1. Articles in category: Ophthalmology

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    1. Microvascular change in acute macular neuroretinopathy by using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Microvascular change in acute macular neuroretinopathy by using optical coherence tomography angiography

      A 27-year-old pregnant female underwent cesarean section due to preeclampsia. Two days after the delivery, she presented with acute onset of blurred vision in the left eye. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed characteristic findings of acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) in both eyes. During the follow-up, her vision improved gradually, but outer nuclear layer thinning with disruption of ellipsoid zone was identified from OCT. OCT angiography was arranged and revealed both vascular defect in superficial and deep vascular plexus, which correlated with previous AMN lesions in both eyes. Subsequent microvascular change in AMN was found to involve both superficial and deep ...

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    2. Case Report: Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Morning Glory Disc Anomaly

      Case Report: Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Morning Glory Disc Anomaly

      SIGNIFICANCE Morning glory disc anomaly is a congenital abnormality of the optic disc. Optical coherence tomography angiography shows vascular rarefaction of the superficial and deep capillary plexuses and increased vascularity of the radial peripapillary capillary plexus. We hypothesize that this congestion represents a compensatory mechanism to an abnormal vasculogenesis. PURPOSE The aim of this study was to describe the optic disc vascular alterations occurring at choriocapillaris and retinal vascular plexuses in a patient affected by bilateral morning glory disc anomaly with optical coherence tomography angiography. CASE REPORT A 24-year-old white man presented for clinical evaluation to our Department of Ophthalmology ...

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    3. Letter to the Editor Regarding “Optical Coherence Tomography in the Management of Skull Base Fibrous Dysplasia with Optic Nerve Involvement”

      Letter to the Editor Regarding “Optical Coherence Tomography in the Management of Skull Base Fibrous Dysplasia with Optic Nerve Involvement”

      In the recently published article by Loewenstern et al, 1 the authors attempted to determine the utility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the diagnosis and management of compressive optic neuropathy secondary to fibrous dysplasia (FD). OCT is a relatively new imaging modality, which uses high-resolution cross-sections of the retina to determine the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness. The study evaluated 6 patients with cranial base FD for optic nerve compression and RNFL thinning, using computed tomography (CT) and OCT, respectively.

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    4. Heidelberg Engineering’s SPECTRALIS OCT2 Module Headed to the International Space Station

      Heidelberg Engineering’s SPECTRALIS OCT2 Module Headed to the International Space Station

      NASA has been conducting research on the effects of microgravity on vision using the SPECTRALIS imaging platform since 2013. Heidelberg Engineering, a privately-held imaging solutions company focused on advanced diagnostic instruments for eye care professionals, announced the continuation of the SPECTRALIS space odyssey as the SPECTRALIS imaging platform with the company’s next-generation OCT2 Module is headed for the International Space Station (ISS). NASA launched the SPECTRALIS with OCT2 Module to the ISS aboard the Antares 230 Cygnus CRS OA-9, also known as Orbital Sciences CRS Flight 9E on May 21, 2018 from Wallops Island, Virginia. The device will be ...

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    5. An optical coherence tomography study of residual subfoveal fluid after successful pars plana vitrectomy in patients with diabetic tractional macular detachment

      An optical coherence tomography study of residual subfoveal fluid after successful pars plana vitrectomy in patients with diabetic tractional macular detachment

      Purpose To analyze the prevalence of residual subfoveal fluid (RSF) after pars plana vitrectomy in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy complicated by tractional detachment of the macula and the effect of RSF on the postoperative visual outcome. Methods This study was a prospective observational case study of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) records of 23 patients (24 eyes) with macula-off diabetic tractional retinal detachment (TRD) who underwent successful 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy between July 2012 and December 2015. Results The prevalence of RSF on OCT examination was 100% at 1 and 2 months, 91.7% at 3 months, 70.8 ...

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    6. Comparison of glaucoma-diagnostic ability between wide-field swept-source OCT retinal nerve fiber layer maps and spectral-domain OCT

      Comparison of glaucoma-diagnostic ability between wide-field swept-source OCT retinal nerve fiber layer maps and spectral-domain OCT

      Purpose To compare the diagnostic ability of wide-field swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) maps with spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) maps for detection of preperimetric (PPG) and early glaucoma (EG). Patients and methods One hundred and forty-six eyes, including 37 healthy eyes, 38 eyes with PPG, and 71 eyes with EG, were analyzed. The patients underwent both SD-OCT (Cirrus HD-OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA) and wide-field SS-OCT scanning (DRI-OCT-1 Atlantis; Topcon, Tokyo, Japan). By SD-OCT, circumpapillary RNFL and macular ganglion cell analyses were performed. SS-OCT provides a wide-field RNFL thickness map and a SuperPixel map ...

