1. Articles in category: Ophthalmology

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    1. Comparison of Retinal Microvasculature in Patients With Alzheimer's Disease and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Comparison of Retinal Microvasculature in Patients With Alzheimer's Disease and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose : Comparison of retinal microvasculature within the macula and the optic nerve head in the eyes of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and in a healthy control (HC) group, using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods : In this cross-sectional study, 27 patients with AD, 27 with POAG, and 27 healthy controls were enrolled. The Mini-Mental State Examination test was used to assess cognitive function. Ophthalmic examination included OCTA, which was used for the imaging of vascular flow within the layer of radial peripapillary capillaries (RPCs), and also in the superficial vascular plexus (SVP) and deep ...

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    2. OCT Angiography in Acute Posterior Multifocal Placoid Pigment Epitheliopathy

      OCT Angiography in Acute Posterior Multifocal Placoid Pigment Epitheliopathy

      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To describe retinal and choroidal findings in different stages of acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective, noncomparative case series studied by fundus biomicroscopy, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), spectral-domain optical coherence tomographic (SD-OCT), and swept-source OCT angiography (SS-OCTA). RESULTS: Six eyes of three patients with bilateral APMPPE were included. FAF showed multifocal, branched patches of hyperautofluorescence with areas of hypoautofluorescence; FA disclosed early hypofluorescence, with late-phase hyperfluorescence; ICGA showed early and late-phase hypofluorescence. SD-OCT imaging revealed bilateral retinal thinning, external limiting membrane (ELM) disruption, and severe alteration ...

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    3. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography angiography

      Anterior segment optical coherence tomography angiography

      We present a novel method to image the vasculature of the anterior segment of the eye using a non-invasive optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) system with a modified lens system. This system utilises the Heidelberg Spectralis OCTA and a 3D printed lens mount holding a simple biconvex lens in place to allow capture of images in the anterior segment.

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    4. Changes in Posterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography after Intravitreal Triamcinolone Acetonide Injection

      Changes in Posterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography after Intravitreal Triamcinolone Acetonide Injection

      Introduction: Triamcinolone acetonide is a potent synthetic corticosteroid. It is a long acting depot preparation of triamcinolone having solely glucocorticoid activity. As a part of glucocorticoid activity, it also possesses a profound anti-inflammatory property that forms the basis of its therapeutic uses in various inflammatory and oedematous diseases of posterior segment of eyes. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a very useful tool to monitor the therapeutic response of various posterior segment pathologies after Intravitreal Triamcinolone Acetonide (IVTA) injection. Aim: To study the effect of IVTA injection on central foveal thickness in various diseases of posterior segment and to see the ...

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    5. Vascular Changes in Intermediate Age-Related Macular Degeneration Quantified Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Vascular Changes in Intermediate Age-Related Macular Degeneration Quantified Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose : To examine changes in retinal vasculature and ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness in intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods : Zeiss Cirrus Angioplex OCTA 6 × 6 mm scans and a macula 512 × 128 cube scans of the central retina were taken of 63 eyes with intermediate AMD and 51 control eyes. For OCTA scans, the superficial and deep capillary plexus were automatically segmented and vascular density quantified as total number of pixels contributing to the blood flow signal detectable by OCTA. Images were then skeletonized and vessel length, diameter index, morphology, and branching complexity ...

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    6. Evaluation of dry eye disease in newly diagnosed anxiety and depression patients using anterior segment optical coherence tomography

      Evaluation of dry eye disease in newly diagnosed anxiety and depression patients using anterior segment optical coherence tomography

      Background We aimed to evaluate dry eye diseases (DED) in patients with newly diagnosed depression and anxiety patients. Methods Forty newly diagnosed depression, 35 anxiety patients, and 37 controls without any history of taking psychiatric drugs (or before the beginning of psychiatric medication) and topical ophthalmic drop use, were included in the study. All depression and anxiety diagnoses were performed by an experienced psychiatrist. Beck depression and anxiety tests were used to measure disease severity. Tear film break up time (TBUT), Schirmer’s test, Oxford scores and ocular surface disease index (OSDI) were admiinistered to participants. Anterior segment optical coherence ...

