1. Articles in category: Ophthalmology

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    1. Feature Of The Week 4/20/2015: Optical Coherence Photoacoustic Microscopy for In Vivo Multimodal Retinal Imaging

      Feature Of The Week 4/20/2015: Optical Coherence Photoacoustic Microscopy for In Vivo Multimodal Retinal Imaging

      We developed an optical coherence photoacoustic microscopy (OC-PAM) system, which can accomplish optical coherence tomography (OCT) and photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) simultaneously by using a single pulsed broadband light source. With a center wavelength of 800 nm and a bandwidth of 30 nm, the system is suitable for imaging the retina. Generated from the same group of photons, the OCT and PAM images are intrinsically registered in the lateral directions. To test the capabilities of the system on multimodal ophthalmic imaging, we imaged the retina of pigmented rats. The OCT images showed the retinal structures with quality similar to conventional OCT ...

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    2. Heidelberg Engineering Announces 85,000 Hz OCT2; Next Generation SPECTRALIS OCT Module

      Heidelberg Engineering Announces 85,000 Hz OCT2; Next Generation SPECTRALIS OCT Module

      Heidelberg Engineering announces significant improvements to the SPECTRALIS ® OCT2 Module. The OCT2 Module brings the next generation OCT technology to the SPECTRALIS diagnostic imaging platform. It combines a high scan rate with Heidelberg Engineering’s proprietary TruTrack Active Eye Tracking, to provide unmatched image quality and significantly improved acquisition speed. New applications such as OCT Angiography* will build on the OCT2 Module. Since its debut at the 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology in Chicago, the OCT2 Module is an option for all new SPECTRALIS models. In addition, a large number of SPECTRALIS devices in use, depending on their technical specifications ...

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    3. Keratometric Index Obtained by Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Keratometric Index Obtained by Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose To determine the keratometric indices calculated based on parameters obtained by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). Methods The ratio of anterior corneal curvature to posterior corneal curvature (Ratio) and keratometric index (N) were calculated within central 3 mm zone with the RTVue FD-OCT (RTVue, Optovue, Inc.) in 186 untreated eyes, 60 post-LASIK/PRK eyes, and 39 keratoconus eyes. The total corneal powers were calculated using different keratometric indices: K cal based on the mean calculated keratometric index, K 1.3315 calculated by the keratometric index of 1.3315, and K 1.3375 calculated by the keratometric index of 1 ...

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    4. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy: A Prospective Pilot Study

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy: A Prospective Pilot Study

      Purpose To evaluate how optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography depicts clinical fundus findings in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Design Prospective study evaluating imaging technology. Methods Forty-seven eyes of 25 patients with DR were scanned using a high-speed 840-nm wavelength spectral-domain optical coherence tomography instrument (RTVue XR Avanti, Optovue, Inc., Fremont, CA). Blood flow was detected using the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm. Fluorescein angiography (FA) images were also obtained in all eyes and the ability to visualize microaneurysms, retinal non-perfused areas, and neovascularization was compared with that of the en-face OCT angiograms. Results In 42 eyes, microaneurysms detected by FA ...

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    5. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the macula in preterm infants treated with bevacizumab for retinopathy of prematurity

      Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the macula in preterm infants treated with bevacizumab for retinopathy of prematurity

      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To examine the macula in preterm infants treated with bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty eyes (of 11 patients) treated with Avastin only or in addition to photocoagulation and vitreous surgery were included. Imaging was performed with a portable spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) device. Macular measurements, including the foveal and parafoveal index were calculated. RetCam (Clarity Medical Systems, Pleasanton, CA) photographs were obtained for all patients. RESULTS: Mean age of patients at OCT examination was 28.9 months (range ...