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    7. Functional optical coherence tomography of neurovascular coupling interactions in the retina

      Functional optical coherence tomography of neurovascular coupling interactions in the retina

      Quantitative evaluation of retinal neurovascular coupling is essential for a better understanding of visual function and early detection of eye diseases. However, there is no established method to monitor coherent interactions between stimulus‐evoked neural activity and hemodynamic responses at high resolution. Here we report a multi‐modal functional optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging methodology to enable concurrent intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging of stimulus‐evoked neural activity and hemodynamic responses at capillary resolution. OCT angiography guided IOS analysis was used to separate neural‐IOS and hemodynamic‐IOS changes in the same retinal image sequence. Frequency flicker stimuli evoked neural ...

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      Mentions: Xincheng Yao
    8. Emerging Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) in neurological research

      Emerging Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) in neurological research

      Purpose To review the clinical and research value of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in the field of neurology. Methods Current literature involving OCTA were reviewed through PubMed using the search terms “optical coherence tomography angiography”, with “multiple sclerosis”, “Alzheimer’s disease”, “optic neuropathy”, or other closely-related terms. Results OCTA has been applied in research to advance our understanding of the pathobiology of neurological disorders. OCTA-derived blood flow and vessel density measures are altered in multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and various optic neuropathies (ON) in varying regions of the posterior segment vasculature of the eye. These emerging ...

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    9. Foveal Avascular Zone Area Analysis in Macular Hole Before and After Surgery Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Foveal Avascular Zone Area Analysis in Macular Hole Before and After Surgery Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To analyze the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area in superficial and deep retinal layers in patients with macular hole (MH) before and after surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The authors studied 14 patients with unilateral MH. They examined a 3 mm × 3 mm area at the fovea before and 6 months after surgery using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography. RESULTS: In eyes affected by MH, the mean preoperative superficial FAZ (0.45 ± 0.09 mm 2 ) and deep FAZ (0.79 ± 0.39 mm 2 ) were significantly larger than the postoperative superficial FAZ (0.25 ± 0.09 mm ...

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    10. Vitreous Bands Identified by Handheld Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Among Premature Infants

      Vitreous Bands Identified by Handheld Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Among Premature Infants

      Importance Handheld spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) can provide insights into the complex interactions occurring at the vitreoretinal interface in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) to enhance our understanding of ROP pathology. Objective To characterize vitreous bands in premature infants with use of handheld SD-OCT. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective cohort study conducted from July 7, 2015, to February 28, 2017, at 2 university-based neonatal intensive care units. Seventy-three premature infants who required routine ROP screening examination were recruited. Informed consent was obtained from all legal guardians. Trained graders who were masked to the clinical assessment analyzed each SD-OCT scan of ...

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    11. Utility of optical coherence tomography in the evaluation of sellar and parasellar mass lesions

      Utility of optical coherence tomography in the evaluation of sellar and parasellar mass lesions

      Purpose of review Anterior visual pathway compression is a common feature of sellar region masses. We review the visual pathway neuroanatomy pertaining to sellar and parasellar lesions and describe recent advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging that have provided a novel quantitative perspective in the evaluation and management of such patients. Recent findings Ultrastructural measurements of optic nerve integrity using OCT, namely peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and the ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thicknesses, have been shown to correlate with visual acuity and visual field deficits on perimetry in patients with compressive sellar region masses ...

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    12. Deep longitudinal transfer learning-based automatic segmentation of photoreceptor ellipsoid zone defects on optical coherence tomography images of macular telangiectasia type 2

      Deep longitudinal transfer learning-based automatic segmentation of photoreceptor ellipsoid zone defects on optical coherence tomography images of macular telangiectasia type 2

      Photoreceptor ellipsoid zone (EZ) defects visible on optical coherence tomography (OCT) are important imaging biomarkers for the onset and progression of macular diseases. As such, accurate quantification of EZ defects is paramount to monitor disease progression and treatment efficacy over time. We developed and trained a novel deep learning-based method called Deep OCT Atrophy Detection (DOCTAD) to automatically segment EZ defect areas by classifying 3-dimensional A-scan clusters as normal or defective. Furthermore, we introduce a longitudinal transfer learning paradigm in which the algorithm learns from segmentation errors on images obtained at one time point to segment subsequent images with higher ...

