1. Articles in category: Ophthalmology

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    1. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCT-A) in Children (≥ 6 <14 Years of Age) (OCTAC)

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCT-A) in Children (≥ 6 <14 Years of Age) (OCTAC)

      Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a new non-invasive imaging technique that employs motion contrast imaging to high-resolution volumetric blood flow information. OCTA compares the decorrelation signal between sequential OCT b-scans taken at precisely the same cross-section in order to construct a map of blood flow. At present, level 1 evidence of the technology's clinical applications doesn't exist. The investigators plan to compare OCTA as an imaging modality to conventional imaging modalities used in clinical routine.

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    2. Automated detection of preserved photoreceptor on optical coherence tomography in choroideremia based on machine learning

      Automated detection of preserved photoreceptor on optical coherence tomography in choroideremia based on machine learning

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can demonstrate early deterioration of the photoreceptor integrity caused by inherited retinal degeneration diseases (IRD). A machine learning method based on random forests was developed to automatically detect continuous areas of preserved ellipsoid zone structure (an easily recognizable part of the photoreceptors on OCT) in sixteen eyes of patients with choroideremia (a type of IRD). Pseudopodial extensions protruding from the preserved ellipsoid zone areas are detected separately by a local active contour routine. The algorithm is implemented on en face images with minimum segmentation requirements, only needing delineation of the Bruch's membrane, thus evading the ...

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    3. Correlation between morphological characteristics in spectral-domain-optical coherence tomography, different functional tests and a patient's subjective handicap in acute central serous chorioretinopathy

      Correlation between morphological characteristics in spectral-domain-optical coherence tomography, different functional tests and a patient's subjective handicap in acute central serous chorioretinopathy

      Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify quantitatively measurable morphologic optical coherence tomography (OCT) characteristics in patients with an acute episode of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and evaluate their correlation to functional and psychological variables for their use in daily clinical practice. Methods Retinal thickness (RT), the height, area and volume of subretinal fluid (SRF)/pigment epithelium detachments were evaluated using the standardized procedures of the Vienna Reading Center. These morphologic characteristics were compared with functional variables [best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast sensitivity (CS), retinal sensitivity/microperimetry, fixation stability], and patients’ subjective handicap from CSC using the National ...

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    4. REPEATABILITY OF CHOROIDAL THICKNESS MEASUREMENTS ASSESSED WITH SWEPT-SOURCE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN HEALTHY AND DIABETIC INDIVIDUALS

      REPEATABILITY OF CHOROIDAL THICKNESS MEASUREMENTS ASSESSED WITH SWEPT-SOURCE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN HEALTHY AND DIABETIC INDIVIDUALS

      Purpose: To assess the intrasession repeatability of choroidal thickness measurements obtained using swept-source optical coherence tomography in Type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients and healthy controls. Methods: This was a single-center, prospective, observational, cross-sectional study with consecutive inclusion of 33 healthy subjects and 43 T2D patients. Subjects underwent three consecutive swept-source optical coherence tomography scans in a single session. After automatic delineation of the choroid, subfoveal choroidal thickness, and thickness at 500-μm intervals up to 2,500 μm nasal and temporal from the fovea were measured using the software caliper by the same operator. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), coefficients of ...

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    5. Observation of curative effect of intravitreal injection of conbercept in wet age-related macular degeneration: Optical coherence tomography analysis after injection

      Observation of curative effect of intravitreal injection of conbercept in wet age-related macular degeneration: Optical coherence tomography analysis after injection

      To observe the clinical efficacy of intravitreal injection of conbercept in the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was observed to measure the changes of anatomical changes of central macular thickness (CMT) and the area and volume of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) uplift. Fifteen patients (15 eyes) with wet AMD were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent intravitreal injection of conbercept of 0.05 mL once. After 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months, OCT and BCVA were used to examine and to compare with the preoperative ...

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    6. In vivo high resolution human corneal imaging using full-field optical coherence tomography

      In vivo high resolution human corneal imaging using full-field optical coherence tomography

      We present the first full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) device capable of in vivo imaging of the human cornea. We obtained images of the epithelial structures, Bowman’s layer, sub-basal nerve plexus (SNP), anterior and posterior stromal keratocytes, stromal nerves, Descemet’s membrane and endothelial cells with visible nuclei. Images were acquired with a high lateral resolution of 1.7 µm and relatively large field-of-view of 1.26 mm x 1.26 mm – a combination, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been possible with other in vivo human eye imaging methods. The latter together with a contactless ...