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    6. 3D Evaluation of the Lamina Cribrosa with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography in Normal Tension Glaucoma

      3D Evaluation of the Lamina Cribrosa with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography in Normal Tension Glaucoma

      Purpose Although the lamina cribrosa (LC) is the primary site of axonal damage in glaucoma, adequate methods to image and measure it are currently lacking. Here, we describe a noninvasive, in vivo method of evaluating the LC, based on swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), and determine this method’s ability to quantify LC thickness. Methods This study comprised 54 eyes, including normal (n = 18), preperimetric glaucoma (PPG; n = 18), and normal tension glaucoma (NTG; n = 18) eyes. We used SS-OCT to obtain 3 x 3 mm cube scans of an area centered on the optic disc, and then synchronized reconstructed ...

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    7. ASSOCIATION OF PREVASCULAR VITREOUS FISSURES AND CISTERNS WITH VITREOUS DEGENERATION AS ASSESSED BY SWEPT SOURCE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      ASSOCIATION OF PREVASCULAR VITREOUS FISSURES AND CISTERNS WITH VITREOUS DEGENERATION AS ASSESSED BY SWEPT SOURCE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      Purpose: To demonstrate the presence of prevascular vitreous fissures (PVF) and posterior vitreous cisterns in vivo and correlate with the degree of vitreous degeneration (VD). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using Topcon Deep Range Imaging OCT-1 Atlantis 3D swept source optical coherence tomography for acquiring scans of posterior vitreous covering an 18 x 18-mm area in 104 eyes of 52 healthy volunteers without posterior vitreous detachment. Results: We observed that increasing age was associated with higher VD grades (P < 0.05). Prevascular vitreous fissures, characterized by areas of lower optical density overlying the retinal blood vessels, were identified in ...

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    8. HAAG-STREIT SURGICAL: iOCT® camera receives 510(k) clearance

      HAAG-STREIT SURGICAL: iOCT® camera receives 510(k) clearance

      HAAG-STREIT SURGICAL announced its intraoperative-OCT camera has received 510(k) clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for marketing on the largest medical device market in the world. The intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography (iOCT®) is already being successfully used for cataract operations, lamellar keratoplasties, membrane peelings, and for the treatment of retinal disorders. The ASCRS congress, to be held in San Diego (18 – 21 April 2015), marks the launch of the iOCT® system in the US. During the course of the surgical procedure, the iOCT® system allows non-invasive, contact-free imaging so that the structures and layers within ...

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    9. Diabetes induces changes in neuroretina before retinal vessels: a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography study

      Diabetes induces changes in neuroretina before retinal vessels: a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography study

      Purpose To investigate retinal changes prior to vascular signs in patients with type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy or with mild non proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in three groups: patients without diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy, and patients with diabetes with mild diabetic retinopathy. Analysis of retinal layers was performed objectively with the Cirrus Review Software 6.0 (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA). Macular cube scans were analyzed with regard to: the ganglion cell layer + inner plexiform layer analysis, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, central subfoveal retinal thickness and average ...

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    10. Characteristic OCT Pattern in Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

      Characteristic OCT Pattern in Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

      Purpose: To report characteristic optical coherence tomography (OCT) patterns as a guide in diagnosis of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia in a patient presenting with bilateral vision loss. Case Report: A 60-year-old male patient presented with bilateral sudden-onset vision loss and low-grade fever. The patient had bilateral exudative retinal detachment involving the macula. Spectral domain OCT revealed neurosensory detachment along with a very regular and harmonious cystoid change in the outer retina as well as deposits around photoreceptors. The patient had lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. Serum protein electrophoresis showed the presence of M band in the gamma globulin region, which, on immune fixation, showed ...

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    11. Ophthalmology at zero gravity

      Ophthalmology at zero gravity

      NASA investigates vision changes that astronauts experience in microgravity T wo hundred and five miles above the Earth, aboard the International Space Station (ISS), astronauts are discovering what happens to the human eye in space. In addition to the muscle atrophy and bone loss that plague astronauts in spaceflight, vision problems are a less recognized, yet no less important, side effect of life at zero gravity. Mitigating these deleterious effects is paramount if humans hope to visit other planets or solar systems in the future, so NASA has begun to use the ISS as a platform for research to better ...

