1. Articles in category: Ophthalmology

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    1. Optical imaging techniques could offer non-invasive method to measure swelling within the brain, new study finds

      Optical imaging techniques could offer non-invasive method to measure swelling within the brain, new study finds

      Intracranial pressure (ICP) – or pressure within the skull often caused by a recent brain injury – is a potentially fatal condition that can damages brain tissue. Currently, the most common way to measure the level of pressure is using a lumbar puncture to remove and analyse a sample of spinal fluid, however this can result in complications and can cause patient distress. However, this latest study looking at potential non-invasive alternatives may have found the answer in the form of a technique ordinarily used by ophthalmologists. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) works by using light waves to take cross-section pictures of the ...

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    2. Using Optical Coherence Tomography as a Surrogate of Measurements of Intracranial Pressure in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

      Using Optical Coherence Tomography as a Surrogate of Measurements of Intracranial Pressure in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

      Importance There is an unmet need for noninvasive biomarkers of intracranial pressure (ICP), which manifests as papilledema that can be quantified by optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Objective To determine whether OCT of the optic nerve head in papilledema could act as a surrogate measure of ICP. Design, Setting, and Participants This longitudinal cohort study used data collected from 3 randomized clinical trials that were conducted between April 1, 2014, and August 1, 2019. Participants who were female and had active idiopathic intracranial hypertension were enrolled from 5 National Health Service hospitals in the UK. Automated perimetry and OCT imaging ...

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    3. 2D Ultrasonic Array-based Optical Coherence Elastography

      2D Ultrasonic Array-based Optical Coherence Elastography

      Acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography (ARF-OCE) has been successfully implemented to characterize the biomechanical properties of soft tissues such as the cornea and the retina with high resolution using single-element ultrasonic transducers for ARF excitation. Most currently proposed OCE techniques, such as air-puff and ARF, have less capability to control the spatiotemporal information of the induced region of deformation, resulting in limited accuracy and low temporal resolution of the shear wave elasticity imaging. In this study, we propose a new method called 2D ultrasonic array-based optical coherence elastography imaging, which combines the advantages of 3D dynamic electronic steering of ...

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    4. Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: an updated review

      Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: an updated review

      Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has been developed to visualize the retinal microvasculature and choriocapillaris based on the motion contrast of circulating blood cells. Depth-resolved ability and non-invasive nature of OCTA allow for repeated examinations and visualization of microvasculature at the retinal capillary plexuses and choriocapillaris. OCTA enables quantification of microvascular alterations in the retinal capillary network, in addition to the detection of classical features associated with DR, including microaneurysms, intraretinal microvascular abnormalities, and neovascularization. OCTA has a promising role as an objective tool for quantifying extent of microvascular ...

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    5. Flow signal change in polyps after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy

      Flow signal change in polyps after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy

      Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a novel, non-invasive imaging tool used to detect vascular flow. The absence of a flow signal in OCTA in polyps revealed by indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) in patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) may indicate slow or compromised filling of blood flow from choroidal vessels. Naïve patients with PCV treated with intravitreal injections of aflibercept (IVI-A) were enrolled in this study to validate the hypothesis that baseline flow may affect the outcome of polyp regression in ICGA. The flow signal of polyps in OCTA was detected by manual segmentation in the corresponding location ...

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      Mentions: Optovue
    6. Optical coherence tomography detection of changes in inner retinal and choroidal thicknesses in patients with early retinitis pigmentosa

      Optical coherence tomography detection of changes in inner retinal and choroidal thicknesses in patients with early retinitis pigmentosa

      Purpose: To evaluate the inner retinal and choroidal thicknesses in patients with early retinitis pigmentosa. Methods: We analyzed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images of 35 retinitis pigmentosa patients and 40 healthy individuals. We measured macular and ganglion cell complex thicknesses. We took choroidal thickness measurements in the subfoveal region and 500, 1,000, and 1,500 mm from the foveal center. Results: Patients with retinitis pigmentosa had significantly thinner macular thicknesses and choroidal thicknesses in all measurements, and their individual ganglion cell complex thickness measurements were lower than those in healthy individuals. The mean ganglion cell complex thickness was significantly ...

