1. Articles in category: Ophthalmology

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    1. Quantitative Analysis of Mouse Retinal Layers Using Automated Segmentation of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Quantitative Analysis of Mouse Retinal Layers Using Automated Segmentation of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Purpose : Quantification of retinal layers using automated segmentation of optical coherence tomography (OCT) images allows for longitudinal studies of retinal and neurological disorders in mice. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of automated retinal layer segmentation algorithms with data from manual segmentation in mice using the Spectralis OCT. Methods : Spectral domain OCT images from 55 mice from three different mouse strains were analyzed in total. The OCT scans from 22 C57Bl/6, 22 BALBc, and 11 C3A.Cg- Pde6b + Prph2 Rd2 /J mice were automatically segmented using three commercially available automated retinal segmentation algorithms and compared ...

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    2. Screening for Subclinical Keratoconus Using Swept-Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Screening for Subclinical Keratoconus Using Swept-Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: To discriminate between subclinical fellow eyes of patients with keratoconus (scKCE) and normal eyes (NE) using swept-source Fourier-domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Setting: University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany. Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: NE (both eyes with a KISA% Index <60; N = 213) and scKCE (KISA% Index <60, but an index of >100 in the fellow eye; N = 61) eyes were grouped according to the KISA% Index. Topography and tomography data were obtained by SS-OCT (Casia SS1000) and reviewed retrospectively. Receiver operating characteristics were performed for Casia SS1000 integrated automated parameters and newly computed indices. Additionally, discriminant ...

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    3. Real-Time Optical Coherence Tomography Segmentation?

      Real-Time Optical Coherence Tomography Segmentation?

      The recent publication, “Real-Time Automatic Segmentation of Optical Coherence Tomography Volume Data of the Macular Region” by Tian et al. [1] raises the obvious question of what actually constitutes “real-time” processing? More broadly speaking, the paper reports on some segmentation results of OCT volumes acquired at the macula. The method used is based on graph traversal techniques that, when applied to image segmentation, allow the developer to very easily define boundaries from one side of an image to another in terms of their lowest cost traversal. For this traversal path to make sense, the input image data is first transformed ...

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    4. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN JUVENILE NEURONAL CEROID LIPOFUSCINOSIS

      OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN JUVENILE NEURONAL CEROID LIPOFUSCINOSIS

      Purpose: To report optical coherence tomography findings obtained in two patients with juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Methods: Two case reports. Results: Two 7-year-old girls presented with decreased visual acuity, clumsiness, night blindness, and behavioral problems. Optical coherence tomography showed an overall reduction in thickness of the central retina, as well as the outer and the inner retinal layers. The degenerative retinal changes were the same, despite different mutations in the CLN3 gene. Conclusion: In these rare cases of juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, optical coherence tomography enabled unambiguous detection of prominent morphologic abnormalities of the retina at the patient's first ...

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    5. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY FEATURES OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

      OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY FEATURES OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

      Purpose: To describe the optical coherence tomography angiography features of diabetic retinopathy. Methods: Using a 70 kHz optical coherence tomography and the split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation angiography algorithm, 6 mm x 6 mm 3-dimensional angiograms of the macula of 4 patients with diabetic retinopathy were obtained and compared with fluorescein angiography for features cataloged by the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study. Results: Optical coherence tomography angiography detected enlargement and distortion of the foveal avascular zone, retinal capillary dropout, and pruning of arteriolar branches. Areas of capillary loss obscured by fluorescein leakage on fluorescein angiography were more clearly defined on optical ...

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    6. Long-Term Changes of Macular Thickness after Pars Plana Vitrectomy in Optic Disc Pit Maculopathy: A Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Long-Term Changes of Macular Thickness after Pars Plana Vitrectomy in Optic Disc Pit Maculopathy: A Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Purpose : To evaluate macular thickness (MT) changes, using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in patients with optic disc pit (ODP) maculopathy after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with or without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. Procedures : Our retrospective study included nine patients with ODP maculopathy, treated with either PPV ( n  = 5) or PPV with ILM peeling ( n  = 4). All participants, who had a mean long-term follow-up of 33.4 ± 7.0 months, underwent a complete ophthalmological examination and SD-OCT. Due to the preoperative macular elevation, the postoperative MT in the operated patients was compared with that of fellow eyes and ...

