1. Articles in category: Ophthalmology

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    1. Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma (Textbook)

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma (Textbook)

      This book focuses on the practical aspects of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in glaucoma diagnostics offering important theoretical information along with many original cases. OCT is a non-invasive imaging technique that acquires high-resolution images of the ocular structures. It enables clinicians to detect glaucoma in the early stages and efficiently monitor the disease. Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma features updated information on technical applications of OCT in glaucoma, reviews recently published literature and provides clinical cases based on Cirrus and Spectralis OCT platforms. In addition, newer techniques like event and trend analyses for progression, macular ganglion cell analysis, and OCT ...

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    2. Schlemm's canal measured by optical coherence tomography and correlation study in a healthy Caucasian child population

      Schlemm's canal measured by optical coherence tomography and correlation study in a healthy Caucasian child population

      Purpose To measure the Schlemm's canal (SC) in vivo by Fourier‐domain optical coherence tomography (FD‐OCT) in a Caucasian paediatric population. Methods Participants of this cross‐sectional study were 290 healthy children. In the right eye of each child, SC cross‐sectional diameter and area measurements were made with the FD‐OCT instrument RTVue ® (Optovue Inc, Fremont, CA, USA) in the nasal and temporal quadrants. These SC variables were then assessed for correlation with the factors age, gender, refractive error, anterior chamber angle and trabecular meshwork (TM) metrics. Finally, the reproducibility of the SC measurements was assessed in ...

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      Mentions: Optovue
    3. Optical coherence tomography angiography and microvascular changes in diabetic retinopathy: a systematic review

      Optical coherence tomography angiography and microvascular changes in diabetic retinopathy: a systematic review

      To use optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) to evaluate foveal microvascular changes in diabetes by comparing the area of foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in healthy controls and patients with diabetes with no diabetic retinopathy (NDR) as well as different stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR). A systematic literature search was performed based on the population, intervention, comparison and outcome (PICO) strategy by two independent reviewers. The search was performed in PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library, including keywords ‘diabetes mellitus’, ‘DR’ and ‘OCTA’. Of 358 studies initially identified, 215 studies were screened after duplicate removal. Of these, we included 12 (nine cross ...

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    4. A prospective case-control study comparing optical coherence tomography characteristics in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder- optic neuritis and idiopathic optic neuritis

      A prospective case-control study comparing optical coherence tomography characteristics in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder- optic neuritis and idiopathic optic neuritis

      Background Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder-optic neuritis (NMOSD-ON) can now be distinguished from other types of ON as a specific disease by the Aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab) test. NMOSD-ON can cause severe retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) damage. The optical coherence tomography (OCT) characteristics between NMOSD- ON and idiopathic optic neuritis (IDON) were seldom studied in Asians. Methods This prospective case-control study involved 152 eyes from 143 optic neuritis (ON) patients. All the patients were divided into either the NMOSD-ON group or the IDON group based on the AQP4-Ab test. The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), retinal thickness (RT), and choroidal ...

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    5. Ultra-wide optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy

      Ultra-wide optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy

      Background: To implement an ultra-wide optical coherence tomography angiography imaging (UW-OCTA) modality in eyes with diabetic retinopathy (DR) with the aim of quantifying the burden of microvascular disease at baseline and subsequent clinic visits. Methods: UW-OCTA was implemented on a 1,060 nm swept source (SS) OCTA engine running at 100 kHz A-line rate with a motion tracking mechanism. A montage scanning protocol was used to capture a 100-degree field of view (FOV) using a 4×4 grid of sixteen total individual 6×6 mm 2 scans. Typical OCTA images with a FOV of 3×3, 6×6 and 12 ...

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    6. Joint Segmentation and Uncertainty Visualization of Retinal Layers in Optical Coherence Tomography Images using Bayesian Deep Learning

      Joint Segmentation and Uncertainty Visualization of Retinal Layers in Optical Coherence Tomography Images using Bayesian Deep Learning

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is commonly used to analyze retinal layers for assessment of ocular diseases. In this paper, we propose a method for retinal layer segmentation and quantification of uncertainty based on Bayesian deep learning. Our method not only performs end-to-end segmentation of retinal layers, but also gives the pixel wise uncertainty measure of the segmentation output. The generated uncertainty map can be used to identify erroneously segmented image regions which is useful in downstream analysis. We have validated our method on a dataset of 1487 images obtained from 15 subjects (OCT volumes) and compared it against the state-of-the-art ...