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    7. Detection of glaucomatous optic neuropathy with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: a retrospective training and validation deep-learning analysis

      Detection of glaucomatous optic neuropathy with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: a retrospective training and validation deep-learning analysis

      Background Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) can be used to detect glaucomatous optic neuropathy, but human expertise in interpretation of SDOCT is limited. We aimed to develop and validate a three-dimensional (3D) deep-learning system using SDOCT volumes to detect glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Methods We retrospectively collected a dataset including 4877 SDOCT volumes of optic disc cube for training (60%), testing (20%), and primary validation (20%) from electronic medical and research records at the Chinese University of Hong Kong Eye Centre (Hong Kong, China) and the Hong Kong Eye Hospital (Hong Kong, China). Residual network was used to build the 3D ...

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    8. Subclinical neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder revealed by optical coherence tomography

      Subclinical neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder revealed by optical coherence tomography

      Background: Neuroretinal atrophy is associated with whole-brain atrophy and disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent findings support that subclinical visual pathway involvement might also occur in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs). Objective: The objective of this study is to assess retinal thinning in MS and NMOSD and its association with disease activity. Methods: In total, 27 NMOSD and 54 propensity-score-matched MS patients underwent optical coherence tomography, visual acuity, and visual-evoked potentials at 2.4 years apart, in addition to routine clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment. We excluded eyes with acute optic neuritis. Results: In NMOSD, we detected ...

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    9. Choroidal Hyperreflective Foci A Novel Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Biomarker in Eyes With Diabetic Macular Edema

      Choroidal Hyperreflective Foci A Novel Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Biomarker in Eyes With Diabetic Macular Edema

      Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the hyperreflective dots seen in choroid on spectral domain optical coherence tomography ( SDOCT ) in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) and correlate it with visual acuity. Design: Consecutive, cross-sectional case series of patients with DME between January 2017 and December 2017. Methods: Eyes with DME having central foveal thickness ≥250 μm were included. SDOCT was performed using Spectralis system (Heidelberg Engineering, Germany). Hyperreflective choroidal foci (HCF) were defined as well-circumscribed dots within choroid having reflectivity equal to or higher than adjacent retinal pigment epithelium. HCF were counted manually within 1500 μm ...

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    10. Reply to Correspondence: Impact of Binarization Thresholding and Brightness/Contrast Adjustment Methodology on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Image Quantification

      Reply to Correspondence: Impact of Binarization Thresholding and Brightness/Contrast Adjustment Methodology on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Image Quantification

      We thank Dr Rabiolo and associates for their interest in our work and their correspondence.1 We also applaud them for their valuable study that examined the effect of binarization thresholding on vessel area density (VAD) in retinal vascular optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images.2 In their correspondence, they highlight several points regarding our results and conclusions compared with their own findings.

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    11. Correlations between visual acuity and macular microvasculature quantified with optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic macular oedema

      Correlations between visual acuity and macular microvasculature quantified with optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic macular oedema

      Purpose To explore the impact of macular ischaemia on vision in diabetic macular oedema (DMO) by analysing the correlations between visual acuity and macular microvascular parameters using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods OCTA was performed in 81 eyes of 48 patients with DMO, and 3 × 3-mm 2 en face OCTA images of the superficial capillary plexus and deep capillary plexus in the central macula were retrospectively collected. Microvascular parameters including the number of microaneurysms, area of foveal avascular zone (FAZ), acircularity index of FAZ, vessel density, skeleton density, vessel density index and fractal dimension were measured. Central retinal thickness ...

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    12. An amplified-target loss approach for photoreceptor layer segmentation in pathological OCT scans

      An amplified-target loss approach for photoreceptor layer segmentation in pathological OCT scans

      Segmenting anatomical structures such as the photoreceptor layer in retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans is challenging in pathological scenarios. Supervised deep learning models trained with standard loss functions are usually able to characterize only the most common disease appeareance from a training set, resulting in suboptimal performance and poor generalization when dealing with unseen lesions. In this paper we propose to overcome this limitation by means of an augmented target loss function framework. We introduce a novel amplified-target loss that explicitly penalizes errors within the central area of the input images, based on the observation that most of the ...

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    13. Inference of visual field test performance from OCT volumes using deep learning

      Inference of visual field test performance from OCT volumes using deep learning

      Visual field tests (VFT) are pivotal for glaucoma diagnosis and conducted regularly to monitor disease progression. Here we address the question to what degree aggregate VFT measurements such as Visual Field Index (VFI) and Mean Deviation (MD) can be inferred from Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) scans of the Optic Nerve Head (ONH) or the macula. Accurate inference of VFT measurements from OCT could reduce examination time and cost. We propose a novel 3D Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for this task and compare its accuracy with classical machine learning (ML) algorithms trained on common, segmentation-based OCT, features employed for glaucoma diagnostics ...

