1. Articles in category: Ophthalmology

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    1. Progression in Glaucoma (Thesis)

      Progression in Glaucoma (Thesis)

      The treatment of glaucoma is focused on reducing the intraocular pressure to a level at which progression is impeded. A diagnosis of glaucoma is not considered certain until progression is confirmed, and thus detecting progression is a central aspect in both the diagnosing and the monitoring of glaucoma patients. Progression can be identified either through examination of either functional changes in the visual field or structural changes in the retinal nerve fibre layer in the optic disc or in the retina. Optic disc photography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) that uses laser light, are two methods that are widely used ...

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    2. Curved-Full-Field OCT for high-resolution imaging of living human retina over a large field-of-view

      Curved-Full-Field OCT for high-resolution imaging of living human retina over a large field-of-view

      Allying high-resolution with a large field-of-view (FOV) is of great importance in the fields of biology and medicine [1, 2, 3], but particularly challenging when imaging non-flat living samples such as the human retina. Indeed, high-resolution is normally achieved with adaptive optics (AO) and scanning methods, which considerably reduce the useful FOV and increase the system complexity. An alternative technique is time-domain Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography (FF-OCT) [4, 5], which has already shown its potential for in-vivo high-resolution retinal imaging [6]. Here, we introduce curved-field FF-OCT, capable of matching the coherence gate geometry to the sample curvature, thus achieving a ...

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    3. Perioperative intraretinal fluid observed using optical coherence tomography in the epiretinal membrane

      Perioperative intraretinal fluid observed using optical coherence tomography in the epiretinal membrane

      Background Postoperative intraretinal fluid (IRF) is reportedly associated with visual outcomes after epiretinal membrane (ERM) surgery. However, preoperative IRF is common, and persistent IRF would have different impact on visual function from postoperative newly developed IRF. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the incidence rate and clinical implications of perioperative IRF in ERM. Methods Medical records of patients who underwent vitrectomy for idiopathic ERM between January 2014 and January 2017 were reviewed retrospectively. The incidence of IRF was analyzed using optical coherence tomography preoperatively and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. On the basis of the presence or absence and the ...

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    4. Functional and Structural Reliability of Optic Nerve Head Measurements in Healthy Eyes by Means of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Functional and Structural Reliability of Optic Nerve Head Measurements in Healthy Eyes by Means of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Background and Objectives : the aim of the study was to evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of optical microangiography (OMAG)-based optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in the optic nerve head (ONH) and radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) perfusion assessment of healthy eyes. Materials and Methods : in this observational study, a total of 40 healthy subjects underwent ONH evaluation, using an OMAG-based OCTA system at baseline (T 0 ), after 30 min (T 1 ), and after 7 days (T 2 ). The main outcome measures were the vessel density (VD) and flux index (FI) of the RPCs, as well as peri-papillary retinal nerve fibre ...

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    5. Effects of topical antiglaucomatous medications on central corneal epithelial thickness by anterior segment optical coherence tomography

      Effects of topical antiglaucomatous medications on central corneal epithelial thickness by anterior segment optical coherence tomography

      Purpose: To evaluate the effect of topical antiglaucomatous medications on central corneal epithelial thickness measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Materials and methods: A total of 153 eyes of 153 patients using topical antiglaucomatous medications and 110 eyes of 110 control subjects were enrolled. Glaucoma type, duration of therapy, the number of drugs, and drops/day were noted in the patient group. Patients and control subjects underwent ocular examinations including Schirmer test, slit lamp examination for tear film break-up time, and anterior segment optical coherence tomography for central corneal thickness and central corneal epithelial thickness. Central corneal epithelial thickness ...

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    6. Morphologic Features of Buried Optic Disc Drusen on En Face Optical Coherence Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Morphologic Features of Buried Optic Disc Drusen on En Face Optical Coherence Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose To evaluate and compare the morphologic characteristics of buried optic disc drusen (ODD) and optic disc edema (ODE) by using en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) Design Retrospective, cross-sectional study Methods We reviewed the medical records of 61 patients (92 eyes) with buried ODD, 45 patients (62 eyes) with ODE, and 42 normal-appearing fellow eyes examined at one referral center between November 2017 and April 2019. Characteristic en face OCT and OCTA findings of buried ODD compared to those of ODE and normal optic discs were investigated. Results On en face OCT, All buried ODD ...