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    7. Characterization of microvascular tortuosity in retinal vein occlusion utilizing optical coherence tomography angiography

      Characterization of microvascular tortuosity in retinal vein occlusion utilizing optical coherence tomography angiography

      We investigated the characteristics of microvessel tortuosity in branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and their associations with visual outcomes using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Thirty-four BRVO and 21 CRVO patients and 31 healthy subjects were included. From OCTA, the branch number (BN), mean branch length (BL), mean Euclidean length (EL), vessel density (VD) and vessel tortuosity (VT) were quantified. In BRVO eyes, compared with that in the controls, the affected area of the deep capillary plexus (DCP) showed a decreased BN and VD, an increased BL, and unchanged VT. The nonaffected area of ...

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    8. Evaluation of retinochoroidal tissues in third trimester pregnants: An optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Evaluation of retinochoroidal tissues in third trimester pregnants: An optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Introduction: The structural and vascular changes in the retina and choroid in women in the third trimester of pregnancy were analyzed using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: Forty women in the third trimester of uncomplicated pregnancy and 40 age-matched healthy women were included. Vascular density (VD) in the superficial and deep capillary plexuses (SCP/DCP), foveal density (FD), and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area and perimetry measured with OCTA, as well as OCT measurements of central macular thickness (CMT) and choroidal thickness (CT) were compared between the groups. Correlations between structural OCT parameters and vascular OCTA metrics were analyzed ...

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    9. Evaluation of retinal and choroidal variations in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Evaluation of retinal and choroidal variations in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Background To investigate the difference in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, choroidal thickness (CT) and superficial retinal vessels between thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) patients and healthy controls. To identify the potential influencing factors for these parameters and evaluate their diagnostic abilities in TAO. Methods Twenty active TAO patients, 33 inactive TAO patients and 29 healthy participants were enrolled. TAO patients were divided according to the clinical activity score (CAS). RNFL thickness and CT were measured by HD-OCT, while foveal avascular zone (FAZ), vascular density and perfusion density were measured by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). SPSS software was used for ...

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    10. DIABETIC MACULAR ISCHEMIA: Correlation of Retinal Vasculature Changes by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Functional Deficit

      DIABETIC MACULAR ISCHEMIA: Correlation of Retinal Vasculature Changes by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Functional Deficit

      Purpose: To examine the relationship between macular microvasculature parameters and functional changes in persons with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: Cross-sectional study of 76 eyes with varying levels of DR. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) quantified superficial and deep perifoveal vessel densities and foveal avascular zone areas. Retinal sensitivity was measured using microperimetry . Optical coherence tomography angiography parameters and retinal sensitivity were correlated. Results: Deep perifoveal vessel density decreased with increasing severity of DR (adjusted mean 51.93 vs. 49.89 vs. 47.96, P -trend = 0.005). Superficial and deep foveal avascular zone area increased with increasing DR severity (adjusted ...

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    11. OCT Risk Factors for 3-Year Development of Macular Complications in eyes with “Resolved” Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

      OCT Risk Factors for 3-Year Development of Macular Complications in eyes with “Resolved” Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

      Purpose To assess the relationship of demographics, clinical characteristics and structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings to development of sight-threatening macular complications (choroidal neovascularization [CNV], large areas of retinal pigment epithelium [RPE] atrophy and cystoid macular degeneration [CMD]) in a cohort of eyes with “resolved” chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) at inclusion (study baseline). Design Retrospective cohort study. Methods In this study, a total of 71 participants (71 eyes) with “resolved” (absence of subretinal fluid) chronic CSC at baseline and 3 years (36 months) of regular follow-ups were retrospectively enrolled. Structural OCT scans were reviewed. Baseline OCT qualitative features reflecting ...