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    7. Natural History of Idiopathic Epiretinal Membrane in Eyes with Good Vision Assessed by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Natural History of Idiopathic Epiretinal Membrane in Eyes with Good Vision Assessed by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: To investigate the natural history of idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) in eyes with good visual function using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: Sixty-two eyes of 58 patients with idiopathic ERM, visual acuity of 20/40 or better, and no significant metamorphopsia were included. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT), membrane configuration, and ellipsoid zone signal data over 24 months were retrospectively analyzed. Based on OCT findings, ERM configurations were categorized as global attachment (GA), partial attachment (PA), pseudohole, and vitreomacular traction (VMT). Results: The mean BCVA and CMT did not change significantly between baseline and ...

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    8. Optical coherence tomography angiography of shallow irregular pigment epithelial detachments in pachychoroid spectrum disease - American Journal of Ophthalmology

      Optical coherence tomography angiography of shallow irregular pigment epithelial detachments in pachychoroid spectrum disease - American Journal of Ophthalmology

      Purpose To determine the proportion of shallow irregular pigment epithelial detachments in eyes with pachychoroid features that harbor neovascular tissue and to study the morphology of this tissue with optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography. Design Prospective consecutive cohort study. Methods Patients with pachychoroid spectrum diagnoses and shallow irregular pigment epithelial detachment in at least one eye (study eye) were included. Charts and multimodal imaging were reviewed to determine a dye-angiography detection rate for type 1 neovascularization in study eyes. All patients then underwent OCT angiography prospectively followed by masked segmentation and grading. Results 22 eyes of 16 patients were included ...

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      Mentions: K. Bailey Freund
    9. En face optical coherence tomography angiography for corneal neovascularisation

      En face optical coherence tomography angiography for corneal neovascularisation

      Background/aim Recently, there has been an increasing clinical need for objective evaluation of corneal neovascularisation, a condition which cause significant ocular morbidity. We describe the use of a rapid, non-invasive ‘en face’ optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) system for the assessment of corneal neovascularisation. Methods Consecutive patients with abnormal corneal neovascularisation were scanned using a commercially available AngioVue OCTA system (Optovue, Fremont, California, USA) with the split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation angiography algorithm, using an anterior segment lens adapter. Each subject had four scans in each eye by a trained operator and two independent masked assessors analysed all images. Main outcome ...

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    10. Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography

      Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography

      Optical coherence tomography angiography has recently been used to visualize choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in participants with age-related macular degeneration. Identification and quantification of CNV area is important clinically for disease assessment. An automated algorithm for CNV area detection is presented in this article. It relies on denoising and a saliency detection model to overcome issues such as projection artifacts and the heterogeneity of CNV. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations were performed on scans of 7 participants. Results from the algorithm agreed well with manual delineation of CNV area.

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    11. First Annual OCT Angiography Summit Signals a New Era in Imaging Technology

      First Annual OCT Angiography Summit Signals a New Era in Imaging Technology

      OCT Angiography: The Next Game Changer in OCT Scientists, clinicians and engineers from throughout the world gathered in Portland, Oregon, USA for the first annual OCT Angiography Summit meeting. Participants spent the day sharing their knowledge and discussing applications of a breakthrough imaging technology that may someday transform the way we diagnose and care for patients with the most common causes of blindness, namely macular degeneration, glaucoma and diabetes. Currently, these innovations are being applied in ophthalmology and are proving to be a superior alternative to dye-based methods for visualizing and measuring blood flow in the back of the eye ...