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    12. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Signs of Vascular Abnormalization with Antiangiogenic Therapy for Choroidal Neovascularization

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Signs of Vascular Abnormalization with Antiangiogenic Therapy for Choroidal Neovascularization

      Purpose To investigate the vascular appearance of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) treated with recurrent intravitreous anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections, which have been proposed to cause transient vascular normalization along with decreased vascularity and leakage. Design Retrospective case series with Perspective on the topic. Methods Patients with treated CNV secondary to age-related macular degeneration from a community based retinal referral practice were evaluated with optical coherence tomography angiography employing split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation. The choroidal neovascular morphology of the 17 eyes of 14 consecutive patients were described. Results The mean age of the patients, 8 men and 6 women, was 78 ...

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    13. Longitudinal analysis of the structural pattern of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema using multimodal imaging

      Longitudinal analysis of the structural pattern of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema using multimodal imaging

      Purpose To describe the relationship between pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (CME) progression and retinal structural changes observed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and fluorescein angiography. Methods Retrospective, consecutive, longitudinal imaging analysis of patients with acute pseudophakic cystoid macular edema. Two observers at two study centers evaluated all images and categorized the macular structural features based on the retinal layer involved with cystic changes and/or subretinal fluid. A time series of the structural pattern and visual acuity was constructed for 1-month intervals over a 6-month study period. Results Thirty nine patients presented with CME. The mean time since cataract ...

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    14. Analysis of the ganglion cell layer and photoreceptor layer using optical coherence tomography after idiopathic epiretinal membrane surgery

      Analysis of the ganglion cell layer and photoreceptor layer using optical coherence tomography after idiopathic epiretinal membrane surgery

      Dear Editor, We appreciate Dr. Iuliano for his interest and comments regarding our article, and we are pleased to share our opinions regarding visual prognosis after epiretinal membrane (ERM) surgery. Studies from Dr. Iuliano’s group and our group have shown that the ganglion cell layer (GCL) is a significant factor in determining visual acuity in idiopathic ERM [ 1 , 2 ]. A decrease in the thickness of the GCL was correlated with postoperative visual recovery in their study,[ 1 ] whereas thinning of the GCL was correlated with poor visual acuity in our study [ 2 ]. We agree with Dr. Iuliano’s comment ...

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    15. Natural course of vitreomacular traction syndrome observed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

      Natural course of vitreomacular traction syndrome observed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

      Objective Our study aimed to characterize the natural course of vitreomacular traction (VMT) syndrome, on which discrepancies have been reported in previous publications, by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Design Retrospective chart review. Participants A total of 23 eyes of 23 patients with idiopathic symptomatic VMT syndrome diagnosed and followed up in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2008 to 2013. Methods Clinical records of all patients who underwent SD-OCT examination and were diagnosed and followed up as idiopathic VMT syndrome were reviewed. Those who had at least 2 visits were included. The median observation period of the patients was ...

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    16. High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography as an Adjunctive Tool in the Diagnosis of Corneal and Conjunctival Pathology

      High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography as an Adjunctive Tool in the Diagnosis of Corneal and Conjunctival Pathology

      Purpose To evaluate the use of a commercially available, high-resolution, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (HR-OCT) device in the diagnosis of corneal and conjunctival pathologies, with a focus on malignant lesions. Methods Eighty-two eyes of 71 patients were enrolled in this prospective case series, including 10 normal eyes, 21 with ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN), 24 with a pterygium or pingueculum, 3 with lymphoma, 18 with pigmented conjunctival lesions (nevus, flat melanosis, or melanoma), and 6 with Salzmann nodular degeneration. Subjects were imaged using photography and HR-OCT (RTVue, Optovue, Fremont, CA). When clinically indicated, surgery was performed and histopathologic specimens were ...

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    17. Repeatability of Retinal Macular Thickness Measurements in Healthy Subjects and Diabetic Patients with Clinically Significant Macular Edema: Evaluation of the Follow-Up System of Spectralis Optical Coherence Tomography

      Repeatability of Retinal Macular Thickness Measurements in Healthy Subjects and Diabetic Patients with Clinically Significant Macular Edema: Evaluation of the Follow-Up System of Spectralis Optical Coherence Tomography

      Background: It was the aim of this study to compare the repeatability of Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal thickness measurements in healthy subjects and diabetic patients with clinically significant macular edema (CSME) with or without the use of the follow-up system. Methods: Thirty-eight eyes of 38 healthy subjects (control group) and 68 eyes of 68 diabetic patients with CSME were included in the study. The coefficient of repeatability (CR) and intrasession coefficients of variation were tested with 20 × 15 degree raster scans consisting of 19 high-resolution line scans (15 frames per scan) that were repeated 3 times by 1 ...