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    12. Non-invasive imaging of a choroidal macrovessel

      Non-invasive imaging of a choroidal macrovessel

      Purpose To describe novel anatomic findings of an apparent choroidal macrovessel, originally misdiagnosed as a choroidal tumor, using non-invasive imaging tools. Observations Initial ophthalmic examination revealed an elevated hypopigmented choroidal mass in the macular area, with a serpentine track extending temporally to the equator. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) revealed an optically hollow lesion just outside the choroid-scleral junction (CSJ), indenting the retina and compressing the choroid from the scleral side. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) at the choroidal level showed relative low flow within the lesion. En face OCT at the level of the choroid demonstrated similar ...

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    13. Correlation between optical coherence tomography, multifocal electroretinogram findings and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema

      Correlation between optical coherence tomography, multifocal electroretinogram findings and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema

      Abstract: AIM : To analyze the correlation between macular morphology and function in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME). METHODS : Fifty-five eyes with different visual acuity (VA) of 32 patients who suffered from DME were analyzed using multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The parameters of mfERG including implicit times and response amplitude were compared to those of 50 normal eyes of 36 age-matched subjects. Correlation analysis was performed between VA, the parameters of mfERG including implicit times and response amplitude, and the central macular thickness (CMT). RESULTS : The amplitude of N1 and P1 were significantly decreased and their ...

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    14. Digital Wavefront Sensing

      Digital Wavefront Sensing

      H-OCT will be tested in this study for its suitability for the qualitative investigation of aberrometry. We aim to achieve a digital equivalent for wavefront calculation of the widespread analog procedure commonly used with conventional wavefront-aberrometers. The results will be compared with those from a conventional analog wavefront calculation method. In the course of this pilot study, 20 eyes of phakic and 10 eyes of pseudophakic subjects with suspected higher order aberrations will be examined using H-OCT

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    15. Ciliary body length revisited by anterior segment optical coherence tomography: implications for safe access to the pars plana for intravitreal injections

      Ciliary body length revisited by anterior segment optical coherence tomography: implications for safe access to the pars plana for intravitreal injections

      Purpose To investigate the dependence of the ciliary body length (CBL) on the axial length (AL) and to draw conclusions on implications regarding safe pars plana access for intravitreal injections and vitreoretinal surgery. Methods A total of 200 individuals (mean age 42 years, SD ± 15.4) were enrolled in the study. Objective refraction and AL were obtained. Spherical equivalent (SE) was calculated. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) was used to image and measure the CBL. Results The mean SE was − 1.64 diopters (SD ± 3.15, range − 14.5 to + 9 diopters) and the mean AL was 24.19 ...

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    16. Evaluation of retinal vascular structure after epiretinal membrane surgery by optical coherence tomography angiography

      Evaluation of retinal vascular structure after epiretinal membrane surgery by optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose To evaluate the retinal vascular structure before and after the epiretinal membrane (ERM) surgery by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods Twenty-two eyes with ERM (study eyes) had been evaluated by OCTA for superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) vessel density (VD) at foveal and parafoveal regions and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) before and after ERM removal surgery. Twenty-two fellow eyes were selected as control group. Results Preoperative VD of SCP and DCP were significantly lower in ERM eyes than in controls in both foveal and parafoveal areas ( p  < 0.05, for all). The difference regressed ...

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    17. Longitudinal retinal layer changes in preclinical Alzheimer’s disease

      Longitudinal retinal layer changes in preclinical Alzheimer’s disease

      Purpose Several studies found reduced retinal thickness on optical coherence tomography (OCT) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), even in preclinical stages, labelling this technique of interest as biomarker. In this study, we examine retinal thickness changes in preclinical AD, as defined by cognitively normal individuals with amyloid‐beta (Aβ) on positron emission tomography (PET). Methods For this monocentre study, 145 cognitively healthy monozygotic twins aged ≥ 60 were included from the Netherlands Twin Register taking part in the EMIF‐AD PreclinAD study. At baseline, participants underwent [ 18 F] flutemetamol PET that was visually rated for cortical Aβ. Binding potential was calculated ...

