1. Articles in category: Pulmonology

    1-24 of 340 1 2 3 4 ... 13 14 15 »
    1. Flexible, high-resolution micro-optical coherence tomography endobronchial probe toward in vivo imaging of cilia

      Flexible, high-resolution micro-optical coherence tomography endobronchial probe toward in vivo imaging of cilia

      We report the design and fabrication of a flexible, longitudinally scanning high-resolution micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT) endobronchial probe, optimized for micro-anatomical imaging in airways. The 2.4 mm diameter and flexibility of the probe allows it to be inserted into the instrument channel of a standard bronchoscope, enabling real-time video guidance of probe placement. To generate a depth-of-focus enhancing annular beam, we utilized a new fabrication method, whereby a hollow glass ferrule was angle-polished and gold-coated to produce an elongated annular reflector. We present validation data that verifies the preservation of linear scanning, despite the use of flexible materials. When ...

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    2. Post-Doctoral Fellowship at British Columbia Cancer Research Institute

      Post-Doctoral Fellowship at British Columbia Cancer Research Institute

      POST-DOCTORAL FELLOWSHIP The Optical Cancer Imaging Lab ( OCIL ) at the BC Cancer Research Institute ( BCCRI ) in Vancouver, Canada, has an opening for a Post-Doctoral Fellow. The OCIL develops and validates non-invasive high-resolution optical tools for the early detection and management of cancer. Our research includes all aspects of optical imaging and spectroscopy for the in vivo , ex vivo , and in silica evaluation of tissues from sites including lung, cervix, oral cavity, skin and colon. Further information is available online ( http://www.biophotonics.bccrc.ca). We are seeking a qualified individual to lead a funded research project to develop image-guided biopsy ...

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    3. Post Doc / research group leader for intravital imaging in airway at the Institute of Biomedical Optics, University of Lübeck

      Post Doc / research group leader for intravital imaging in airway at the Institute of Biomedical Optics, University of Lübeck

      Post Doc / research group leader for intravital imaging in airway. The position is funded by long-running grant of the German Center of Lung Research, which fosters translational medical research in pulmonology. Salary will be in accordance with the collective German bargaining agreement for universities. Recent developments in OCT which aim to increase resolution and to improve contrast hold great promise for intravital imaging of human tissue at cellular resolution. Important applications are expected in imaging airways for the diagnosis of asthma, inflammatory, and neoplastic diseases. Within a small interdisciplinary team, the Post Doc shall develop and apply novel multimodal imaging ...

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    4. Pilot Study of Biopsy Scanner for Evaluation of Bronchoscopic Small Biopsy Specimens to Determine Adequacy

      Pilot Study of Biopsy Scanner for Evaluation of Bronchoscopic Small Biopsy Specimens to Determine Adequacy

      In this study, lymph node or lung nodule tissue will be collected by bronchoscopy as part of standard clinical care. The tissue is being collected to help make a diagnosis of a pulmonary condition. The same amount of tissue that is collected per standard of care for diagnosis will be collected during the study; no additional tissue is taken for this study. The biopsy sample will be analyzed by the Aquyre Biopsy Scanner which will provide images of unprocessed lung biopsy tissue taken during your procedure. A pathologist will also analyze the tissue sample in accordance with existing clinical guidelines ...

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    5. software development TO OPTIMIZE THE minimal detectable difference IN huMAN AIRWAY IMAGES CAPTURED USING optical coherence tomography

      software development TO OPTIMIZE THE minimal detectable difference IN huMAN AIRWAY IMAGES CAPTURED USING optical coherence tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging methodology that can be used to assess human airways. OCT avoids the harmful effects of ionizing radiation and has a high spatial resolution making it well suited for imaging the structure of small airways. Analysis of OCT airway images has typically been performed manually by tracing the airway with a relatively high coefficient of variation. The purpose of this study was to develop an analysis tool to reduce the inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of OCT and improve the ability to detect differences in airways. OCT images from healthy, young human volunteers were used ...

