1. Articles in category: Ophthalmology

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    1. Compressed Sensing for Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Volume Generation

      Compressed Sensing for Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Volume Generation

      Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is an increasingly popular modality for imaging of the retinal vasculature. Repeated optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans of the retina allow the computation of motion contrast to display the retinal vasculature. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first application of compressed sensing for the generation of OCTA volumes. Using a probabilistic signal model for the computation of OCTA volumes and a 3D median filter, it is possible to perform compressed sensing reconstruction of OCTA volumes while suppressing noise. The presented approach was tested on a ground truth, averaged from ten individual OCTA ...

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    2. MultiColor imaging to detect different subtypes of retinal microaneurysms in diabetic retinopathy

      MultiColor imaging to detect different subtypes of retinal microaneurysms in diabetic retinopathy

      Background Retinal microaneurysms (MAs) are among the earliest signs of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and are typically detected by fluorescein angiography (FA). Confocal MultiColor is a noninvasive-imaging technique able to analyze different retinal features by capturing three simultaneous reflectance images. The main aim of the present study was to characterize morphological features of MAs by means of MultiColor images and to compare these with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and FA findings. Methods A cross-sectional, observational study setting was chosen. Multimodal imaging included MultiColor, SD-OCT and FA images. We performed a qualitative analysis in order to assess the relationship between ...

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    3. Automatic Segmentation and Visualization of Choroid in OCT with Knowledge Infused Deep Learning

      Automatic Segmentation and Visualization of Choroid in OCT with Knowledge Infused Deep Learning

      The choroid provides oxygen and nourishment to the outer retina thus is related to the pathology of various ocular diseases. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is advantageous in visualizing and quantifying the choroid in vivo, because it does not suffer from the information contamination of the outer retina in fundus photography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and the resolution deficiency in ocular ultrasound. We propose a biomarker infused global-to-local network, for the choroid segmentation. It leverages the thickness of the choroid layer, which is a primary biomarker in clinic, as a constraint to improve the segmentation accuracy. We also design a global-to-local ...

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    4. Comparison of OCT angiography in children with a history of intravitreal injection of ranibizumab versus laser photocoagulation for retinopathy of prematurity

      Comparison of OCT angiography in children with a history of intravitreal injection of ranibizumab versus laser photocoagulation for retinopathy of prematurity

      Purpose To compare the foveal microvascular structure characteristics in children with a history of intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR) versus laser photocoagulation (LP) for retinopathy of prematurity by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 17 children (28 eyes) underwent IVR and 20 children (37 eyes) underwent LP were recruited. The age of doing OCTA examination of the two groups are 5.4±1.1 years and 6.3±1.8 years, respectively (p=0.07). Spectral-domain OCTA was performed for all the eyes with a scan size of 3×3 mm. The data ...

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    5. Artifact Rates for 2D Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Versus 3D Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Volume

      Artifact Rates for 2D Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Versus 3D Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Volume

      Purpose : To compare artifact rates in two-dimensional (2D) versus three-dimensional (3D) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) scans using Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT) Methods : Thirteen artifact types in 2D and 3D RNFL scans were identified in 106 glaucomatous eyes and 95 normal eyes. Artifact rates were calculated per B-scan and per eye. In 3D volume scans, artifacts were counted only for the 97 B-scans used to calculate RNFL parameters for the 2.5–3.5-mm annulus. 3D RNFL measurements were calculated twice, once before and again after deletion of B-scans with artifacts and subsequent automated interpolation. Results : For 2D scans ...

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    6. MULTIMODAL IMAGING IN HELLP-RELATED CHORIORETINOPATHY

      MULTIMODAL IMAGING IN HELLP-RELATED CHORIORETINOPATHY

      Purpose: To illustrate with multimodal imaging a case of HELLP syndrome (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelets) complicated by bilateral multifocal serous retinal detachments, subretinal exudation, and papilledema. Methods: Case report. Fundus photography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), fluorescein angiography , and indocyanine green angiography were performed at presentation and the day after. We also present the SD-OCT follow-up at 8 days, 1 year, and 4 years. Results: A 25-year-old 5-month-pregnant Guinean woman complained about decreased visual acuity in the right eye. Eye fundus and multimodal imaging were abnormal in both eyes. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography showed the presence ...

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    7. RTVue XR AngioVue Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Software Upgrade Impacts on Retinal Thickness and Vessel Density Measurements

      RTVue XR AngioVue Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Software Upgrade Impacts on Retinal Thickness and Vessel Density Measurements

      Purpose : To determine the impact of an AngioVue software upgrade on total retinal thickness (RT) and inner retinal vessel density (VD) measurements derived from optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods : Optovue OCTA images (3 × 3 mm) from 126 individuals (105 healthy eyes and 72 eyes with retinal disease) were acquired before an upgrade of the AngioVue software, which resulted in an inward shift of the outer boundary of the inner retinal vessels and improved Bruch's membrane segmentation. Total RT and inner retinal VD values were extracted before and after the software upgrade for comparison. Bias and limits of agreement ...