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    14. Quantitative assessment of human donor corneal endothelium with Gabor domain optical coherence microscopy

      Quantitative assessment of human donor corneal endothelium with Gabor domain optical coherence microscopy

      We report on a pathway for Gabor domain optical coherence microscopy (GD-OCM)-based metrology to assess the donor’s corneal endothelial layers ex vivo . Six corneas from the Lions Eye Bank at Albany and Rochester were imaged with GD-OCM. The raw 3-D images of the curved corneas were flattened using custom software to enhance the 2-D visualization of endothelial cells (ECs); then the ECs within a circle of 500-μm-diameter were analyzed using a custom corner method and a cell counting plugin in ImageJ. The EC number, EC area, endothelial cell density (ECD), and polymegethism (CV) were quantified in five ...

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    15. Evaluation of Foveal Avascular Zone and Capillary Plexuses in Diabetic Patients by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Evaluation of Foveal Avascular Zone and Capillary Plexuses in Diabetic Patients by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose To investigate the foveal avascular zone (AVZ), superficial and deep foveal and parafoveal vessel density (VD) changes related to diabetic retinopathy. Methods Forty-nine type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and 45 healthy control subjects were included in this study. The demographic data (age and sex), disease duration, and level of glycated hemoglobin were collected. Superficial VD (%), superficial AVZ area (mm 2 ), deep VD (%) and deep AVZ area (mm 2 ) were evaluated via optic coherence tomography angiography. Results Superficial AVZ was 0.438 ± 0.05 mm 2 in the DM group, 0.246 ± 0.022 mm 2 in the control group ...

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    16. Additive Role of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Vessel Density Measurements in Glaucoma Diagnoses

      Additive Role of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Vessel Density Measurements in Glaucoma Diagnoses

      Purpose This study compared the glaucoma diagnostic abilities of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). In addition, the possibility of enhancing diagnostic capability by combining the two modalities was investigated. Methods A total of 131 healthy eyes and 113 glaucomatous eyes were imaged by both OCT and OCTA. In OCT, glaucoma was defined as when the color of the superior or inferior quadrant of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map was yellow (borderline, <5%) or red (outside normal limits, <1%). In OCTA, glaucoma was determined using the cut-off value of the superior or inferior ...

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    17. Foveal avascular zone and macular vessel density after correction for magnification error in unilateral amblyopia using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Foveal avascular zone and macular vessel density after correction for magnification error in unilateral amblyopia using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Background To investigate the area of foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and macular vessel density (VD) after correction for magnification error in unilateral amblyopia using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods Participants comprised 15 patients with unilateral amblyopia due to anisometropia with or without strabismus (mean age, 9.8 ± 3.4 years; range, 6–17 years). OCTA images were obtained by using spectral-domain OCT with angiography software. The OCTA scanning protocol used was 3 × 3-mm volume scan centered on the fovea. OCTA images were corrected for magnification errors using individual axial length (AL), and an adjusted 2.3 × 2.3-mm square ...

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    18. Anterior vitreous detachment: risk factor for intraoperative complications during phacoemulsification

      Anterior vitreous detachment: risk factor for intraoperative complications during phacoemulsification

      Purpose To confirm the presence of incomplete vitreo-lenticular adhesion via microscope-integrated intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) during cataract surgery and via diagnostic spectral-domain OCT postoperatively. Setting S. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Complex State Institution, Moscow, Russia; Design Prospective, non-interventional, single-center study. Methods Clinical characteristics and surgical videos of 27 patients (28 eyes) who underwent cataract surgery were documented. Real-time iOCT integrated into the surgical microscope was directed to view the retro-lenticular anatomy at the end of the surgery. Postoperatively, spectral-domain OCT was also performed. Results Berger’s space could be identified in 21 cases (75%) intraoperatively via iOCT and in 23 ...