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    12. SUBRETINAL NEOVASCULARIZATION IN MACULAR TELANGIECTASIA TYPE 2: OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHIC ANGIOGRAPHY AND TREATMENT RESPONSE

      SUBRETINAL NEOVASCULARIZATION IN MACULAR TELANGIECTASIA TYPE 2: OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHIC ANGIOGRAPHY AND TREATMENT RESPONSE

      Purpose: To report the optical coherence tomographic angiography findings and response to treatment in a case of macular telangiectasia Type 2 with subretinal neovascularization. Methods: Case report. Results: A 64-year-old man with macular telangiectasia Type 2 developed subretinal neovascularization, which was imaged on optical coherence tomographic angiography. He was treated with intravitreal aflibercept, and there was a remarkable reduction of flow in the subretinal neovascular network on optical coherence tomographic angiography. Conclusion: Optical coherence tomographic angiography provides detailed information on the retinal microvasculature and subretinal neovascularization in macular telangiectasia Type 2. It can be used to assess response to treatment.

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    13. Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy: Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography of the Vitreoretinal Interface, Retina, and Choroid

      Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy:  Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography of the Vitreoretinal Interface, Retina, and Choroid

      Purpose The in vivo microstructural features of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) have not been well described. We present new anatomic features of FEVR with functional and genetic correlations. Design Consecutive, retrospective, observational case series. Participants Patients with FEVR treated from 2009 to 2014. Methods We identified 346 patients with FEVR. Those imaged with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) with or without enhanced depth imaging (EDI) were included, and images were correlated with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), widefield angiography, fundus autofluorescence (AF), and wnt signaling pathway mutations. Main Outcome Measures Exploratory SD OCT findings and BCVA. Results A total of ...

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    14. A novel automated segmentation method for retinal layers in OCT images proves retinal degeneration after optic neuritis

      A novel automated segmentation method for retinal layers in OCT images proves retinal degeneration after optic neuritis

      Aim The evaluation of inner retinal layer thickness can serve as a direct biomarker for monitoring the course of inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Using optical coherence tomography (OCT), thinning of the retinal nerve fibre layer and changes in deeper retinal layers have been observed in patients with MS. Here, we first compare a novel method for automated segmentation of OCT images with manual segmentation using two cohorts of patients with MS. Using this method, we also aimed to reproduce previous findings showing retinal degeneration following optic neuritis (ON) in MS. Methods Based ...

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    15. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      A primer on this promising new technology for evaluating retinal vasculature. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a commonly used technology that noninvasively generates images of the retina in cross section or in three dimensions. 1-5 Advances in technology have facilitated additional applications of OCT such as phase-sensitive OCT, polarization-sensitive OCT, and spectroscopic OCT. 6 These methods hold the promise of combining structural information with functional imaging capabilities to assess the metabolic state of the retinal tissue. 7 This article reviews recent developments in the use of OCT technology for noninvasive assessment of the retinal vasculature. We refer to this technology ...

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    16. OCT detects glaucomatous damage up to 8 years before visual field

      OCT detects glaucomatous damage up to 8 years before visual field

      Researchers were able to assess the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer utilizing optical coherence tomography to detect glaucoma before the appearance of visual field defects, according to a study recently published in Ophthalmology . Kuang and colleagues conducted an observational cohort study to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements from OCT as well as gained lead time. The study consisted of 75 eyes of 75 patients suspected of having glaucoma and 75 eyes of 75 healthy subjects. Researchers analyzed RNFL thickness measurements, which were taken when the earliest standard automated perimetry (SAP) defect ...

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    17. Volume-Rendering Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Macular Telangiectasia Type 2

      Volume-Rendering Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Macular Telangiectasia Type 2

      Purpose To evaluate the vascular structure of eyes with macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel2) using volume-rendered optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Design Retrospective cross-sectional study. Participants A total of 14 consecutive patients (20 eyes) with MacTel2 who had a signal strength score ≥55 and could maintain fixation during the scan process. Methods The eyes were scanned using optical coherence tomography with split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation techniques to derive flow information. Data were extracted and used to create volume-rendered images of the retinal vasculature that could be rotated about 3 different axes for evaluation. Main Outcome Measures Descriptive appraisal of the vascular ...

