1. Articles in category: Ophthalmology

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    1. Choroidal thickness evaluation of healthy eyes, central serous chorioretinopathy, and fellow eyes using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in Indian population

      Choroidal thickness evaluation of healthy eyes, central serous chorioretinopathy, and fellow eyes using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in Indian population

      Aim: The purpose of this study is to establish a normative database of subfoveal choroidal thickness (CT) in healthy young Indians using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). Evaluation and comparison of CT of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and fellow eyes were also performed. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, and observational study. It included 112 normal eyes of 112 healthy volunteers who had no evidence of ocular or systemic disease, 84 CSC eyes with acute, treatment-naïve CSC, and 69 fellow eyes with no evidence of neurosensory detachment or pigment epithelium detachment on SD OCT. Complete ...

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    2. Optic Nerve Head Drusen Prevalence and Associated Factors in Clinically Normal Subjects Measured Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Optic Nerve Head Drusen Prevalence and Associated Factors in Clinically Normal Subjects Measured Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Aim: The purpose of this study is to establish a normative database of subfoveal choroidal thickness (CT) in healthy young Indians using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). Evaluation and comparison of CT of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and fellow eyes were also performed. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, and observational study. It included 112 normal eyes of 112 healthy volunteers who had no evidence of ocular or systemic disease, 84 CSC eyes with acute, treatment-naïve CSC, and 69 fellow eyes with no evidence of neurosensory detachment or pigment epithelium detachment on SD OCT. Complete ...

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    3. The measurement repeatability using different partition methods of intraretinal tomographic thickness maps in healthy human subjects

      The measurement repeatability using different partition methods of intraretinal tomographic thickness maps in healthy human subjects

      Purpose: To determine the repeatability and profiles with different partition methods in intraretinal thickness layers in healthy human subjects, using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: A custom-built ultrahigh-resolution OCT was used to acquire three-dimensional volume of the macula in 20 healthy subjects. The dataset was acquired twice using the macular cube 512×128 protocol in an area of 6×6 mm 2 centered on the fovea. Commercially available segmentation software (Orion™) was used to segment the dataset into thickness maps of six intraretinal layers. The coefficient of repeatability and intraclass coefficient of correlation (ICC) were analyzed using hemispheric zoning and ...

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    4. Estimating OCT Structural Measurement Floors to Improve Detection of Progression In Advanced Glaucoma

      Estimating OCT Structural Measurement Floors to Improve Detection of Progression In Advanced Glaucoma

      Purpose “Floor effects” in retinal imaging are defined as the points at which no further structural loss can be detected. We estimated the measurement floors for spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) measurements and compared global change over time in advanced glaucoma eyes. Design Validity study to investigate measurement floors. Methods A longitudinal “Variability Group” of 41 eyes with moderate to advanced glaucoma (SAP MD ≤ -8 dB) was used to estimate measurement floors. Minimum rim width (MRW), ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness (GC-IPLT) and circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT) were determined. Floors were defined as the average image area ...

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    5. Google researchers use deep learning to detect diabetic retinopathy with upwards of 90 percent accuracy

      Google researchers use deep learning to detect diabetic retinopathy with upwards of 90 percent accuracy

      A team of Google researchers has published a paper in the Journal of the American Medical Association showing that Google's deep learning algorithm, trained on a large data set of fundus images, can detect diabetic retinopathy with better than 90 percent accuracy. "These results demonstrate that deep neural networks can be trained, using large data sets and without having to specify lesion-based features, to identify diabetic retinopathy or diabetic macular edema in retinal fundus images with high sensitivity and high specificity," researchers write in the paper . "This automated system for the detection of diabetic retinopathy offers several advantages, including ...

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    6. Google's training AI to catch diabetic blindness before it's too late

      Google's training AI to catch diabetic blindness before it's too late

      iabetes is no joke, regardless of what Wilford Brimley memes you've seen. The disease's associated foot ulcers can lead to amputation of the limb while diabetic retinopathy (DR) can rob people of their sight. Some 415 million diabetics worldwide are at risk of this visual affliction and many of those living with it in the developing world lack sufficient health care access to treat it. That's why Google is training its deep learning AI to spot DR before it becomes a problem -- and without the help of an on-site doctor. Since the disease is most readily diagnosed ...