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    7. Predictive accuracy of partial coherence interferometry and swept-source optical coherence tomography for intraocular lens power calculation

      Predictive accuracy of partial coherence interferometry and swept-source optical coherence tomography for intraocular lens power calculation

      The purpose of this study is to compare the predictive accuracy of intraocular lens (IOL) calculations made with partial coherence interferometry (PCI, IOLMaster, version 5) and swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT, Argos). Axial length (AL), mean keratometry value (K), and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were obtained using PCI and SS-OCT optical biometers. Intraocular lens (IOL) power calculations were made using the Barret-Universal II, Haigis, Hoffer Q, SRK/T, and T2 formulas and compared the predictive accuracy between biometers. In 153 eyes (153 patients), axial length measurements made with PCI (24.65 ± 2.35 mm) and SS-OCT (24.62 ± 2.29 ...

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    8. Evaluation of Corneal Epithelial Thickness Imaged by the High Definition Optical Coherence Tomography in Healthy Eyes

      Evaluation of Corneal Epithelial Thickness Imaged by the High Definition Optical Coherence Tomography in Healthy Eyes

      Purpose: To evaluate corneal epithelial thickness (CET) and corneal thickness (CT) in healthy eyes using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Methods: Thirty-six healthy eyes were imaged using the Cirrus high-definition (HD)-optical coherence tomography device. The average CET and CT were assessed using Cirrus Review Software within predefined concentric corneal ring-shaped zones. Specific regions of CET (superior, inferior, temporal, nasal, superonasal, inferotemporal, superotemporal, and inferonasal) were also assessed. The difference between zones was compared between males and females. Results: The average CET was 48.3, 47.1, 46.1, and 45.8 μm in the 4 concentric zones (0–2 ...

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    9. Relationship between filtering bleb vascularization and surgical outcomes after trabeculectomy: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Relationship between filtering bleb vascularization and surgical outcomes after trabeculectomy: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Purpose To explore the relationship between the bleb vasculature and surgical outcome after trabeculectomy (TRAB) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Methods A prospective study was conducted, which included 26 eyes of 26 primary glaucoma patients in the final analysis. Thereinto, six patients underwent TRAB combined 5-FU and 12 patients received subconjunctival 5-FU injection postoperation. The bleb vessel was evaluated using OCT-A 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after TRAB. Intraocular pressure (IOP), filtering bleb height, and bleb wall thickness were recorded at the same time. Pearson’s correlation analysis and linear regression analysis were ...

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    10. Bimodal imaging of proliferative diabetic retinopathy vascular features using swept source optical coherence tomography angiography

      Bimodal imaging of proliferative diabetic retinopathy vascular features using swept source optical coherence tomography angiography

      AIM : To categorize neovessels morphology and to detect response to anti-angiogenic therapy by using structural and angiographic modes of swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). METHODS : Thirty-two eyes with neovessels at disc (NVD) and neovessels elsewhere (NVE) - as diagnosed by fluorescein angiography- were included. Cross sectional OCT images of disc and macular regions were registered to enface OCT angiography (OCTA), B-scan blood flow over lay and density maps. Three eyes received anti-angiogenic treatment. RESULTS : Pin point registration of cross-sectional OCT and OCTA images differentiated active NVD with vascular elements from fibrous or equivalent fibrovascular elements. En face images delineated NVE ...

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    11. Anterior-Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and Scanning Electron Microscopy to Evaluate Corneal Epithelial Changes in Patients Undergoing Glaucoma Therapy

      Anterior-Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and Scanning Electron Microscopy to Evaluate Corneal Epithelial Changes in Patients Undergoing Glaucoma Therapy

      Purpose: To measure corneal epithelial thickness (CET) in patients with glaucoma using anterior-segment optical coherence tomography and to evaluate CET changes in relation to corneal epithelial microvilli analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods: Twenty-two eyes (16 patients) being treated with preservative-containing topical medications and 12 normal eyes underwent anterior-segment optical coherence tomography imaging using RTVue-100. The CET maps generated corresponded to a 6-mm diameter area of cornea that was divided into 17 sectors. We compared the CETs of each sector obtained in the glaucomatous group with those obtained in the control group. Results: Glaucomatous eyes were divided into 2 ...

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    12. En Face Imaging of Geographic Atrophy Using Different Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Scan Patterns

      En Face Imaging of Geographic Atrophy Using Different Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Scan Patterns

      Purpose Different swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) scan patterns were used to image geographic atrophy (GA) to determine if they provided similar area and enlargement measurements in eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Prospective, observational case series. Participants Patients with GA secondary to non-exudative AMD Methods Patients were imaged using SS-OCT (PLEX Elite 9000 instrument, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) with follow-up imaging performed after six months and one year. Both the 6x6 mm and 12x12 mm scan patterns were obtained at each visit. Area measurements of GA were performed on the en face images generated from a ...

