1. Articles in category: Ophthalmology

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    1. ORCA study: real-world versus reading centre assessment of disease activity of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD)

      ORCA study: real-world versus reading centre assessment of disease activity of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD)

      Background/aims The prospective, non-interventional ORCA module of the OCEAN study (Observation of Treatment Patterns with Lucentis in Approved Indications) evaluated the qualiy of spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) image interpretation and treatment decisions by clinicians in Germany and the impact on visual outcomes over 24 months in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Methods 2286 SD-OCT scans of 205 eyes were independently evaluated by clinicians and reading centres (RCs) regarding signs of choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) activity, including presence of intraretinal fluid, subretinal fluid, and/or increase in pigment epithelial detachments. Agreement between clinicians and RCs was calculated. Treatment ...

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    2. Role of visual evoked potentials and optical coherence tomography in the screening for optic pathway gliomas in patients with neurofibromatosis type I

      Role of visual evoked potentials and optical coherence tomography in the screening for optic pathway gliomas in patients with neurofibromatosis type I

      Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to compare visual function assessment, visual evoked potential, and optical coherence tomography with measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness for the diagnosis of optic pathway glioma in children with neurofibromatosis type 1. Methods: This retrospective observational study included patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging scan, visual evoked potential study, and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer evaluation by optical coherence tomography. Patients were tested with pattern-reversal visual evoked potential and with flash visual evoked potential in case of poor cooperation. Optical coherence tomography was performed with HRA ...

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    3. Macular Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Nephropathic Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy in Iran: A Prospective Case–Control Study

      Macular Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Nephropathic Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy in Iran: A Prospective Case–Control Study

      Background Diabetic macular ischemia (DMI) is an important category of diabetic retinopathy (DR) which leads to severe visual loss. Clinically, it is defined by an enlargement of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) that can be detected by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Studies have described a relationship between renal disease and these changes in FAZ area. The aim of this study was to compare disturbances in FAZ area in diabetic patients with or without overt nephropathy. Methods Following approval of the ethics committee, we examined diabetic patients with retinopathy. Patients were divided into two groups of DR, namely, with overt ...

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    4. Methodological Challenges of Deep Learning in Optical Coherence Tomography for Retinal Diseases: A Review

      Methodological Challenges of Deep Learning in Optical Coherence Tomography for Retinal Diseases: A Review

      Artificial intelligence (AI)-based automated classification and segmentation of optical coherence tomography (OCT) features have become increasingly popular. However, its 3-dimensional volumetric nature has made developing an algorithm that generalizes across all patient populations and OCT devices challenging. Several recent studies have reported high diagnostic performances of AI models; however, significant methodological challenges still exist in applying these models in real-world clinical practice. Lack of large-image datasets from multiple OCT devices, nonstandardized imaging or post-processing protocols between devices, limited graphics processing unit capabilities for exploiting 3-dimensional features, and inconsistency in the reporting metrics are major hurdles in enabling AI for ...

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    5. Quantifying lipofuscin in retinal pigment epithelium in vivo by visible-light optical coherence tomography-based multimodal imaging

      Quantifying lipofuscin in retinal pigment epithelium in vivo by visible-light optical coherence tomography-based multimodal imaging

      Lipofuscin in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the major source of fundus autofluorescence (FAF). A technical challenge to accurately quantify the FAF intensities, thus the lipofuscin concentration, is to compensate the light attenuation of RPE melanin. We developed the VIS-OCT-FAF technology to accomplish optical coherence tomography (OCT) and FAF simultaneously with a single broadband visible light source. We demonstrated that light attenuation by RPE melanin can be assessed and corrected using the depth-resolved OCT signals. FAF images from albino and pigmented rats showed that without compensation, FAF signals from pigmented rats are lower than that from albinos. After compensation ...

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    6. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF CHORIOCAPILLARIS IMPAIRMENT IN EYES WITH CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION SECONDARY TO AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION: A Quantitative OCT Angiography Study

      SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF CHORIOCAPILLARIS IMPAIRMENT IN EYES WITH CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION SECONDARY TO AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION: A Quantitative OCT Angiography Study

      Purpose: To develop an optical coherence tomography angiography ( OCTA )-based framework for quantitatively analyzing the spatial distribution of choriocapillaris (CC) impairment around choroidal neovascularization ( CNV ) secondary to age-related macular degeneration. Methods: In a retrospective, cross-sectional study, 400-kHz swept-source OCTA images from 7 eyes of 6 patients with CNV secondary to age-related macular degeneration were quantitatively analyzed using custom software. A lesion-centered zonal OCTA analysis technique—which portioned the field-of-view into zones relative to CNV boundaries—was developed to quantify the spatial dependence of CC flow deficits. Results: Quantitative, lesion-centered zonal analysis of CC OCTA images revealed highest flow-deficit percentages near ...