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    7. Appearance of cysts and capillary non perfusion areas in diabetic macular edema using two different OCTA devices

      Appearance of cysts and capillary non perfusion areas in diabetic macular edema using two different OCTA devices

      The aim of this paper was to distinguish the appearance of cysts and non-perfusion areas (NPAs) in diabetic macular edema (DME) using two different Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) devices. In this study, patients underwent OCTA using the AngioVue XR Avanti Spectral Domain (SD) OCTA and the PLEX Elite 9000 Swept-Source (SS) OCTA. Foveal and extrafoveal regions of interest (ROI), defined as any area with an altered flow signal comparing to the surrounding retina, were selected in superficial and deep capillary plexus (SCP and DCP). ROI reflectivity were classified as hypo-reflective or hyper-reflective. Foveal ROI were analyzed to detect suspended ...

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    8. Infracyanine Green vs. Brilliant Blue G in Inverted Flap Surgery for Large Macular Holes: A Long-Term Swept-Source OCT Analysis

      Infracyanine Green vs. Brilliant Blue G in Inverted Flap Surgery for Large Macular Holes: A Long-Term Swept-Source OCT Analysis

      Background and Objectives: To compare the long-term toxicity of infracyanine green (IFCG) to brilliant blue G (BBG) in inverted internal limiting membrane flap surgery (I-ILMFS) for large, full-thickness macular holes (FTMHs). Materials and Methods: Prospective randomized study including 39 eyes with ≥ 400 µm idiopathic FTMH who underwent I-ILMFS with either IFCG or BBG. Postoperative 6- and 12-month corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), closure rate, and swept-source optical coherence tomography parameters, including ellipsoid zone (EZ) and external limiting membrane (ELM) mean defect length, central foveal thicknesses (CFT), parafoveal macular thickness (MT), ganglion cells and inner plexiform layer (GCL++) thickness, and peripapillary ...

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    9. Comparison of optical coherence tomography measurements between high hyperopic and low hyperopic children

      Comparison of optical coherence tomography measurements between high hyperopic and low hyperopic children

      Purpose: To identify the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer, total macular, ganglion cell layer, and inner plexiform layer thicknesses in children with high hyperopia using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Methods: Twenty-one children with high hyperopia and 20 controls were enrolled in this study. Subjects with spherical equivalent +5.0D or higher were evaluated in the study group and subject with spherical equivalent between +0.25 and +2.0 D in the control group. The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, macular thickness, macular ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer thicknesses were measured using a spectral domain optical coherence tomography ...

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    10. Influence of cardiac hemodynamic variables on retinal vessel density measurement on optical coherence tomography angiography in patients with myocardial infarction

      Influence of cardiac hemodynamic variables on retinal vessel density measurement on optical coherence tomography angiography in patients with myocardial infarction

      Introduction Quantitative measurements of retinal microvasculature by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) have been used to assess cardiovascular risk profile. However, to date, there are no studies focusing on OCT-A imaging in the setting of the altered hemodynamic status found in high-risk cardiovascular patients. Methods To determine the potential association between retinal vascular density on OCT-A and a comprehensive battery of hemodynamic variables in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) using data from the acute phase and at 3 months follow-up after cardiac rehabilitation. This prospective longitudinal study included patients who presented with MI in the cardiology intensive care unit at ...

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    11. Correlation of retinal changes with choroidal changes in acute and recurrent central serous chorioretinopathy assessed by swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Correlation of retinal changes with choroidal changes in acute and recurrent central serous chorioretinopathy assessed by swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Purpose: To evaluate affected choroidal regions and corresponding retinal changes in acute and recurrent central serous chorioretinopathy using swept-source optical coherence tomography. Methods: The foveal and subfoveal choroidal thicknesses were measured with swept-source optical coherence tomography. The retina was divided into five zones on the swept-source optical coherence tomography image based on baseline choroidal thickness being <100, 100– 199, 200–299, 300–399 and ⩾400μm. The retinal and choroidal thicknesses in the same five regions were evaluated during follow-up. The measurements were then compared between baseline (when central serous chorioretinopathy was active) and follow-up (after complete resolution of disease ...

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    12. Relation between retinal vessel diameter and posterior segment optical coherence tomography variables in middle-aged Caucasians: the Northern Finland Birth Cohort Eye Study

      Relation between retinal vessel diameter and posterior segment optical coherence tomography variables in middle-aged Caucasians: the Northern Finland Birth Cohort Eye Study

      Aims Studying the relationship between retinal vessel diameter (RVD) with (1) macular thickness and volume, (2) retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL), (3) ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) and (4) optic nerve head (ONH) in a population cohort of middle-aged Caucasians. Methods We collected data from 3070 individuals. We used a semiautomated computer-assisted programme to measure central retinal arteriolar equivalent and central retinal venular equivalent. Macular and ONH parameters were assessed by optical coherence tomography. Results Data from 2155 persons were analysed. A larger RVD was associated with a thicker macula and increased macular volume; each SD increase in average macular ...