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    13. The Effect of Glatiramer Acetate on Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Patients with Relapsing–Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Longitudinal Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      The Effect of Glatiramer Acetate on Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Patients with Relapsing–Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Longitudinal Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a technique that allows for the assessment of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) and total macular volume (TMV), which reflect neuroaxonal integrity within the retina. As such it has been used in multiple sclerosis (MS) to study neurodegeneration. Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a widely used treatment for MS, which is suggested to have a possible neuroprotective role. Objective The aim of this study was to assess RFNLT and TMV changes in relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS) patients who started treatment with GA and were followed for a 24-month period. Methods A cohort of 60 ...

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    14. Optical coherence tomography-angiography in Wolfram syndrome: a mitochondrial etiology in disease pathophysiology

      Optical coherence tomography-angiography in Wolfram syndrome: a mitochondrial etiology in disease pathophysiology

      Wolfram syndrome (WS), also known by the acronym DIDMOAD (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness), is an autosomal recessive, progressive neurodegenerative disease. Patients with WS characteristically present with early onset diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy in the first decade of life, 1 diabetes insipidus and deafness in the second decade, and urinary tract with neurological complications in the third decade. WS has been shown to be associated with mutations in the WFS1 or CISD2 (WFS2) gene, probably leading to impaired calcium homeostasis and consequent widespread cellular apoptosis. 2 , 3 Optic atrophy is a constant and profound feature in ...

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    15. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Pigmented Paravenous Retinochoroidal Atrophy

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Pigmented Paravenous Retinochoroidal Atrophy

      A 58-year-old man with bilateral pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy (PPRCA) associated with macular coloboma in the right eye underwent color fundus photography and fundus autofluorescence with the California ultra-widefield retinal imaging system (Optos, Dunfermline, UK), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) (Heidelberg Spectralis HRA + OCT; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), and en face OCT angiography (OCTA) (AngioPlex, Cirrus HD-OCT 5000; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA). The patient presented with a visual acuity of counting fingers in the right eye and 20/32 in the left eye. Fundus examination and SD-OCT showed typical PPRCA alterations in both eyes and a macular coloboma in ...

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    16. Optical Coherence Tomography Parameters in Preperimetric Open-Angle Glaucoma

      Optical Coherence Tomography Parameters in Preperimetric Open-Angle Glaucoma

      Purpose: To evaluate the measurements of the peripapillary retinal neurofiber layers (RNFL) and the ganglion cells complex (GCC) obtained by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in eyes with preperimetric open-angle glaucoma.Methods: One hundred and forty eyes of 75 patients (21 male and 54 female), 80 eyes with preperimetric glaucoma (PPG) (45 patients) and 60 normal eyes (30 subjects) were included in this study. Automated visual field examination was done to all participants using Humphrey field analyzer, program 30-2. The GCC thickness and peripapillary RNFL thickness were measured using RTVue-100 (Optivue, Inc., Fremont, CA). The areas under ROC (receiver operating characteristic ...

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    17. The “DOUBLE-RING Sign” In Anemic Retinopathy Evaluated By Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      The “DOUBLE-RING Sign” In Anemic Retinopathy Evaluated By Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: To describe three cases of anemic retinopathy who demonstrated premacular hemorrhage with a “ double-ring sign .” Methods: Three patients with anemia were found to have a premacular hemorrhage and a double-ring sign either at presentation or after laser membranotomy. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography was performed to ascertain the level of the hemorrhage. Results: To the best of the author's knowledge, there is no report of a double-ring sign in anemic retinopathy . In two eyes, spectral domain optical coherence tomography revealed that the double-ring sign consisted of an outer subhyaloid and inner sub-internal limiting membrane hemorrhage . However, in the ...

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    18. Characterization of Soft Contact Lens Edge Fitting during Daily Wear Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

      Characterization of Soft Contact Lens Edge Fitting during Daily Wear Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose . To determine conjunctival overlap over the edge of soft contact lens and to visualize the peripheral postlens tear film (PoLTF) underneath soft contact lenses using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT). Methods . Twenty participants (4 males and 16 females, 23.0 ± 3.7 years) were fitted with two different types of soft contact lenses randomly. The limbus with lens was imaged with the UHR-OCT at the horizontal meridian every two hours up to 6 hours during lens wear. The conjunctival overlap was ranked as the percentage of the edge covered by the conjunctiva. The frequency of occurrence for visualized peripheral ...