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    7. A Deep Learning Approach in Rebubbling After Descemet's Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty

      A Deep Learning Approach in Rebubbling After Descemet's Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty

      Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of deep learning in judging the need for rebubbling after Descemet's endothelial membrane keratoplasty (DMEK). Methods: This retrospective study included eyes that underwent rebubbling after DMEK ( rebubbling group: RB group) and the same number of eyes that did not require rebubbling (non-RB group), based on medical records. To classify the RB group, randomly selected images from anterior segment optical coherence tomography at postoperative day 5 were evaluated by corneal specialists. The criterion for rebubbling was the condition where graft detachment reached the central 4.0-mm pupil area. We trained nine types of deep neural ...

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    8. Comparison of the Iowa Reference Algorithm to the Heidelberg Spectralis optical coherence tomography segmentation algorithm

      Comparison of the Iowa Reference Algorithm to the Heidelberg Spectralis optical coherence tomography segmentation algorithm

      For spectral‐domain optical coherence tomography (SD‐OCT) studies of neurodegeneration, it is important to understand how segmentation algorithms differ in retinal layer thickness measurements, segmentation error locations and the impact of manual correction. Using macular SD‐OCT images of frontotemporal degeneration patients and controls, we compare the individual and aggregate retinal layer thickness measurements provided by two commonly used algorithms, the Iowa Reference Algorithm and Heidelberg Spectralis, with manual correction of significant segmentation errors. We demonstrate small differences of most retinal layer thickness measurements between these algorithms. Outer sectors of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study grid require a ...

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    9. Quantitative assessment of the effect of acute anaerobic exercise on macular perfusion via swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in young football players

      Quantitative assessment of the effect of acute anaerobic exercise on macular perfusion via swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in young football players

      Aim To evaluate the effect of acute anaerobic exercise on macular perfusion measured by swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) in young football players. Materials and methods Football players with ages between 18 and 20 years were included into the study. After a detailed ophthalmological examination, physiological parameters including height (cm), body weight (kg), body fat percentage (%), systemic blood pressure (BP) (mmHg), hematocrit values (%), oxygen saturation pO 2 (%) and heart rate (bpm) were recorded. Intraocular pressure (IOP) (mmHg) and SS-OCTA using DRI OCT Triton (Topcon, Tokyo, Japan) were measured immediately before and after Wingate test. Results Out of 20, 16 ...

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    10. Axial length measurement and detection rates using a swept-source optical coherence tomography based biometer in the presence of a dense vitreous hemorrhage

      Axial length measurement and detection rates using a swept-source optical coherence tomography based biometer in the presence of a dense vitreous hemorrhage

      Purpose: To evaluate axial length (AL) measurements and detection rates using a swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) biometer (OA-2000, Tomey, Japan) compared with the IOLMaster (v5.4, Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Germany), Lenstar (v2.1, Haag-Streit, Switzerland) and ultrasound (US) measurements in eyes with vitreous hemorrhage (VH). Setting: Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China. Design: Comparative evaluation of a diagnostic test or technology. Methods: The main outcomes were AL measurement failure rate and agreement in AL measurements in patients with VH. The Bland-Altman method was used to assess the agreement between devices. Results: In total, 40 eyes were ...

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    11. Diagnosing Glaucoma with Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography Using Deep Learning Classifier

      Diagnosing Glaucoma with Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography Using Deep Learning Classifier

      Précis: An SD-OCT based deep learning system detected glaucomatous structural change with high sensitivity and specificity. It outperformed the clinical diagnostic parameters in discriminating glaucomatous eyes from healthy eyes. Purpose: To assess the performance of a deep learning classifier for detection of glaucomatous change based on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: Three hundred and fifty image sets of ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) SD-OCT for 86 glaucomatous eyes and 307 SD-OCT image sets of 196 healthy participants were recruited and split into training (197 eyes) and test (85 eyes) datasets based on ...

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    12. A 3D Deep Learning System for Detecting Referable Glaucoma Using Full OCT Macular Cube Scans

      A 3D Deep Learning System for Detecting Referable Glaucoma Using Full OCT Macular Cube Scans

      Purpose : The purpose of this study was to develop a 3D deep learning system from spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) macular cubes to differentiate between referable and nonreferable cases for glaucoma applied to real-world datasets to understand how this would affect the performance. Methods : There were 2805 Cirrus optical coherence tomography (OCT) macula volumes (Macula protocol 512 × 128) of 1095 eyes from 586 patients at a single site that were used to train a fully 3D convolutional neural network (CNN). Referable glaucoma included true glaucoma, pre-perimetric glaucoma, and high-risk suspects, based on qualitative fundus photographs, visual fields, OCT reports ...