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    13. Quantitative Microvascular Analysis With Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Eyes With Diabetic Retinopathy

      Quantitative Microvascular Analysis With Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Eyes With Diabetic Retinopathy

      Importance Wide-field optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCTA) may provide insights to peripheral capillary dropout in eyes with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Objective To describe the diagnostic performance of wide-field OCTA with and without large vessel removal for assessment of DR in persons with diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants This case-control study was performed from April 26, 2018, to April 8, 2019, at a single tertiary eye center in Singapore. Case patients were those with type 2 diabetes for more than 5 years and bilateral DR diagnosed by fundus imaging; control participants included those with no self-reported history of diabetes, a fasting ...

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    14. Automated diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy using clinical biomarkers, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and OCT angiography

      Automated diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy using clinical biomarkers, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and OCT angiography

      Purpose To determine if combining clinical, demographic, and imaging data improves automated diagnosis of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). Design Cross-sectional imaging and machine learning study. Methods This was a retrospective study performed at a single academic medical center in the United States. Inclusion criteria were age > 18 and a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM). Exclusion criteria were non-DR retinal disease and inability to image the macula. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) were performed, and data on age, gender, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hemoglobin A1c were collected. Machine learning techniques were then applied. Multiple pathophysiologically important features were automatically ...

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    15. Microvascular Features of Treated Retinoblastoma Tumors in Children Assessed Using OCTA

      Microvascular Features of Treated Retinoblastoma Tumors in Children Assessed Using OCTA

      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To describe the microvascular features of treated, clinically regressed, or reactivated retinoblastoma lesions using an investigational portable optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) system. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Single-center, prospective, cross-sectional, consecutive case-series of children with previously treated retinoblastoma who underwent portable OCTA of posterior retinoblastoma lesions. RESULTS: Eight tumors from seven eyes of five children with retinoblastoma were included. Tumors with types 1 (calcified remnant, n = 3), 2 (non-calcified remnant, n = 1), and 3 (both calcified and noncalcified remnants, n = 1) regression revealed persistent intrinsic superficial vasculature on OCTA (five of five lesions; 100%). Lesions with type 4 ...

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    16. OCTA characterisation of microvascular retinal alterations in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy

      OCTA characterisation of microvascular retinal alterations in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy

      Purpose This study aimed to describe the characteristics of microvascular retinal alterations in eyes with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) employing optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) analysis. Methods We collected data from 472 eyes with chronic CSC from 336 patients who had OCTA obtained. Each OCTA image was graded by two readers to assess the presence of microvascular retinal alterations, including regions of vascular rarefaction/retinal hypoperfusion, enlargement of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and presence of telangiectasias or microaneurysms. Volume spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans were obtained through the macula and the OCT was correlated with the ...

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    17. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for Choroidal Neovascularization and Subretinal Fibrosis in Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for Choroidal Neovascularization and Subretinal Fibrosis in Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum

      Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is characterized by a progressive fragmentation and calcification of elastic fibers in connective tissue and when Bruch membrane (BM) is affected ocular modifications can be found. Recently, Optical coherence tomography-angiography (OCT-A) contribute to a better comprehension of lesions in PXE. A 58-year-old woman presented with Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) complicated by choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in the right eye. Fundus examination found indirect signs of CNV associated with peau d’orange, angioid streaks (AS), Reticular pseudodrusen and subretinal fibrosis (SRF). Multimodal imaging confirmed the diagnosis of CNV and showed a hyper-reflective deposit on AS and SRF which expressed a ...

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    18. Optical coherence tomography and optical coherence tomography angiography in glaucoma: diagnosis, progression, and correlation with functional tests

      Optical coherence tomography and optical coherence tomography angiography in glaucoma: diagnosis, progression, and correlation with functional tests

      The present review will summarize the most updated findings with regards to optical coherence tomography and optical coherence tomography angiography in glaucoma, highlighting their clinical use for detection and monitoring of the disease, and their correlation to functional tests (such as visual field) widely employed in the asset of modern glaucoma clinics.