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    19. Optical coherence tomography angiography in glaucoma care

      Optical coherence tomography angiography in glaucoma care

      Rapid improvements in optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology have allowed for enhancement of both image resolution and scanning speed, and the development of vascular assessment modality. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is the non-invasive in vivo imaging of the vasculature located within the retina and optic nerve head area. The principle of OCTA is to use the variations in OCT signals caused by moving particles as the contrast mechanism for imaging of flow. Several algorithms which aim to maximize the contrast signal and minimize the noise have been developed including the phase-based techniques, intensity-based techniques (e.g., split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation ...

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      Mentions: Shan C. Lin
    20. The CLASS Surgical Site Characteristics in a Clinical Grading Scale and Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography: A One-Year Follow-Up

      The CLASS Surgical Site Characteristics in a Clinical Grading Scale and Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography: A One-Year Follow-Up

      Purpose . We combined a clinical grading scale and swept source anterior segment OCT to describe the successful and failed CLASS. Material and Methods . 23 patients in the successful group and 17 patients in the failed group were compared in terms of the IBAGS grades and AS-OCT findings at one, three, and twelve months postoperatively. Results . The majority in the successful group presented shallow blebs (91%, 57%, and 52% at 1M, 3M, and 12M, resp.). 59% of the failed group presented no bleb (H0 E0) from the early postoperative period with the rate increasing to 88% at 3M and 100% at ...

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    21. Photothermal optical coherence tomography of indocyanine green in ex vivo eyes

      Photothermal optical coherence tomography of indocyanine green in ex vivo eyes

      Indocyanine green (ICG) is routinely used during surgery to stain the inner limiting membrane (ILM) and provide contrast on white light surgical microscopy. While translation of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for intraoperative imaging during ophthalmic surgery has enhanced visualization, the ILM remains difficult to distinguish from underlying retinal structures and ICG does not provide additional OCT contrast. We present photothermal OCT (PT-OCT) for high-specificity detection of ICG on retinal OCT images. We demonstrate our technique by performing an ILM peel in ex vivo eyes using low ICG concentrations and laser powers. These results establish the feasibility of PT-OCT for intraoperative ...

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    22. Evaluation of vascular changes with optical coherence tomography angiography after ruthenium-106 brachytherapy of circumscribed choroidal hemangioma

      Evaluation of vascular changes with optical coherence tomography angiography after ruthenium-106 brachytherapy of circumscribed choroidal hemangioma

      Purpose To describe the vascular changes of circumscribed choroidal hemangioma (CCH) after ruthenium-106 brachytherapy using optical coherence tomography angiography (angio-OCT). Methods Seven eyes of 7 patients diagnosed with symptomatic CCH who underwent ruthenium-106 plaque radiotherapy were included in the study. Patients underwent complete ophthalmic examination, bulbar echography and angio-OCT. The same protocol was applied 1 year after ruthenium-106 brachytherapy. Results At baseline, the mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in affected eyes was 0.67 ± 0.14 logMAR, and the mean tumor thickness was 4.46 ± 0.91 mm measured by standardized A-scan echography. After ruthenium-106 plaque treatment, the mean BCVA ...

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    23. Optic Disc Drusen in Children: The Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000 Eye Study

      Optic Disc Drusen in Children: The Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000 Eye Study

      Background: Optic disc drusen (ODD) are seen in up to 2.4% of the general population, but the etiology and pathophysiology of the condition is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of ODD in a population-based child cohort and to determine if scleral canal diameter and fetal birth and pubertal parameters are associated with the presence of ODD. Methods: This observational, longitudinal population-based birth cohort study, with a nested case–control, included 1,406 children. Eye examinations were performed when the children were between 11 and 12 years of age. Assessment was performed of ...

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    24. Investigation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and ganglion cell layer-inner plexiform layer thickness in patients with optic pathway gliomas

      Investigation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and ganglion cell layer-inner plexiform layer thickness in patients with optic pathway gliomas

      Purpose This study aimed to compare the optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings of optic pathway glioma (OPG) patients (sporadic or secondary to neurofibromatosis type 1, NF1) with NF1 without OPG patients and healthy controls. Methods This was a prospective, case-control study in which 27 patients (13 with OPGs and 14 with NF1 without OPGs) and 13 control subjects were included. The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, macular thickness, and ganglion cell layer-inner plexiform layer (GCL-IPL) thickness findings measured using OCT and the results were compared between the groups. Results The macular thickness was significantly lower in the OPG group ...

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