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      Mentions: FDA
    7. Artificial Intelligence With Deep Learning Technology Looks Into Diabetic Retinopathy Screening

      Artificial Intelligence With Deep Learning Technology Looks Into Diabetic Retinopathy Screening

      D iabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of vision loss in the United States and globally, particularly among working-aged individuals. Diabetic retinopathy meets all the criteria for screening: first, the condition (diabetic retinopathy) is an important public health care problem; second, the epidemiology and natural history of the condition, including development from asymptomatic latent to severe disease, are adequately understood; third, the screening test (retinal photography) is simple, safe, validated, and acceptable; and fourth, an effective treatment (intravitreous injections of anti–vascular endothelial growth factor or laser therapy for severe diabetic retinopathy or diabetic macular edema [DME]) is available for ...

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    8. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Macular Diseases (Textbook)

      Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Macular Diseases (Textbook)

      Undoubtedly, optical coherence tomography has changed the approach of clinicians in their daily practice. The evolution of technology from time domain to spectral domain and swept source OCT increased the possibilities of imaging the retinal and choroidal details. Newer evaluations are now available to better understand the diseases and to fi nd new biomarkers for retinal and choroidal pathologies. From measurement to morphology could be the right description of changes occurring from time domain to spectral domain. The possibility to visualize retinal and choroidal morphology in real life and not only post-mortem allowed a better understanding not only of the ...

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    9. A view of the current and future role of optical coherence tomography in the management of age-related macular degeneration

      A view of the current and future role of optical coherence tomography in the management of age-related macular degeneration

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become an established diagnostic technology in the clinical management of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). OCT is being used for primary diagnosis, evaluation of therapeutic efficacy, and long-term monitoring. Computer-based advances in image analysis provide complementary imaging tools such as OCT angiography, further novel automated analysis methods as well as feature detection and prediction of prognosis in disease and therapy by machine learning. In early AMD, pathognomonic features such as drusen, pseudodrusen, and abnormalities of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) can be imaged in a qualitative and quantitative way to identify early signs of disease activity ...

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    10. Optical coherence tomography systems and methods with magnitude and direction tracking of transverse motion

      Optical coherence tomography systems and methods with magnitude and direction tracking of transverse motion

      An optical coherence tomography (OCT) system having magnitude and direction of motion detection has a light source, and a scanning system arranged in an optical path of the light source. The scanning system is configured to scan an illumination beam of light in a spatial pattern around each of a plurality of points of interest of an object under observation for a corresponding plurality of instants of time in which each of the plurality of points of interest are displaced from each other due to motion of at least one of the OCT system or the object under observation. The ...

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    11. Diagnostic ability of peripapillary vessel density measurements of optical coherence tomography angiography in primary open-angle and angle-closure glaucoma

      Diagnostic ability of peripapillary vessel density measurements of optical coherence tomography angiography in primary open-angle and angle-closure glaucoma

      Aims To evaluate the diagnostic ability of peripapillary vessel density measurements on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), and to compare these with peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness measurements. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 48 eyes of 33 healthy control subjects, 63 eyes of 39 patients with POAG and 49 eyes of 32 patients with PACG underwent OCTA (RTVue-XR, Optovue, Fremont, California, USA) and RNFL imaging with spectral domain OCT. Diagnostic abilities of vessel density and RNFL parameters were evaluated using area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) and ...

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    12. Optical coherence tomography angiography of foveal hypoplasia

      Optical coherence tomography angiography of foveal hypoplasia

      Aims To discuss foveal development in the context of detailed retinal vasculature imaging in foveal hypoplasia using optical coherence tomography angiography. Methods In this case series, the optical coherence tomography angiography results of four patients with idiopathic foveal hypoplasia and two patients with foveal hypoplasia secondary to oculocutaneous albinism are presented. Results Cases with intact visual acuity demonstrated lower grades of foveal hypoplasia on optical coherence tomography, while those with poor vision demonstrated high grades of foveal hypoplasia. The superficial retinal capillary plexus was intact in the foveal area in all cases, with no demonstrable foveal avascular zone. The deep ...