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    18. Improved Repeatability of Retinal Thickness Measurements Using Line-Scan Ophthalmoscope Image-Based Retinal Tracking

      Improved Repeatability of Retinal Thickness Measurements Using Line-Scan Ophthalmoscope Image-Based Retinal Tracking

      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To assess repeatability and speed of a line-scan ophthalmoscope (LSO) image-based tracking system and compare to the point-scanning approach. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-five eyes with retinal diseases underwent volume scans using two spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) devices: a line-scan tracking Cirrus HD-OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec; Dublin, CA) and point-scan tracking Spectralis HRA+OCT (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). Eyes were also imaged on the Cirrus HD-OCT with tracking disabled. RESULTS: Mean difference in central subfield thickness (CST) between consecutive scans was 2.6 µm for the Cirrus without tracking, 1.7 µm with tracking, and 3.6 ...

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    19. Inner and outer retinal thickness mapping of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

      Inner and outer retinal thickness mapping of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To report inner retinal thickness (IRT), outer retinal thickness (ORT), and total retinal thickness (TRT) mapping of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (DR). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images were obtained in 31 study participants with nonproliferative DR. Semi-automated software generated IRT, ORT, and TRT maps. IRT, ORT, and TRT in each macular subfield were compared between groups with and without increased central subfield thickness. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in IRT, ORT, and TRT between groups ( P < .007). In participants with nonproliferative DR with increased central subfield thickness, TRT was significantly increased in parafoveal ...

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    20. OCT: New perspectives in neuro-ophthalmology

      OCT: New perspectives in neuro-ophthalmology

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become essential to evaluate axonal/neuronal integrity, to assess disease progression in the afferent visual pathway and to predict visual recovery after surgery in compressive optic neuropathies. Besides that OCT testing is considered a powerful biomarker of neurodegeneration and a promising outcome measure for neuroprotective trials in multiple sclerosis (MS). Currently, spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) technology allows quantification of retinal individual layers. The Ganglion Cell layer (GCL) investigation has become one of the most useful tools from a neuro-ophthalmic perspective. It has a high correlation with perimetry, is predictive of future progression and is a highly ...

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    21. Spectral-Domain OCT Analyses of Macular Changes After Ranibizumab Therapy for Type 1 Retinopathy of Prematurity

      Spectral-Domain OCT Analyses of Macular Changes After Ranibizumab Therapy for Type 1 Retinopathy of Prematurity

      PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical and macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) findings after intravitreal ranibizumab treatment for type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS: Eighteen eyes of 10 premature infants with type 1 ROP were retrospectively studied. All eyes were treated with intravitreal ranibizumab as monotherapy. Macular SD-OCT was performed before and after intravitreal ranibizumab therapy using a portable SD-OCT machine; the follow-up images were taken 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 2 months after therapy. RESULTS: Among the 10 infants, there were six males and four females. Mean central foveal thickness before and 2 months after intravitreal ...

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    22. Iowa State University veterinary researchers study retinal scans as early detection method for mad cow disease

      Iowa State University veterinary researchers study retinal scans as early detection method for mad cow disease

      New research from Iowa State University shows that a fatal neurological disease in cows can be detected earlier by examining the animal’s retinas. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), known more commonly as mad cow disease, is an untreatable neurodegenerative disorder caused by misfolded brain proteins known as prions. Classic BSE incubates for years before producers or veterinarians notice symptoms, usually discovered when the animal can no longer stand on its own. But Heather Greenlee, an associate professor of biomedical sciences in Iowa State’s College of Veterinary Medicine , said studying the retinas of cattle can identify infected animals up to ...

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