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    19. Dr. Kester Nahen joins Notal Vision as Chief Commercial Officer

      Dr. Kester Nahen joins Notal Vision as Chief Commercial Officer

      Notal Vision, Inc., a company focused on advancing eye care with precision medicine by extending disease management from the clinic to the home, is pleased to announce the appointment of Kester Nahen, PhD to Chief Commercial Officer. Dr. Nahen is a medical device industry expert and brings more than 18 years of well-rounded international business experience in product management, medical science, clinical research, marketing, sales, professional education, and business development to the company. "I am delighted to welcome Kester to the Notal Vision executive team,” stated Dr. Susan Orr, Chief Executive Officer of Notal Vision. “I am confident that his ...

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    20. Development of optical coherence tomography methods for imaging and analysis of the structure and function of the choroid in the human eye.

      Development of optical coherence tomography methods for imaging and analysis of the structure and function of the choroid in the human eye.

      POSITION 1 Post-doctoral fellow position PROJECT Development of optical coherence tomography methods for imaging and analysis of the structure and function of the choroid in the human eye. Brief description of the project: http://lab.fizyka.umk.pl/670-2/ FUNDING ORGANIZATION, PROGRAMME AND PROJECT NUMBER National Science Center of Poland, OPUS 16, 2018/31/B/ST7/03138; FELLOWSHIP DURATION Maximum: 33 months (October 1st, 2019 – June 12th, 2022) Minimum: 12 months (October 1st, 2019 – December 31st, 2020) APPLICATION DEADLINE September 6th 2019, 11:59 PM (CEST) INQUIRIES AND APPLICATION CONTACT iwona.gorczynska@fizyka.umk.pl DOWNLOADS General information Application form ...

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    21. Doheny Eye Institute Receives NIH Grant for Discovery and Validation of AMD Biomarkers for Progression Using Deep Learning

      Doheny Eye Institute Receives NIH Grant for Discovery and Validation of AMD Biomarkers for Progression Using Deep Learning

      Doheny Eye Institute Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for $235,500 for Discovery and Validation of AMD Biomarkers for Progression Using Deep Learning. The principal investigator is Zhihong Hu. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among elderly individuals. Currently there are no proven effective therapies for treatment of advanced non-neovascular AMD, termed geographic atrophy (GA). Earlier intervention may be preferable, but this would require identification of those individuals with the highest risk for progression to atrophy. Over the last two decades, various studies including ours have identified several ...

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      Mentions: UCSF Zhihong Hu
    22. Correlation between pigmented arc and epithelial thickness (COPE) study in orthokeratology-treated patients using OCT measurements

      Correlation between pigmented arc and epithelial thickness (COPE) study in orthokeratology-treated patients using OCT measurements

      Purpose To determine the intensity of corneal pigmented arc in orthokeratology (ortho-k)-treated children, and its correlation with key epithelial thickness measurements obtained by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Methods This study is a retrospective case series. Medical records of children who received ortho-k treatment for myopia control in our hospital were reviewed. Intensity of ortho-k-associated pigmented arc and its correlation with key epithelial thickness parameters in the central 7-mm-diameter zone obtained by AS-OCT was examined. The subjects were further divided into apparent and unapparent pigmented arc groups for severity comparison. Results The mean age of children was 11 ...

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    23. Chronic chiasmal compression and persistent visual field defect without detectable changes in optical coherence tomography of the macular ganglion cell complex

      Chronic chiasmal compression and persistent visual field defect without detectable changes in optical coherence tomography of the macular ganglion cell complex

      Purpose Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) are important in the ophthalmological evaluation of patients with sellar masses. Changes in OCT of the RNFL and macular GCC often precede visual field changes in patients with chronic chiasmal compression. OCT of the macular GCC has been shown to have better correlation with visual function and allow for even earlier detection of compression of the anterior visual pathways. We present a case of a chronic visual field defect from a pituitary adenoma with largely normal OCT parameters and only subtle changes ...

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    24. Interspecies Variation of Outer Retina and Choriocapillaris Imaged With Optical Coherence Tomography

      Interspecies Variation of Outer Retina and Choriocapillaris Imaged With Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : The purpose of this study is to assess with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) the interspecies variation of outer retinal morphology and identification of choriocapillaris in four research animal species. Methods : Spectralis HRA+OCT images acquired from locations dorsal, central, and ventral to the optic disc in healthy, anesthetized animals were evaluated by two independent readers. First, the number of OCT B-scans on which a choriocapillaris layer could clearly be identified was determined and quantified, and B-scans were correlated with histology. Second, B-scans demonstrating the highest number of discernable individual outer retinal bands (ORBs) were defined as ideal presentation ...

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