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    6. Dynamic microscopic optical coherence tomography to visualize the morphological and functional micro-anatomy of the airways

      Dynamic microscopic optical coherence tomography to visualize the morphological and functional micro-anatomy of the airways

      In the imaging of airway tissue, optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides cross-sectional images of tissue structures, shows cilia movement and mucus secretion, but does not provide sufficient contrast to differentiate individual cells. By using fast sequences of microscopic resolution OCT (mOCT) images, OCT can use small signal fluctuations to overcome lack in contrast and speckle noise. In this way, OCT visualizes airway morphology on a cellular level and allows the tracking of the dynamic behavior of immune cells, as well as mucus transport and secretion. Here, we demonstrate that mOCT, by using temporal tissue fluctuation as contrast (dynamic mOCT), provides ...

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    7. Requirements and limitations of imaging airway smooth muscle throughout the lung in vivo

      Requirements and limitations of imaging airway smooth muscle throughout the lung in vivo

      Clinical visualization and quantification of the amount and distribution of airway smooth muscle (ASM) in the lungs of individuals with asthma has major implications for our understanding of airway wall remodeling as well as treatments targeted at the ASM. This paper theoretically investigates the feasibility of quantifying airway wall thickness (focusing on the ASM) throughout the lung in vivo by means of bronchoscopic polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). Using extensive human biobank data from subjects with and without asthma in conjunction with a mathematical model of airway compliance, we define constraints that airways of various sizes pose to any endoscopic ...

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    8. Visualization and Validation of The Microstructures in The Airway Wall in vivo Using Diffractive Optical Coherence Tomography

      Visualization and Validation of The Microstructures in The Airway Wall in vivo Using Diffractive Optical Coherence Tomography

      Rationale and objectives: At present, there is no available method to study the in vivo microstructures of the airway wall (epithelium, smooth muscle, adventitia, basement membrane, glands, cartilage). Currently, we rely on ex vivo histologic evaluation of airway biopsies. To overcome this obstacle, we have developed an endoscopic ultrahigh-resolution diffractive optical coherence tomography (OCT) system, operating at a wavelength of 800 nm, to non-invasively study the in vivo microstructures of the airway wall. Prior to human study, validation of diffractive OCT's ability to quantitate airway microstructural components is required. Materials and methods: To validate and demonstrate the accuracy of ...

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    9. Dynamic microscopic optical coherence tomography to visualize morphological and functional micro-anatomy of the airways

      Dynamic microscopic optical coherence tomography to visualize morphological and functional micro-anatomy of the airways

      Microscopic evaluation of airway tissue is a long established method in diagnostic and research. Especially the assessment of surgical biopsies is a cornerstone in the diagnostic of airway diseases, but the invasiveness of the preceding excision poses a significant hurdle for a wide application. Furthermore, fixation, dehydration, and staining terminate any biochemical processes and only a static image is created. Therefore, biopsies can not investigate dynamic processes. Airway function, however, is characterized by fast processes such as ciliary beating and mucus transport and in comparison relatively slow processes such as immune cell trafficking. Therefore, techniques that allow imaging of the ...

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    10. Reply to: Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography: Shining New Light on Diagnosing UIP?

      Reply to: Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography: Shining New Light on Diagnosing UIP?

      From the Authors: We thank Kalverda and colleagues for their letter regarding our recently published paper [1], and appreciate the opportunity to provide additional clarity on the points that they raise about the work. Below we address the questions asked by Kalverda and colleagues: Enrollment criteria Our primary objective was to conduct a blinded, prospective study to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of endobronchial OCT (EB-OCT) for microscopic ILD diagnosis as compared to concurrent surgical lung biopsy (SLB) and clinical follow-up diagnosis. Our inclusion criteria were: a) age >21 years, b) fibrotic ILD based on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with unclear ...

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    11. Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography: Shining New Light on Diagnosing UIP?

      Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography: Shining New Light on Diagnosing UIP?

      To the editor: In 15-30% of patients with a fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD) tissue acquisition is indicated as the diagnostic confidence based on clinical and radiological investigations does not justify a specific treatment allocation [1]. However, surgical lung biopsy and transbronchial cryobiopsy are associated with considerable risks of morbidity and even mortality [2]. Minimally invasive imaging techniques have the potential to obviate the need for tissue biopsy in at least a proportion of these patients [3]. Therefore, we are excited by the work of Nandy and colleagues and congratulate them with their work on endobronchial optical coherence tomography (EB-OCT ...