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    19. Morpho-Functional Evaluation of Full-Thickness Macular Holes by the Integration of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Microperimetry

      Morpho-Functional Evaluation of Full-Thickness Macular Holes by the Integration of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Microperimetry

      (1) Objective: To use optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and microperimetry (MP) to evaluate the correlation between retinal structure and function in patients with idiopathic, full-thickness macular holes (FTMHs) (2) Methods: This prospective, observational study included 11 eyes of 10 patients with FTMHs evaluated before surgery using OCTA and MP. MP sensitivity maps were superimposed and registered on slabs corresponding to superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) on OCTA, and on the outer plexiform layer (OPL) and the Henle fiber layer (HFL) complex in en face OCT. On these maps, mean retinal sensitivity was calculated at 2 ...

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    20. Acute changes in ganglion cell layer thickness in ischemic optic neuropathy compared to optic neuritis using optical coherence tomography

      Acute changes in ganglion cell layer thickness in ischemic optic neuropathy compared to optic neuritis using optical coherence tomography

      AIM : To elucidate the changes of different ganglion cell layer (GCL) thinning patterns between the optic neuritis (ON) and non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). METHODS : A prospective, observational study was conducted to evaluate the timing of GCL changes between acute ON and NAION using optical coherence tomography. RESULTS : Thinning on optical coherence tomography in the NAION group occurs as early as 11d after symptomatic onset of vision loss and follows an altitudinal pattern. The mean superior-inferior GCL thickness difference in the NAION cohort was clinically significant at 5.7 μm in the NAION cohort compared to controls of 0 ...

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    21. Microscope-Integrated Optical Coherence Tomography–Guided Autologous Full-Thickness Neurosensory Retinal Autograft for Large Macular Hole–Related Total Retinal Detachment

      Microscope-Integrated Optical Coherence Tomography–Guided Autologous Full-Thickness Neurosensory Retinal Autograft for Large Macular Hole–Related Total Retinal Detachment

      Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and utility of microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography in patients undergoing full-thickness neurosensory retinal autograft for refractory macular hole (MH)-associated retinal detachment. Methods: We analyzed two eyes of two patients who had undergone a neurosensory retinal autograft for large MH associated retinal detachment. Both cases had microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography–guided placement and sizing of the retinal autograft. Time taken for obtaining microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography images, morphology of the retinal autograft (intraoperative and postoperative), and anatomic and functional outcomes were noted. Results: The first case had optic disc pit–related maculopathy with a large ...

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    22. Quantitative Evaluation of the Retinal Vascular Parameters With OCTA in Patients With Behçet Disease Without Ocular Involvement

      Quantitative Evaluation of the Retinal Vascular Parameters With OCTA in Patients With Behçet Disease Without Ocular Involvement

      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) features of patients with Behçet disease (BD) without ocular involvement. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-three patients with BD without ocular involvement and 29 healthy age/sex-matched control subjects were involved. The authors measured foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, vessel density in the parafoveal region, and flow area (fovea-centered 3-mm radius area) in the superficial and deep capillary plexuses evaluated by OCTA. RESULTS: FAZ area was significantly larger in eyes with BD in both the superficial and deep capillary plexuses (0.331 vs. 0.240 mm 2 [ P = .004] and ...

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    23. Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography: A review

      Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography: A review

      As a new optical coherence tomography (OCT) modality, OCT angiography (OCTA) provides a noninvasive method to detect microvascular distortions correlated with eye conditions. By providing unparalleled capability to differentiate individual plexus layers in the retina, OCTA has demonstrated its excellence in clinical management of diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, sickle cell retinopathy, diabetic macular edema, and other eye diseases. Quantitative OCTA analysis of retinal and choroidal vasculatures is essential to standardize objective interpretations of clinical outcome. Quantitative features, including blood vessel tortuosity, blood vessel caliber, blood vessel density, vessel perimeter index, fovea avascular zone area, fovea avascular zone contour irregularity, vessel branching ...

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      Mentions: Xincheng Yao
    24. Retinal neurovascular responses to transcorneal electrical stimulation measured with optical coherence tomography

      Retinal neurovascular responses to transcorneal electrical stimulation measured with optical coherence tomography

      Noninvasive transcorneal electrical stimulation (TES) has emerged as a potential strategy to facilitate visual restoration and promote retinal cell survival for certain retinal and optic nerve diseases owing to its neuroprotective effects. However, the neurovascular responses of retinal neurons evoked by TES have not been completely determined. To investigate this issue, we utilized a custom-designed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to record the retinal neural and vascular responses under TES in vivo simultaneously. Significant increases of both positive and negative intrinsic optical signal (IOS) changes were recorded in all three segmented retinal layers, which mainly related to neural activities. However ...

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