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    18. Optical coherence tomography features of choroidal neovascularization and their correlation with age, gender and underlying disease

      Optical coherence tomography features of choroidal neovascularization and their correlation with age, gender and underlying disease

      Purpose: To investigate the influence of age , gender and underlying disease on the optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to Inflammation ( iCNV ), myopia (mCNV) and age -related macular degeneration (AMD-CNV). Methods: Demographic and clinical data of eyes with treatment naïve iCNV , mCNV and type 2 AMD-CNV were collected. OCT images were reviewed to determine the presence of pitchfork sign (PFS), pigment epithelial detachment (PED), subretinal fluid (SRF), intraretinal cysts (IRC), subretinal hyper reflective material (SHRM), atrophy and outer retinal disruption (ORD) graded 1 to 4. The influence of demographics and underlying etiology on OCT signs ...

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    19. Carotid Disease and Retinal Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Parameters in Type 2 Diabetes: The Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II

      Carotid Disease and Retinal Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Parameters in Type 2 Diabetes: The Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II

      OBJECTIVE To use optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) to determine whether retinal microvascular parameters are associated with carotid arterial disease in people with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants (community-based) underwent detailed assessments including carotid ultrasonography and OCTA. Ultrasound images were assessed for mean intima-media thickness (IMT) and the presence of stenosis. OCTA image analysis provided measures of vessel density, foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, blood flow areas, and retinal thickness. For each OCTA variable, the most parsimonious model was generated using generalized estimating equations, then ipsilateral and contralateral carotid disease related variables were added to determine their ...

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      Mentions: Fred K. Chen
    20. Optical coherence tomography outcomes from SPRINT-MS, a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of ibudilast in progressive multiple sclerosis

      Optical coherence tomography outcomes from SPRINT-MS, a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of ibudilast in progressive multiple sclerosis

      Background: The SPRINT-MS trial demonstrated benefit of ibudilast on brain atrophy over 96 weeks in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed in all trial participants. Objective: Report the OCT results of the SPRINT-MS trial. Methods: OCT was obtained at baseline and every 6 months using spectral domain OCT and analyzed by an OCT reading center. Change in each OCT outcome measure by treatment group was estimated using linear mixed models. Results: Change in pRNFL thickness was +0.0424 uM/year (95% confidence interval (CI): −0.3091 to 0.3939) for ibudilast versus −0.2630 uM (95 ...

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    21. Microvascular alterations in children with optic disk drusen evaluated by optical coherence tomography angiography

      Microvascular alterations in children with optic disk drusen evaluated by optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose To asses changes in vessel density (VD) in children with optic disk drusen (ODD) using swept source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods Cross-sectional study of 27 eyes with ODD compared with age-matched controls. Peripapillary and macular VD were measured in the superficial retinal capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP), and choriocapillaris (CC). The correlation between VD changes with alterations in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), and visual field (VF) was analyzed. Results Mean participant age was 12.5 ± 3.3 years (range, 7–18 years); 63% was females. In the patients vs. controls ...

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    22. Validation of an Automated Quantification of Relative Ellipsoid Zone Reflectivity on Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Validation of an Automated Quantification of Relative Ellipsoid Zone Reflectivity on Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Purpose : Relative ellipsoid zone reflectivity (rEZR) represents a potential biomarker of photoreceptor health on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Because manual quantification of rEZR is laborious and lacks of spatial resolution, automated quantification of the rEZR would be beneficial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and reproducibility of an automated rEZR quantification method. Methods : The rEZR was acquired using a manual and an automated approach in eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and healthy controls. The rEZR obtained from both methods was compared and the agreement between the methods and their reproducibility assessed. Results : Forty eyes ...

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    23. Optical coherence tomography angiography for visualization of retinal capillary plexuses in pachychoroid neovasculopathy

      Optical coherence tomography angiography for visualization of retinal capillary plexuses in pachychoroid neovasculopathy

      Objective To evaluate retinal capillary plexus alterations in patients with pachychoroid neovasculopathy (PNV) by optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCTA). Design Retrospective observational study. Participants The study included 43 patients with PNV (43 eyes, PNV group) and 43 normal eyes (control group). Methods All PNV participants underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examinations, including OCTA. The results were compared with those of the controls. Differences in superficial and deep vascular density between the groups were analyzed. The correlations between vascular density and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT), age, best-corrected visual acuity, refraction, and axial length were analyzed. Results The superficial vascular density of the macular ...

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