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    12. University of Alabama at Birmingham Receives NIH Grant for Functional Categorization of Ciliary Motion in PCD

      University of Alabama at Birmingham Receives NIH Grant for Functional Categorization of Ciliary Motion in PCD

      University of Alabama at Birmingham Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $159,882 for Functional Categorization of Ciliary Motion in PCD. The principal investigator is George Solomon. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder of motile cilia that results in progressive lung disease due to abrogated mucociliary clearance. While new understandings of the genetics have been helpful for clinical diagnostics, functional testing of cilia are needed to understand and predict phenotypic variation and response to therapy. Recent work in our laboratory has identified a link between ciliary genetics and novel ...

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    13. Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Investigation of Early Detection and Diagnosis of Lung Cancer with Endomicroscopy

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Investigation of Early Detection and Diagnosis of Lung Cancer with Endomicroscopy

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2022 NIH Grant for $582,146 for Investigation of Early Detection and Diagnosis of Lung Cancer with Endomicroscopy. The principal investigator is Melissa Suter. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Early diagnosis of lung cancer is critical to patient survival. Unfortunately the vast majority of cases are detected once symptoms arise and the cancer has spread offering patients little hope for cure (average 5-year survival rate < 15%). The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends individuals at high risk of developing lung cancer undergo yearly screening with low dose computed tomography (LDCT). Screening ...

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    14. Optical coherence tomography for identification of malignant pulmonary nodules based on random forest machine learning algorithm

      Optical coherence tomography for identification of malignant pulmonary nodules based on random forest machine learning algorithm

      Objective: To explore the feasibility of using random forest (RF) machine learning algorithm in assessing normal and malignant peripheral pulmonary nodules based on in vivo endobronchial optical coherence tomography (EB-OCT). Methods: A total of 31 patients with pulmonary nodules were admitted to Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, and underwent chest CT, EB-OCT and biopsy. Attenuation coefficient and up to 56 different image features were extracted from A-line and B-scan of 1703 EB-OCT images. Attenuation coefficient and 29 image features with significant p-values were used to analyze the differences between normal and malignant samples. A RF classifier was ...

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    15. Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography (FFOCT) for Evaluation of Bronchoscopic Small Biopsy Specimens

      Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography (FFOCT) for Evaluation of Bronchoscopic Small Biopsy Specimens

      This study sets out to register imaging of small biopsy specimens obtained during bronchoscopy using full-field optical coherence tomography against standard histologic evaluation. Small biopsy specimens obtained through bronchoscopy are commonly employed for the diagnosis and staging of thoracic malignancies. Diagnostic yield is dependent on tissue quality and quantity in specimens obtained through bronchoscopy, and it is thus important to ensure adequate sampling. Rapid on-site cytology (ROSE) is a method used by having a cytotechnologist at the bedside to prepare and analyze specimens to improve the quality of tissue acquisition during bronchoscopy. Although effective, ROSE expertise is not always available ...

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    16. Automatic correction of the initial rotation angle error improves 3D reconstruction in endoscopic airway optical coherence tomography

      Automatic correction of the initial rotation angle error improves 3D reconstruction in endoscopic airway optical coherence tomography

      Endoscopic airway optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an advanced imaging modality capable of capturing the internal anatomy and geometry of the airway. Due to fiber-optic catheter bending and friction, the rotation speed of the endoscopic probe is usually non-uniform: at each B-scan image, the initial rotation angle of the probe is easily misaligned with that of the previous slices. During the pullback operation, this initial rotation angle error (IRAE) will be accumulated and will result in distortion and deformation of the reconstructed 3D airway structure. Previous attempts to correct this error were mainly manual corrections, which are time-consuming and suffered ...

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    17. Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography for the Diagnosis of Fibrotic Interstitial Lung Disease: A Light at the End of the Tunnel?

      Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography for the Diagnosis of Fibrotic Interstitial Lung Disease: A Light at the End of the Tunnel?