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    13. Foveal Microvascular Changes Based on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Mild Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

      Foveal Microvascular Changes Based on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Mild Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

      Purpose To investigate the microvascular change in diabetic patients with no diabetic retinopathy (DR) and mild nonproliferative DR (NPDR) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 44 eyes of 22 patients with no DR and 34 eyes of 17 patients with mild NPDR. OCTA was performed on a 3 × 3 mm region centered in the fovea and parafoveal areas. The foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and foveal and parafoveal flow density (FD) in superficial and deep vascular plexuses were analyzed using OCTA. Results The FAZ of deep capillary plexus in patients with mild NPDR ...

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    14. Agreement between Gonioscopic Examination and Swept Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

      Agreement between Gonioscopic Examination and Swept Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

      Purpose . To evaluate interobserver, intervisit, and interinstrument agreements for gonioscopy and Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (FD ASOCT) for classifying open and narrow angle eyes. Methods . Eighty-six eyes with open or narrow anterior chamber angles were included. The superior angle was classified open or narrow by 2 of 5 glaucoma specialists using gonioscopy and imaged by FD ASOCT in the dark. The superior angle of each FD ASOCT image was graded as open or narrow by 2 masked readers. The same procedures were repeated within 6 months. Kappas for interobserver and intervisit agreements for each instrument and interinstrument ...

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    15. Imaging Microscopic Features of Keratoconic Corneal Morphology

      Imaging Microscopic Features of Keratoconic Corneal Morphology

      Purpose: To search for gold-standard histology indicators using alternative imaging modalities in keratoconic corneas. Methods: Prospective observational case–control study. Fourteen keratoconic corneas and 20 normal corneas (10 in vivo healthy subjects and 10 ex vivo donor corneas) were examined. Images of corneas were taken by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) before keratoplasty. The same removed corneal buttons were imaged after keratoplasty with full-field optical coherence microscopy (FFOCM) and then fixed and sent for histology. Controls consisted of normal subjects imaged in vivo with IVCM and donor corneas imaged ex vivo with FFOCM ...

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    16. Optical coherence tomography – reinventing the eye examination

      Optical coherence tomography – reinventing the eye examination

      It has been 25 years since Huang et al. presented the first optical coherence tomography (OCT) images in Science. With vast improvements in OCT technology over the years, it is now possible to acquire high-resolution cross-sectional images of the anterior and posterior segments of the eye within fractions of a second. OCT is sometimes referred to as an ‘optical biopsy’, and with the advent of ultrahigh resolution OCT technologies we are fast approaching axial resolutions comparable to histopathology. Although initially slow to be adopted, OCT has now become an essential adjunct for the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of eye disease ...

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    17. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography-guided versus 1-week facedown-posturing after macular hole surgery

      Spectral domain optical coherence tomography-guided versus 1-week facedown-posturing after macular hole surgery

      Objective To compare idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) closure rates and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) between spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)–guided facedown posturing and conventional 1-week facedown posturing after macular hole surgery. Design A retrospective comparative study. Participants Thirty-one consecutive eyes that underwent surgery for FTMH between July 2013 and September 2014 were divided into 2 groups. Methods In the SD-OCT-guided group, SD-OCT was performed on the first day after surgery. If the macular hole was closed, the patient could assume any position but supine. If the hole was not closed on postoperative day 1, SD-OCT was ...

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    18. Different foveal schisis patterns in each retinal layer in eyes with hereditary juvenile retinoschisis evaluated by en-face optical coherence tomography

      Different foveal schisis patterns in each retinal layer in eyes with hereditary juvenile retinoschisis evaluated by en-face optical coherence tomography

      Purpose To analyze the structures of schisis in eyes with hereditary juvenile retinoschisis using en-face optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Methods In this retrospective observational study, we reviewed the medical records of patients with hereditary juvenile retinoschisis who underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examinations including swept-source OCT. Results OCT images were obtained from 16 eyes of nine boys (mean age ± standard deviation, 10.6 ± 4.0 years). The horizontal OCT images at the fovea showed inner nuclear layer (INL) schisis in one eye (6.3 %), ganglion cell layer (GCL) and INL schisis in 12 eyes (75.0 %), INL and outer plexiform layer ...