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    13. In Vivo Imaging of Schlemm's Canal and Limbal Vascular Network in Mouse Using Visible-Light OCT

      In Vivo Imaging of Schlemm's Canal and Limbal Vascular Network in Mouse Using Visible-Light OCT

      Purpose : To validate the ability of visible-light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT) in imaging the full Schlemm's canal (SC) and its surrounding limbal vascular network in mice in vivo through a compound circumlimbal scan. Methods : We developed an anterior segment vis-OCT system and a compound circumlimbal scanning method, which montages eight rotated raster scans. We calibrated the circumlimbal scan geometry using a three-dimensional printed phantom eyeball before imaging wild-type C57BL/6J mice. We measured SC size by segmenting SC cross sections from vis-OCT B-scan images and imaged the limbal microvascular network using vis-OCT angiography (vis-OCTA). To introduce changes in SC ...

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    14. Detection of retinal microvascular changes in von Hippel-Lindau disease using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Detection of retinal microvascular changes in von Hippel-Lindau disease using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a hereditary disorder that can lead to ophthalmic manifestations, including retinal capillary hemangioma (RCH). The diagnosis of RCH is often guided by wide-field fluorescein angiography. In some cases, optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) serves as a non-invasive alternative to FA. Herein, we used OCT-A to examine the macular microvasculature in patients with VHL disease. Subjects Subjects were selected from patients with a diagnosis of VHL. The control group included eyes without retinal diagnosis from patients with an episode of unilateral retinal detachment or trauma and age ≤ 50 years old. Methods Subjects were scanned on ...

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    15. Faster. Stronger. Smarter.

      Faster. Stronger. Smarter.

      Artificial intelligence is shaping the future of eye care—and Duke is leading the way. Artificial intelligence (AI) leverages the growing power and speed of computers to solve complex problems. AI is transforming medical research and clinical practice—and ophthalmology is leading the way. “One of the most successful ways that AI has been applied recently is in the area of ‘computer vision,’ which is the assessment and interpretation of images,” explains Felipe Medeiros, MD, PhD, Joseph A.C. Wadsworth Professor of Ophthalmology. “We can apply sophisticated AI algorithms, such as ‘deep learning’ neural networks, which are capable of very ...

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    16. University of Illinois at Chicago Receives NIH Grant for Functional Tomography of Neurovascular Coupling Interactions in Healthy and Diseased Retinas

      University of Illinois at Chicago Receives NIH Grant for Functional Tomography of Neurovascular Coupling Interactions in Healthy and Diseased Retinas

      University of Illinois at Chicago Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $ 352,927 for Functional Tomography of Neurovascular Coupling Interactions in Healthy and Diseased Retinas. The principal investigator is Xincheng Yao. Below is a summary of the proposed work. This project is to investigate spatiotemporal interactions between neural activities and hemodynamic changes in the retina, and to explore quantitative mapping of retinal neurovascular coupling defects caused by neurodegenerative diseases. Retinal neurodegenerative diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinitis pigmentosa (RP), diabetic retinopathy (DR) and glaucoma, can produce severe vision losses if medical interventions cannot be provided promptly. As one ...

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    17. Oregon Health and Science University Receives NIH Grant for Application of Ultrahigh-Speed Long-Range Wide-Field OCT in Anterior Eye Diseases

      Oregon Health and Science University Receives NIH Grant for Application of Ultrahigh-Speed Long-Range Wide-Field OCT in Anterior Eye Diseases

      Oregon Health and Science University Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $493,238 for Application of Ultrahigh-Speed Long-Range Wide-Field OCT in Anterior Eye Diseases. The principal investigator is David Huang. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is uniquely able to achieve micron depth resolution while imaging a large 3-dimensional (3D) volume. This enables 3D imaging and precise measurements in the anterior segment of the eye, including the cornea, conjunctiva, sclera, anterior chamber, iris, and crystalline lens. Anterior segment OCT is already widely used in ophthalmology. But a number of high-impact applications were held back ...

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    18. Impact of manual correction over automated segmentation of spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      Impact of manual correction over automated segmentation of spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      Objective To study the automated segmentation of retinal layers using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the impact of manual correction over segmentation mistakes. Methods This was a retrospective, cross-sectional, comparative study that compared the automated segmentation of macular thickness using Spectralis™ OCT technology (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) versus manual segmentation in eyes with no macular changes, macular cystoid edema (CME), and choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Automated segmentation of macular thickness was manually corrected by two independent examiners and reanalyzed by them together in case of disagreement. Results In total, 306 eyes of 254 consecutive patients were evaluated. No statistically ...