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    7. A Comparative Study between Fundus Imaging and Optical Coherence Tomography for the Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease

      A Comparative Study between Fundus Imaging and Optical Coherence Tomography for the Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease

      Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition as well as changes in retina region that leads to permanent memory loss. AD is presently creating lot of problems in care taking. There are lot of tests and imaging modalities to be performed for an effective diagnosis of the disease. The most popular of them are Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Positron Emission Tomography and Single Photon Emission CT Scanning. They can provide valuable information regarding the changes in brain regions for diagnosing AD. But the detailed study made on AD suggests that there are some variations on the retina region of the ...

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    8. Visibility of blood flow on optical coherence tomography angiography in a case of branch retinal artery occlusion

      Visibility of blood flow on optical coherence tomography angiography in a case of branch retinal artery occlusion

      Purpose: We report the variability in flow angiogram during the course of branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) in a case imaged by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Case Report: OCTA was performed in a patient with BRAO at initial examination and 6 hours later. Initially, the occluded retinal artery and its branches were not detected on OCTA whereas a slow perfusion was present on fluorescein angiography. Six hours after initial examination, flow was detected on OCTA image in the previously occluded artery. Conclusion: This case confirmed the relevance of using OCTA in monitoring BRAO and showed that capillaries with a ...

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    9. Precision of Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Parameter Measurements by Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Precision of Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Parameter Measurements by Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the repeatability and reproducibility (R&R) of Bruch’s Membrane Opening – based on Minimum Rim Width (BMO-MRW), Minimum Rim Area (BMO-MRA) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) with the Spectralis OCT (Heidelberg Engineering) for normal and glaucoma subjects. Precise measurement of these parameters can support detection of structural glaucomatous damage and progression. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 16 healthy controls and 16 patients with glaucoma. One eye was randomly selected and included in this study. Subjects underwent 1 baseline and 3 follow-up measurements, using three different Spectralis OCT devices ...

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    10. VISUALIZATION FROM INTRAOPERATIVE SWEPT-SOURCE MICROSCOPE-INTEGRATED OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN VITRECTOMY FOR COMPLICATIONS OF PROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

      VISUALIZATION FROM INTRAOPERATIVE SWEPT-SOURCE MICROSCOPE-INTEGRATED OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN VITRECTOMY FOR COMPLICATIONS OF PROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

      Purpose: To evaluate the use of live volumetric (4D) intraoperative swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography in vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy complications. Methods: In this prospective study, we analyzed a subgroup of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy complications who required vitrectomy and who were imaged by the research swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography system. In near real time, images were displayed in stereo heads-up display facilitating intraoperative surgeon feedback. Postoperative review included scoring image quality, identifying different diabetic retinopathy-associated pathologies and reviewing the intraoperatively documented surgeon feedback. Results: Twenty eyes were included. Indications for vitrectomy were tractional retinal detachment (16 ...

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    11. Evaluation of Femtosecond Laser Versus Manual Clear Corneal Incisions in Cataract Surgery Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Evaluation of Femtosecond Laser Versus Manual Clear Corneal Incisions in Cataract Surgery Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      PURPOSE: To investigate the wound healing changes of clear corneal incisions performed with a femtosecond laser or a steel bevel knife in cataract surgery using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. METHODS: Prospectively, consecutive patients undergoing either femtosecond laser–assisted cataract surgery (femtosecond laser group) using the LenSx laser (Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX) or traditional cataract surgery using steel blades (control group) were enrolled. The incidence of posterior wound gape, Descemet's membrane detachment, posterior wound retraction, and the inner and outer corneal incision thicknesses were assessed. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, the femtosecond laser group had significantly lower ...

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    12. Glaucoma Implant Tube Lumen Obstruction Visualized Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Glaucoma Implant Tube Lumen Obstruction Visualized Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      We report a case of glaucoma implant tube lumen obstruction visualized with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) and present its surgical management. The patient was a 66-year-old man with refractory glaucoma associated with traumatic aphakia in the right eye after trabeculectomy, several bleb needling procedures, and scleral fixation of the intraocular lens with pars plana vitrectomy. Finally, we performed Baerveldt implantation at the pars plana of the temporal inferior quadrant with a several Sherwood slit. However, his intraocular pressure (IOP) was >30 mm Hg despite maximum medication for several weeks. We attempted second vitrectomy and completely removed vitreous around ...