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    19. Assessment of a Drug-Eluting Balloon for the Treatment of de novo Coronary Lesions Guided by Optical Coherence Tomography: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

      Assessment of a Drug-Eluting Balloon for the Treatment of de novo Coronary Lesions Guided by Optical Coherence Tomography: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

      Background: The drug-eluting balloon (DEB) is a promising tool to prevent restenosis after coronary angioplasty. However, data on the outcomes of DEB in de novo lesions are scarce. Vessel recoil and constrictive remodeling are the dominant causes of restenosis after angioplasty. The use of cutting balloons (CB) may effectively reduce elastic recoil after balloon dilation. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy and safety of DEB in treating de novo coronary artery lesions, using a predilation strategy with cutting balloon (CB) dilation before DEB angioplasty. Methods/Design: We present the design of a prospective, single-center, open-label, randomized, 2-arm clinical trial ...

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    20. Retinal Fibre Layer Thickness Measurement in Normal Paediatric Population in Sweden Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Retinal Fibre Layer Thickness Measurement in Normal Paediatric Population in Sweden Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose . To evaluate the correlation between peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness and both age and refraction error in healthy children using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Patients and Methods . 80 healthy children with a mean age of 9.1 years (range 3.8 to 16.7 years) undergoing routine ocular examination at the orthoptic section of the Ophthalmology Department were recruited for this cross-sectional study. After applying cycloplegia, the peripapillary RNFL thickness was measured in both eyes using the Topcon 3D OCT 2000 device. Results . 138 eyes were included in the analysis. The average refractive error (SE) was +1 ...

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    21. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography findings in idiopathic lamellar macular hole

      Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography findings in idiopathic lamellar macular hole

      Background To evaluate demographic, functional, and morphological parameters of idiopathic lamellar macular hole (ILMH). Methods Observational longitudinal retrospective study. Optical coherence tomography examinations and corresponding clinical charts of a series of consecutive patients affected by ILMH, between January 2010 and March 2015, from the database of the Department of Ophthalmology of Trento Hospital, Italy, have been collected and examined. Demographic and functional parameters were: age (year), gender (male/female), eye (right/left), lens status, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (LogMAR). Tomographic parameters were: LMH shape pattern (intraretinal splitting LMH, IR split LMH, and ...

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    22. Foveal Layer Morphology Detected on Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and its Correlation with Visual Acuity in Asian Indian Premature Infants in their First Year of Life

      Foveal Layer Morphology Detected on Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and its Correlation with Visual Acuity in Asian Indian Premature Infants in their First Year of Life

      Purpose : To report foveal microanatomy imaged on handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) and correlate it with visual acuity in Asian Indian premature infants. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 32 Asian Indian premature infants, 10 with Type 2 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), were imaged between 3 and 12 months of corrected postmenstrual age (PMA) on the handheld SDOCT (Envisu 2300, Bioptigen, DNC, USA). The foveal findings on these images were correlated with visual acuity measured using Teller acuity cards. The study cohort was divided into three groups based on the corrected age, 3–<6 months, 6–<9 months, and ...

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      Mentions: Bioptigen
    23. Benefit of Measuring Anterior Segment Structures Using an Increased Number of Optical Coherence Tomography Images: The Chinese American Eye Study

      Benefit of Measuring Anterior Segment Structures Using an Increased Number of Optical Coherence Tomography Images: The Chinese American Eye Study

      Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefit of analyzing an increased number of anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) images on measurement values of various anterior segment parameters. Methods : Subjects for this cross-sectional study were recruited from the Chinese American Eye Study (CHES), a population-based study in Los Angeles, CA. Thirty-two AS-OCT images were acquired from one eye each of 83 consecutive subjects. Sixteen parameters were analyzed in each image, including angle opening distance (AOD), angle recess area (ARA), trabecular iris space area (TISA), trabecular iris angle (TIA), scleral spur angle (SSAngle), lens vault (LV), pupillary ...

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      Mentions: Rohit Varma UCLA
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