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    8. Foveal Microvascular Structures in Eyes with Silicone Oil Tamponade for Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment: A Swept-source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Foveal Microvascular Structures in Eyes with Silicone Oil Tamponade for Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment: A Swept-source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Silicone oil (SO) is widely used as a long-term intravitreal tamponading agent for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) repair. This study investigated the structural changes of the foveal microvasculature using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in patients with RRD treated with vitrectomy and SO tamponade. Thirty-eight patients with unilateral RRD who were treated with vitrectomy and SO tamponade and were followed up for ≥3 months after SO removal were included. En face OCTA images were obtained and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area and vascular density (VD) were compared between study eyes and unaffected contralateral eyes. The FAZ area in deep capillary ...

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    9. Differences in the presentation of stage 1 macular holes illustration by optical coherence tomography

      Differences in the presentation of stage 1 macular holes illustration by optical coherence tomography

      Objective: To present two different phases of progression of Gass stage 1 foveolar detachment to lamellar or full-thickness macular holes revealed with spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Design: This is an observational study. Participants: The medical records of four patients (four eyes) with foveolar detachment that had evolved into stage 1 macular holes were compared. The patients manifested neither co-existing myopia nor any other ocular pathology. Methods: At each consultation, best-corrected visual acuity, dilated fundus examination, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography were performed to ascertain whether the foveolar detachment was associated with posterior vitreal detachment. Results: In two of ...

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    10. Novel insights into retinal neovascularization secondary to central serous chorioretinopathy using 3D optical coherence tomography angiography

      Novel insights into retinal neovascularization secondary to central serous chorioretinopathy using 3D optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose To describe the clinical presentation and novel anatomical features of a patient with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) complicated by retinal neovascularization (RNV). Observations A 48 year-old patient with a long-standing history of bilateral CSCR presented to our clinic complaining about a sudden onset of tiny floaters. Multimodal imaging including fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fundus fluorescein (FA) and ICG angiography (ICG) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) confirmed the diagnosis of CSCR and revealed a pre-retinal neovascularization and concurring vitreous hemorrhage. Swept source OCT angiography (OCTA) and 3D reconstruction virtual reality determined the retinal origin of the neovascularization. Follow-up ...

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    11. Reliability of Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography in Children Younger Than Three Years of Age Undergoing Vigabatrin Treatment for Childhood Epilepsy

      Reliability of Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography in Children Younger Than Three Years of Age Undergoing Vigabatrin Treatment for Childhood Epilepsy

      Purpose : Vigabatrin-associated retinal toxicity manifests as reduction in the clinical electroretinogram and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning. This observational investigation of RNFL thickness in young vigabatrin-treated children was to identify intravisit and intervisit reliabilities of peripapillary RNFL thickness measurements performed with Envisu (optical coherence tomography) OCT. Secondarily, a longitudinal assessment investigated the presence and extent of RNFL thinning. Methods : We measured the handheld OCT in sedated children to evaluate the RNFL thickness using segmentation software. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) statistics identified intravisit and intervisit reliabilities for RNFL thickness. Results : Twenty-nine children (10.1 ± 6.0 months old) underwent handheld ...

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    12. Optimization of Implantable Collamer Lens Sizing based on Swept-source Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Optimization of Implantable Collamer Lens Sizing based on Swept-source Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: To optimize the implantable collamer lens (ICL) sizing method using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Setting: Nagoya Eye Clinic, Nagoya, Japan Design: Interventional case series Methods: Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed using the optimal ICL size as a dependent variable and preoperative AS-OCT parameters as explanatory variables for 81 eyes of 41 patients, and the NK-formula version 2 (NK-formula V2) was obtained. Thereafter, 68 eyes of 42 patients were implanted with the ICL selected as closest to the optimal ICL size calculated by the NK-formula V2. At 3 months postoperatively, the achieved vault was measured by AS-OCT ...

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    13. Blood flow rate estimation in optic disc capillaries and vessels using Doppler optical coherence tomography with 3D fast phase unwrapping

      Blood flow rate estimation in optic disc capillaries and vessels using Doppler optical coherence tomography with 3D fast phase unwrapping

      The retinal volumetric flow rate contains useful information not only for ophthalmo-logy but also for the diagnosis of common civilization diseases such as diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, or cerebrovascular diseases. Non-invasive optical methods for quantitative flow assessment, such as Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT), have certain limitations. One is the phase wrapping that makes simultaneous calculations of the flow in all human retinal vessels impossible due to a very large span of flow velocities. We demonstrate that three-dimensional Doppler OCT combined with three-dimensional four Fourier transform fast phase unwrapping (3D 4FT FPU) allows for the calculation of the volumetric blood ...

