Coherence Tomography for Assessment of the Treatment Effect of Tiotropium in Early Stage of COPD

      Optical Coherence Tomography for Assessment of the Treatment Effect of Tiotropium in Early Stage of COPD

      The study aims to explore the reversibility of airway remodeling by Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography (EB-OCT). In this study, EB-OCT is used to assess the treatment effect of Tiotropium in early stage of COPD. Investigators recruit COPD patients in Grade A and Grade C according to GOLD 2019. Patients in Grade A will begin to use Tiotropium once daily, and EB-OCT, pulmonary function test and chest CT will be performed in baseline, 6 months, 1 year and 2 year. Patients in Grade C will begin to use LABA+LAMA (including but not limited to Olodaterol / Tiotropium) or LAMA (Tiotropium) , same ...

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    20. University of Alabama Receives NIH Grant for The Mechanisms Underlying Abnormal Mucus and Its Clearance in the Cystic Fibrosis Rat

      University of Alabama Receives NIH Grant for The Mechanisms Underlying Abnormal Mucus and Its Clearance in the Cystic Fibrosis Rat

      University of Alabama at Birmingham Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for $135,841 for The Mechanisms Underlying Abnormal Mucus and Its Clearance in the Cystic Fibrosis Rat. The principal investigator is Susan Birket. The program began in 2017 and ends in 2022. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Abnormal mucociliary clearance (MCC) is a critical component of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease, especially in the presence of infection; however, the mechanisms responsible for the defect are not well understood. Until recently, evaluation of this question has been primarily limited to cell culture models which do not replicate the ...

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    21. Redox imaging and optical coherence tomography of the respiratory ciliated epithelium

      Redox imaging and optical coherence tomography of the respiratory ciliated epithelium

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging technology for in vivo< airway and lung imaging. However, OCT lacks sensitivity to the metabolic changes caused by inflammation, which drives chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder. Redox imaging (RI) is a label-free technique that uses the autofluorescence of the metabolic coenzymes NAD(P)H and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) to probe cellular metabolism and could provide complimentary information to OCT for airway and lung imaging. We demonstrate OCT and RI of respiratory ciliated epithelial function in ex vivo mouse tracheae. We applied RI to measure cellular metabolism ...

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    22. University of Alabama Receives NIH Grant for Functional Categorization of Ciliary Motion in PCD

      University of Alabama Receives NIH Grant for Functional Categorization of Ciliary Motion in PCD

      University of Alabama at Birmingham Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for $159,882 for Functional Categorization of Ciliary Motion in PCD. The principal investigator is George Solomon. The program began in 2019 and ends in 2023. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder of motile cilia that results in progressive lung disease due to abrogated mucociliary clearance. While new understandings of the genetics have been helpful for clinical diagnostics, functional testing of cilia are needed to understand and predict phenotypic variation and response to therapy. Recent work in our laboratory ...

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    23. Integrated ultrasound, OCT, PA and/or florescence imaging endoscope for diagnosing cancers in gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urogenital tracts

      Integrated ultrasound, OCT, PA and/or florescence imaging endoscope for diagnosing cancers in gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urogenital tracts

      A multimodality imaging system including ultrasound, optical coherence tomography (OCT), photoacoustic (PA) imaging, florescence imaging and endoscopic catheter for imaging inside the gastrointestinal tract with real-time automatic image co-registration capability, including: an ultrasound subsystem for imaging; an optical coherence tomography (OCT) subsystem for imaging, a PA microscopy or tomography subsystem for imaging and a florescence imaging subsystem for imaging. An invasive interventional imaging device is included with an instrumentality to take a tissue biopsy from a location visible on the ultrasound subsystem for imaging, on the optical coherence tomography (OCT) subsystem for imaging, photoacoustic (PA) subsystem for imaging and florescence ...

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    24. Mapping the human pulmonary venoatrial junction with optical coherence tomography

      Mapping the human pulmonary venoatrial junction with optical coherence tomography

      Imaging guidance provided by optical coherence tomography (OCT) could improve the outcomes of atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation by providing detailed structural information of the pulmonary veins, which are critical targets during ablation. In this study, stitched volumetric OCT images of venoatrial junctions from post-mortem human hearts were acquired and compared to histology. Image features corresponding to venous media and myocardial sleeves, as well as fiber orientation and fibrosis, were identified and found to vary between veins. Imaging of detailed tissue architecture could improve understanding of the AF structural substrate within the pulmonary veins and assist the guidance of ablation procedures.

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