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    13. 3D topology of orientation columns in visual cortex revealed by functional optical coherence tomography

      3D topology of orientation columns in visual cortex revealed by functional optical coherence tomography

      Orientation tuning is a canonical neuronal response property of 6-layer visual cortex that is encoded in pinwheel structures with center orientation singularities. Optical imaging of intrinsic signals enables us to map these surface 2D structures, while lack of appropriate techniques has not allowed us to visualize depth structures of orientation coding. Here, we performed functional optical coherence tomography (fOCT), a technique capable of acquiring 3D map of the intrinsic signals, to study the topology of orientation coding inside the cat visual cortex. With this technique, for the first time, we visualized columnar assemblies in orientation coding that had been predicted ...

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    14. Indocyanine Green Dye Filling Time for Polypoidal Lesions in Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy Affects the Visibility of the Lesions on OCT Angiography

      Indocyanine Green Dye Filling Time for Polypoidal Lesions in Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy Affects the Visibility of the Lesions on OCT Angiography

      Purpose To elucidate the factors that affect the visibility of polypoidal lesions on OCT angiography (OCTA) based on indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) findings in eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). Design Retrospective, consecutive case series. Participants Thirty-one eyes of 31 patients with PCV diagnosed on ICGA. Methods We compared the numbers of polyps visible on ICGA and on OCTA. The following time points and durations were determined: first appearance of dye in the choroidal arteries, first appearance of dye within a polyp, and the time it took the dye to fill entire lesions. Then we compared visible and invisible polyps ...

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    15. Reproducibility of corneal, macular and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using the iVue-100 optical coherence tomography

      Reproducibility of corneal, macular and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using the iVue-100 optical coherence tomography

      Purpose : To determine the intra-session and inter-session reproducibility of corneal, macular and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL) measurements with the iVue-100 optical coherence tomography in normal eyes. Methods : These parameters were measured in the right eyes of 50 healthy participants with normal vision. Six scans each for corneal thickness, macular and optic nerve head were taken on one day (intra-session), followed by similar repeated measures on five separate days (inter-session). Reproducibility was computed using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (COV), and test-retest variability (TRV). Results: For intra-session reproducibility, the ICC, COV and TRV values for mean corneal ...

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    16. Spectral optical coherence tomography findings in an elderly patient with syphilitic bilateral chronic panuveitis

      Spectral optical coherence tomography findings in an elderly patient with syphilitic bilateral chronic panuveitis

      Purpose To report the spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) features of a focal retinitis in an elderly male patient with bilateral syphilitic panuveitis. Observations In the left eye (LE), spectral domain SD-OCT images during the active period revealed hyperreflectivity extending through the full thickness of the retina with no individualization of the layers, except for the retinal pigment epithelium. Once the lesion healed, SD-OCT imaging revealed an inner retinal atrophy and a mild disruption of the retinal pigment epithelium. Conclusions and importance In our patient, treponemal infection seemed to produce full-thickness retinal damage with partial involvement of the retinal ...

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    17. Optical coherence tomography angiography: a review of current and future clinical applications

      Optical coherence tomography angiography: a review of current and future clinical applications

      Optical coherence tomography angiography is a non-invasive imaging technique that now allows for simultaneous in vivo imaging of the morphology as well as the vasculature in the eye. In this review, we provide an update on the existing clinical applications of optical coherence tomography angiography technology from the anterior to posterior segment of the eye. We also discuss the limitations of optical coherence tomography angiography technology, as well as the caveats to the interpretation of images. As current optical coherence tomography angiography systems are optimized for the retina, most studies have focused on interpreting images from conditions such as age ...

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    18. Complex differential variance angiography with noise-bias correction for optical coherence tomography of the retina

      Complex differential variance angiography with noise-bias correction for optical coherence tomography of the retina

      Complex differential variance (CDV) provides phase-sensitive angiographic imaging for optical coherence tomography (OCT) with immunity to phase-instabilities of the imaging system and small-scale axial bulk motion. However, like all angiographic methods, measurement noise can result in erroneous indications of blood flow that confuse the interpretation of angiographic images. In this paper, a modified CDV algorithm that corrects for this noise-bias is presented. This is achieved by normalizing the CDV signal by analytically derived upper and lower limits. The noise-bias corrected CDV algorithm was implemented into an experimental 1 μm wavelength OCT system for retinal imaging that used an eye tracking ...