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    14. Multimodal imaging in congenital simple hamartoma of retinal pigment epithelium (CSHRPE): optical coherence tomography (OCT), autofluorescence and oct angiography, a review of the literature and case presentation

      Multimodal imaging in congenital simple hamartoma of retinal pigment epithelium (CSHRPE): optical coherence tomography (OCT), autofluorescence and oct angiography, a review of the literature and case presentation

      Purpose: To report a case of congenital simple Hamartoma of retinal pigment epithelium (CSHRPE) with avulsion of RPE without visual impairment. Methods: A 11-years-old Caucasian male presented with full visual acuity in both eyes, and was made diagnosis of CSHRPE after a complete ophthalmological examination. Was also performed: fundus photographs, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and OCT angiography (OCT-A). Results: He presented with full visual acuity in both eyes; fundus examination showed a small, darkly pigmented, well-circumscribed lesion involving the central fovea in the right eye. Conclusion:This case shows a rare complication such as avulsion ...

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    15. DIAGNOSIS OF VORTEX VARIX USING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY AND SCLERAL INDENTATION

      DIAGNOSIS OF VORTEX VARIX USING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY AND SCLERAL INDENTATION

      Purpose: We report a case of a vortex vein varix diagnosed with optical coherence tomography under globe compression. Methods: To illustrate the dynamical behavior of a vortex vein varix , optical coherence tomography was performed with and without gentle globe indentation with a cotton swab. Results: A 51-year-old woman was referred by her optician for an incidental finding of a nonpigmented choroidal mass in the right eye. The patient was asymptomatic with a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/16 in both eyes. On fundoscopy, a prominent smooth pink lesion at the level of the superonasal equatorial retina could be observed in ...

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    16. Effect of Optical Coherence Tomography Patterns on One-year Outcomes of Aflibercept Therapy for Diabetic Macular Edema

      Effect of Optical Coherence Tomography Patterns on One-year Outcomes of Aflibercept Therapy for Diabetic Macular Edema

      Objective: To evaluate the outcomes of aflibercept based on different morphologic patterns on optical coherence tomography (OCT) for diabetic macular edema (DME). Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Beyoglu Eye Training and Research Hospital, Turkey from February 2016 to March 2018. Methodology: Records of 115 eyes of 115 patients who were treated with aflibercept for DME were reviewed. Eyes were classified based on OCT features as diffuse retinal thickening (DRT, n=37), cystoid macular edema (CME, n=40), and serous retinal detachment (SRD, n=38). Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central subfield retinal thickness (CST) at baseline ...

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    17. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY CAN CATEGORIZE DIFFERENT SUBGROUPS OF CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION SECONDARY TO AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

      OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY CAN CATEGORIZE DIFFERENT SUBGROUPS OF CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION SECONDARY TO AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

      Purpose: Choroidal neovascularization ( CNV ) is a common complication of patients affected by age-related macular degeneration , showing a highly variable visual outcome. The main aim of the study was, at baseline, to perform a quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography assessment of CNV secondary to age-related macular degeneration and to assess posttreatment outcomes. Methods: Seventy-eight naïve age-related macular degeneration -related CNV patients (39 men, mean age 78 ± 8 years) were recruited and underwent complete ophthalmologic evaluation and multimodal imaging. Several OCT and optical coherence tomography angiography parameters were collected, including vessel tortuosity and vessel dispersion (VDisp), measured for each segmented CNV ...

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    18. ULTRA-WIDEFIELD OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FOR RETINAL DETACHMENT WITH PROLIFERATIVE VITREORETINOPATHY

      ULTRA-WIDEFIELD OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FOR RETINAL DETACHMENT WITH PROLIFERATIVE VITREORETINOPATHY

      Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of using preoperative and postoperative ultra-widefield optical coherence tomography ) images in the treatment of proliferative vitreoretinopathy . Methods: The preoperative and postoperative images of a 62-year-old man with proliferative vitreoretinopathy accompanied by a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment were analyzed. Patient: At the initial examination, the vision was 20/400. It was difficult to obtain clear images of the fundus by color fundus photography because of synechia iridis posterior and mild vitreal opacities. Three-dimensional ultra-widefield optical coherence tomography images showed that the posterior hyaloid membrane was adherent to the retinal surface at a region superior to the macula ...