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    19. The 360° circumferential opening of Schlemm's canal in normal individuals detected by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography

      The 360° circumferential opening of Schlemm's canal in normal individuals detected by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography

      We aimed to observe the opening status and morphological parameters of Schlemm's canal (SC) in normal eyes using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Consecutive EDI-OCT scans were used to examine the right eye of 20 normal individuals . EDI-OCT was performed clockwise for 8 regions (at the 12:00, 1:30, 3:00, 4:30, 6:00, 7:30, 9:00 and 10:30 o’clock positions). Image processing and analysis in java software was used to measure the area, perimeter, and diameter of SC. Twenty-one serial scans of each region were evaluated and a total of 168 ...

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    20. Real-Time Intraoperative Dynamics of White Cataract- Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography Guided Classification & Management

      Real-Time Intraoperative Dynamics of White Cataract- Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography Guided Classification & Management

      Purpose: To evaluate morphological characteristics and intraoperative dynamics of different types of white cataract using intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) Setting: Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India Design: Prospective interventional study Methods: Fifty eyes with white cataract undergoing phacoemulsification were evaluated. Primary outcome measure was classification of white cataract based on morphology and intraoperative dynamics on iOCT. Secondary outcome measure was rhexis related complications. Results: We identified four types of white cataract based on iOCT - Type I (18%), II (6%), III (48%) and IV (28%). Type I had regularly arranged lamellar ...

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    21. Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Biomarkers in a Treat-and-Extend Dosing Regimen in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

      Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Biomarkers in a Treat-and-Extend Dosing Regimen in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

      Purpose : To evaluate the association between quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) parameters and clinical outcomes in treatment-naïve neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) patients treated with a treat-and-extend dosing regimen on a 12-month follow-up interval. Methods : Observational, prospective study of consecutive patients. The treatment protocol was based on a loading dose of three anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) intravitreal injections (IVI) followed by a treat-and-extend regimen. Eyes were evaluated by swept-source OCT-A at baseline, 1 month after the loading dose and at 12 months. A quantitative analysis was issued for fractal dimension (FD), lacunarity index (LAC), blood flow surface ...

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    22. Effect of partial posterior vitreous detachment on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurements

      Effect of partial posterior vitreous detachment on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurements

      Background/aims To assess the effect of partial posterior vitreous detachment (pPVD) on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFL) measurements. Methods Spectral-domain OCT RNFL thickness measurements were obtained from 684 consecutive patients who were seen in the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Glaucoma Service. Of these patients, we compared RNFL thickness measurements between 101 eyes of 101 glaucoma suspects who met inclusion criteria (55 eyes with and 46 eyes without pPVD). Results Among all 684 patients, 253 (37%) had pPVD in at least one eye. Among a subset of 101 eyes of 101 glaucoma suspects ...

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    23. Selective retina therapy monitoring by speckle variance optical coherence tomography for dosimetry control

      Selective retina therapy monitoring by speckle variance optical coherence tomography for dosimetry control

      Significance: Selective retina therapy (SRT) selectively targets the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and reduces negative side effects by avoiding thermal damages of the adjacent photoreceptors, the neural retina, and the choroid. However, the selection of proper laser energy for the SRT is challenging because of ophthalmoscopically invisible lesions in the RPE and different melanin concentrations among patients or even regions within an eye. Aim: We propose and demonstrate SRT monitoring based on speckle variance optical coherence tomography (svOCT) for dosimetry control. Approach: M-scans, time-resolved sequence of A-scans, of ex vivo bovine retina irradiated by 1.7-μs duration laser pulses ...

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    24. Optical coherence tomography features of retinal lesions in Chinese patients with endogenous Candida endophthalmitis

      Optical coherence tomography features of retinal lesions in Chinese patients with endogenous Candida endophthalmitis

      Background To evaluate the optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of retinal lesions in Chinese patients with endogenous Candida endophthalmitis (ECE). Methods We performed a retrospective review of patients diagnosed with ECE at one medical center. The medical records of the patients including predisposing risk factors, treatment and visual acuity were reviewed. And we focused on the analysis of OCT images of retinal lesions before and after treatment. Results A total of 16 Chinese patients (22 eyes) were included in this study. The most frequent predisposing risk factors were intravenous use of corticosteroids or antibiotics, lithotripsy for urinary calculi, and diabetes ...

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      Mentions: Fudan University
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