      An accurate diagnosis of fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD) is critical to inform prognostication and selection of pharmacotherapy. Clinicians are ideally able to integrate the clinical history, laboratory findings, and morphologic features on chest imaging within multidisciplinary discussion (MDD) to achieve a consensus diagnosis. However, despite this process, a confident diagnosis remains elusive in approximately 15% of patients ( 1 ), and there is often a need for additional information to guide management decisions. This diagnostic uncertainty has traditionally prompted consideration of histopathologic evaluation via surgical lung biopsy (SLB), but this procedure is associated with substantial risk of morbidity and mortality ( 2 ...

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    18. Airway luminal area and the resistive work of breathing during exercise in healthy young females and males

      Airway luminal area and the resistive work of breathing during exercise in healthy young females and males

      We examined the relationship between the work of breathing (W b ) during exercise and in vivo measures of airway size in healthy females and males. We hypothesized that sex-differences in airway luminal area (Ai) would explain the larger resistive W b during exercise in females. Healthy participants (n=11 females and n=11 males; 19-30 y) completed a cycle exercise test to exhaustion where W b was assessed using an esophageal balloon catheter. On a separate day, participants underwent a bronchoscopy procedure for optical coherence tomography measures of airways in the left (n=3) and right (n=4) lung. In ...

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    19. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography in end-stage lung diseases: an ex vivo pilot study

      Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography in end-stage lung diseases: an ex vivo pilot study

      A non-invasive diagnostic tool to assess remodeling of the lung airways caused by disease is currently missing in the clinic. Measuring key features such as airway smooth muscle (ASM) thickness would increase the ability to improve diagnosis and enable treatment evaluation. In this research, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) has been used to image a total of 24 airways from two healthy lungs and four end-stage diseased lungs ex vivo , including fibrotic sarcoidosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and cystic fibrosis. In the diseased lungs, except COPD, the amount of measured airway smooth muscle was increased. In ...

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    20. Novel Image Features of Optical Coherence Tomography for pathological classification of lung cancer: results from a prospective clinical trial

      Novel Image Features of Optical Coherence Tomography for pathological classification of lung cancer: results from a prospective clinical trial

      Background This study aimed to explore the characteristics of Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for differentiating between benign and malignant lesions, and different pathological types of lung cancer in bronchial lesions, and to preliminarily evaluate the clinical value of OCT. Methods Patients who underwent bronchoscopy biopsy and OCT between February 2019 and December 2019 at the Chinese PLA General Hospital were enrolled in this study. White-light bronchoscopy (WLB), auto-fluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB) and OCT were performed at the lesion location. The main characteristics of OCT imaging for the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions and the prediction of the pathological classification ...

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    21. Rapid non-destructive volumetric tumor yield assessment in fresh lung core needle biopsies using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Rapid non-destructive volumetric tumor yield assessment in fresh lung core needle biopsies using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Adequate tumor yield in core-needle biopsy (CNB) specimens is essential in lung cancer for accurate histological diagnosis, molecular testing for therapeutic decision-making, and tumor biobanking for research. Insufficient tumor sampling in CNB is common, primarily due to inadvertent sampling of tumor-associated fibrosis or atelectatic lung, leading to repeat procedures and delayed diagnosis. Currently, there is no method for rapid, non-destructive intraprocedural assessment of CNBs. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is a high-resolution, volumetric imaging technique that has the potential to meet this clinical need. PS-OCT detects endogenous tissue properties, including birefringence from collagen, and degree of polarization uniformity (DOPU) indicative ...

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    22. Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography for Bronchoscopic Airway Smooth Muscle Detection in Bronchial Thermoplasty-Treated Patients With Asthma

      Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography for Bronchoscopic Airway Smooth Muscle Detection in Bronchial Thermoplasty-Treated Patients With Asthma

      Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by airway remodeling (AR), including thickening of airway smooth muscle (ASM) as a key element of this alteration. 1 Patients with severe asthma may benefit from bronchial thermoplasty (BT), an endoscopic treatment that targets structural AR and induces ASM reduction. 2 Assessment of AR is critical to evaluate the impact of BT and might provide a tool for patient selection for BT. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) imaging has been proposed as a minimally invasive diagnostic method to assess ASM mass as an alternative to focal airway biopsies. Bronchoscopic standard optical coherence ...

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