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    19. Applicability of optical coherence tomography in blue‐fronted parrots (Amazona aestiva)

      Applicability of optical coherence tomography in blue‐fronted parrots (Amazona aestiva)

      Objective Optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurement of adult blue‐fronted parrots ( Amazona aestiva ), free from infectious, inflammatory or neoplastic systemic diseases and from any ophthalmological illness, aim at its characterization, as well as to standardize the examination technique for the species. Procedure Pupillary dilation was achieved with rocuronium bromide (5 mg/mL) at 0, 2, 15, 17, 30, and 32 minutes. The animals were sedated with midazolam maleate (0.5 mg/kg/IM) and anesthetized with propofol (5.0 mg/kg/IV). Measurements were made to evaluate the thickness of the total retina (TR), sensorineural retinal (SR), and ganglion cell ...

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    20. Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Iris Neovascularization After Intravitreal Ranibizumab and Panretinal Photocoagulation

      Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Iris Neovascularization After Intravitreal Ranibizumab and Panretinal Photocoagulation

      A 58-year-old Japanese man with diabetes presented with blurred vision in his right eye. His intraocular pressure was 53 mm Hg and the peripheral anterior synechia index was around 20%. The anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography image showed that the iris neovascularization was marked around the pupil in the superficial layer ( Figure , A; green shading). 1 Anterior segment OCT angiography using a swept-source OCT system enabled the visualization of physiological radial vessels in the stroma, even in a brown eye ( Figure , A; red shading). Panretinal photocoagulation was administered immediately and completed in 3 separate installments over 1 month ...

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    21. Widefield topographical analysis of the retinal perfusion and neuroretinal thickness in healthy eyes: a pilot study

      Widefield topographical analysis of the retinal perfusion and neuroretinal thickness in healthy eyes: a pilot study

      Purpose In this pilot study we reported variation of superficial (SCP) and deep (DCP) capillary plexuses flow in macular and near/mid periphery regions in healthy subjects using widefield swept source-optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA). Methods In this prospective, cross-sectional study, enroled subjects were imaged with an SS-OCTA system (PLEX Elite 9000, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, CA, USA). OCTA scans were taken in primary and extremes of gaze and a montage was automatically created. Quantitative analysis was performed in the macular and peripheral regions. In addition, SCP and DCP variables were further investigated in distinct fields within these three ...

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    22. Artificial Intelligence to Identify Retinal Fundus Images, Quality Validation, Laterality Evaluation, Macular Degeneration, and Suspected Glaucoma

      Artificial Intelligence to Identify Retinal Fundus Images, Quality Validation, Laterality Evaluation, Macular Degeneration, and Suspected Glaucoma

      Purpose: To assess the performance of deep learning algorithms for different tasks in retinal fundus images: (1) detection of retinal fundus images versus optical coherence tomography (OCT) or other images, (2) evaluation of good quality retinal fundus images, (3) distinction between right eye (OD) and left eye (OS) retinal fundus images,(4) detection of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and (5) detection of referable glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON). Patients and Methods: Five algorithms were designed. Retrospective study from a database of 306,302 images, Optretina’s tagged dataset. Three different ophthalmologists, all retinal specialists, classified all images. The dataset was split ...

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    23. OCT Cost Effective, Useful Pre-Cataract Surgery

      OCT Cost Effective, Useful Pre-Cataract Surgery

      An estimated 64.4% of patients were willing to pay for the extra imaging step. For patients considering cataract surgery with a multifocal intraocular lens (IOL), optical coherence tomography (OCT) done prior to the procedure may increase the overall cost, but it also could be beneficial in detecting other macular pathologies and improving quality of life, a study in Ophthalmology reports. Based on their analysis, researchers found approximately 20.5% of patients undergoing cataract surgery may have macular pathologies, of which 11% may not be found during the initial clinical exam. The investigation’s base case was a 67-year-old male ...

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    24. Agreement in retinal nerve fiber layer values and comparison in children using two optical coherence tomography devices

      Agreement in retinal nerve fiber layer values and comparison in children using two optical coherence tomography devices

      Objective To assess absolute agreement and differences in peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) values according to sex, age, laterality, origin and optical coherence tomography (OCT) type in normal pediatric patients undergoing OCT scans using both Cirrus and Spectralis. Material and methods Prospective, cross-sectional, and comparative study. We used Spectralis OCT and Cirrus OCT to measure optic disc values of both eyes in one hundred pediatric patients (age 5 to 15 years), with no previous ocular pathology or systemic disease that could affect the eye. Due to the similarity between eyes, only right eyes were considered (n = 100). Results The ...

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