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    19. Optical coherence tomography angiography of a pigmented Fuchs' adenoma (age-related hyperplasia of the nonpigmented ciliary body epithelium) masquerading as a ciliary body melanoma

      Optical coherence tomography angiography of a pigmented Fuchs' adenoma (age-related hyperplasia of the nonpigmented ciliary body epithelium) masquerading as a ciliary body melanoma

      Purpose To report a case of age-related hypertrophy of the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium (ARH-NPCE) clinically resembling a ciliary body melanoma and report the optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) findings associated with this lesion. Observations A 51-year-old male was referred for evaluation of a deeply pigmented ciliary body mass with extension through the iris root. Iridocyclectomy was performed due to concern for ciliary body melanoma. Histopathologic analysis was instead consistent with ARH-NPCE, also known as Fuchs' adenoma. Prior to surgery, OCTA images revealed abnormal vasculature in the area of the lesion. Vessels in the peripheral iris approaching the lesion appeared more ...

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    20. Characteristic optical coherence tomography findings in patients with primary vitreoretinal lymphoma: a novel aid to early diagnosis

      Characteristic optical coherence tomography findings in patients with primary vitreoretinal lymphoma: a novel aid to early diagnosis

      Background The diagnosis of primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL) poses significant difficulties; presenting features are non-specific and confirmation usually necessitates invasive vitreoretinal biopsy. Diagnosis is often delayed, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Non-invasive imaging modalities such as spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) offer simple and rapid aids to diagnosis. We present characteristic SD-OCT images of patients with biopsy-positive PVRL and propose a number of typical features, which we believe are useful in identifying these lesions at an early stage. Methods Medical records of all patients attending Moorfields Eye Hospital between April 2010 and April 2016 with biopsy-positive PVRL were ...

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    21. A New OCT Finding in Purtscher-Like Retinopathy

      A New OCT Finding in Purtscher-Like Retinopathy

      The authors report a new spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) appearance observed in two patients with Purtscher-like retinopathy. In this prospective case series of three eyes of two patients with Purtscher-like retinopathy, the patients were assessed with biomicroscopy, fluorescein angiography (FA), and SD-OCT. The last examinations of the patients were performed at 3 months and 12 months, respectively. Both patients presented with decreased visual acuity. Fundus examination revealed a whitish-appearing parafoveal retina and scattered cotton-wool spots in the posterior retina. FA showed hypofluorescent spots that correspond to the cotton-wool spots and retinal hemorrhages seen clinically. SD-OCT scan of cotton-wool spots ...

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    22. Double Optic Disc Pit With Glial Plugs Imaged by Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography

      Double Optic Disc Pit With Glial Plugs Imaged by Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography

      A rare case of a woman in her thirties with double optic disc pits involving opposing sectors is reported. Significantly decreased vision due to macular schisis was noted. Wide-field optical coherence tomography revealed distinct laminar defects and glial tufts associated with each pit. This case illustrates a rare view into the pathogenesis of optic disc pits.

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    23. Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging After Surgical Closure of Pediatric Traumatic Macular Holes

      Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging After Surgical Closure of Pediatric Traumatic Macular Holes

      Purpose: To date, little attention has been directed to retinal photoreceptor migration after traumatic macular hole surgical repair in the pediatric population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings in the foveae of pediatric patients with history of traumatic macular hole surgical repair. Methods: Retrospective case series of 3 eyes in 3 pediatric patients with traumatic macular hole surgical repair. Spectral domain OCT images were obtained pre- and postoperatively. Results: We report 3 cases of restoration of the ellipsoid zone with good visual acuity outcomes following macular hole closure. Conclusion: Optical coherence tomography findings ...

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    24. Features and Outcomes of Patients with Calcified Nodules at Culprit Lesions of Acute Coronary Syndrome: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Features and Outcomes of Patients with Calcified Nodules at Culprit Lesions of Acute Coronary Syndrome: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Objectives: We sought to clarify clinical features and outcomes related to calcified nodules (CN) compared with plaque rupture (PR) and plaque erosion (PE) detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT) at the culprit lesions in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: Based on OCT findings for culprit lesion plaque morphologies, ACS patients with analyzable OCT images ( n = 362) were classified as CN, PR, PE, and other. Results: The prevalence of CN, PR, and PE was 6% ( n = 21), 45% ( n = 163), and 41% ( n = 149), respectively. Patients with CN were older (median 71 vs. 65 years, p = 0.03) and ...

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      Mentions: Masamichi Takano
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