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    18. Morphology and Vascular Layers of the Choroid in Stargardt Disease Analyzed Using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Morphology and Vascular Layers of the Choroid in Stargardt Disease Analyzed Using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose To analyze total thickness, morphology and individual vascular layers of choroid in eyes with Stargardt disease using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Design Cross-sectional retrospective review. Methods Twenty-eight patients with Stargardt disease (53 eyes) with a mean age of 46 (15-79) years and 30 healthy subjects (30 eyes) with a mean age of 49 (22-79) years who underwent 1-line raster scanning with SD-OCT were identified. Diagnosis of Stargardt disease was based on ophthalmic history and complete ophthalmic evaluation. The healthy subjects had best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 or better with no chorioretinal pathology. Two independent raters assessed the ...

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    19. Agreement in Quantitative Anterior Chamber Angle Metrics between RTVue and Cirrus Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Agreement in Quantitative Anterior Chamber Angle Metrics between RTVue and Cirrus Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: To investigate the agreement between two spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) instruments in Schwalbe’s line (SL) based anterior chamber angle parameters and to evaluate their repeatability and reproducibility. Methods: The inferior irido-corneal angle of 114 eyes from 59 participants (29 glaucoma and 30 normal) were scanned twice with the Optovue SD-OCT and Cirrus SD-OCT under controlled low luminance conditions. SL angle opening distance (SL-AOD) and SL trabecular-iris-space area (SL-TISA) were graded by masked certified graders at the Doheny Image Reading Center. Results: The mean SL-AOD/SL-TISA was 623±271µm/ 0.221 ± 0.106 mm2 for the ...

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    20. Comparison of Enhanced Depth Imaging and Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography in Assessment of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease

      Comparison of Enhanced Depth Imaging and Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography in Assessment of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease

      Objective: To compare enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) and swept source OCT (SS-OCT) images in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease to determine the agreement of subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) measurements between them. Methods: SFCT of one eye of all consecutive VKH patients seen at the Singapore National Eye Centre during 2012 to 2013 was measured using both modalities by one masked trained observer. Charts were retrospectively reviewed for demographics, duration of disease and phase of disease. The acute phase was defined as being within the first 6 months of onset and the chronic phase any time thereafter. Results: 137 SS-OCT ...

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    21. Fabrication of healthy and disease-mimicking retinal phantoms with tapered foveal pits for optical coherence tomography

      Fabrication of healthy and disease-mimicking retinal phantoms with tapered foveal pits for optical coherence tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become a standard tool in ophthalmology clinics for diagnosing many retinal diseases. Nonetheless, the technical and clinical communities still lack a standardized phantom that could aid in evaluating and normalizing the many protocols and systems used for diagnosis. Existing retinal phantoms are able to mimic the thickness and scattering properties of the retinal layers but are unable to model the morphology of the foveal pit, particularly the tapering of the retinal layers. This work demonstrates a new fabrication procedure that is capable of reliably and consistently replicating the shape and tapered appearance of the retinal ...

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    22. Peripheral lamina cribrosa depth in primary open-angle glaucoma: a swept-source optical coherence tomography study of lamina cribrosa

      Peripheral lamina cribrosa depth in primary open-angle glaucoma: a swept-source optical coherence tomography study of lamina cribrosa

      Purpose To investigate peripheral lamina cribrosa depth (PLCD) and its vertical-horizontal difference in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods Patients with POAG (n = 90 eyes) and age-matched healthy individuals (n = 90 eyes) underwent swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) scans centered at the optic discs. The PLCD was defined as the vertical distance between the most peripheral visible end of anterior lamina cribrosa (LC) surface and the reference plane connecting the Bruch’s membrane openings. The PLCD in each quadrant region and the vertical-horizontal PLCD difference were compared between the POAG and healthy eyes. The clinical factors associated with increased ...

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