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    13. Treatment Response in Sympathetic Ophthalmia as Assessed by Widefield OCT Angiography

      Treatment Response in Sympathetic Ophthalmia as Assessed by Widefield OCT Angiography

      The authors report the widefield montage swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) findings in a 36-year-old male with sympathetic ophthalmia and illustrate the presence of multiple small areas of choriocapillaris flow voids that likely correspond to areas of choriocapillaris ischemia. Using sequential imaging, the authors observed that these flow voids improved following initiating of steroid and immunosuppressive therapy and almost completely resolved following 6 months of therapy with corresponding improvement in visual acuity. This report highlights the role of widefield montage OCTA to detect these likely ischemic changes within the choriocapillaris in sympathetic ophthalmia and demonstrates that they can be ...

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      Mentions: Duke University
    14. Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy Imaged With Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy Imaged With Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      The authors present a case of a 29-year-old man who presented to the Department of Ophthalmology at their institution to complete a peripheral laser treatment in his left eye for familial exudative vitreoretinopathy complicated by tractional macular edema.

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    15. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings in X-Linked Retinoschisis

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings in X-Linked Retinoschisis

      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) findings and to identify mutations in the RS1 gene in a three-generation family with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical and genetic assessments were performed in 12 family members. OCTA was performed at baseline (12 members including cases and carriers) and after acetazolamide administration (three cases). Twenty healthy subjects (20 eyes, controls) were chosen for comparison. Molecular genetic analysis of the RS1 gene was performed in all family members. RESULTS: Deep capillary plexus density was reduced in cases compared with controls ( P ...

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    16. Functional retinal imaging using adaptive optics swept-source OCT at 1.6MHz

      Functional retinal imaging using adaptive optics swept-source OCT at 1.6MHz

      bjective optical assessment of photoreceptor function may permit earlier diagnosis of retinal disease than current methods such as perimetry, electrophysiology, and clinical imaging. In this work, we describe an adaptive optics (AO) optical coherence tomography (OCT) system designed to measure functional responses of single cones to visible stimuli. The OCT subsystem consisted of a raster-scanning Fourier-domain mode-locked laser that acquires A-scans at 1.64MHz with a center wavelength of 1063nm, and an AO subsystem providing diffraction-limited imaging. Analysis of serial volumetric images revealed phase changes of cone photoreceptors consistent with outer segment elongation and proportional to stimulus intensity, as well ...

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    17. Can preoperative anterior segment optical coherence tomography predict posterior capsule rupture during phacoemulsification in patients with posterior polar cataract?

      Can preoperative anterior segment optical coherence tomography predict posterior capsule rupture during phacoemulsification in patients with posterior polar cataract?

      Purpose To determine whether preoperative assessment of posterior capsule integrity using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) can predict posterior capsule dehiscence in patients with posterior polar cataract having phacoemulsification. Setting Aravind Eye Hospital and Postgraduate Institute of Ophthalmology, Pondicherry, India. Design Prospective observational study. Methods Patients with posterior polar cataract who had phacoemulsification between October 2012 and November 2013 were included in the study. Preoperative AS-OCT imaging was performed to assess the integrity of the posterior capsule. Anterior segment OCT images of the posterior capsule were graded as “intact” or “dehiscent.” Phacoemulsification was performed by the same surgeon who ...

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    18. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Corneal Epithelial Thickness Mapping with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Normal and Diseased Cornea Eyes

      Repeatability and Reproducibility of Corneal Epithelial Thickness Mapping with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Normal and Diseased Cornea Eyes

      Purpose To evaluate the performance of the epithelial thickness mapping (ETM) of the iVue spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) (Optovue Inc., Fremont, CA) in normal and diseased cornea eyes. Design Reliability and validity analysis. Methods Sixty eyes of 60 subjects were recruited for the study that included normal subjects (n=12) and patients with corneal diseases (12 each with dry eye syndrome (DES), contact lens (CL) wear, post laser refractive surgery (LRS), and keratoconus (KCN)). Three repeated scans were acquired on 3 iVue SD-OCTs with device-designated operators from consented subjects. Each subject was scanned on each device. Repeatability (based ...

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    19. Heidelberg Engineering OCT Angiography Module Now Available in the United States

      Heidelberg Engineering OCT Angiography Module Now Available in the United States

      OCTA is a key component of the SPECTRALIS portfolio, delivering on the platform’s upgradeability and multimodal image capabilities. Heidelberg Engineering, a privately-held imaging solutions company focused on advanced diagnostic instruments and IT solutions for eye care professionals, announced today that it has received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) clearance for its OCT Angiography Module (OCTA). The additional module is now available for new and existing SPECTRALIS® upgradeable diagnostic imaging devices. “We are excited to announce this FDA clearance as further validation not only of OCTA technology in the industry, but also of our commitment to meeting the highest ...

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    20. Improved analysis of foveal avascular zone area with optical coherence tomography angiography

      Improved analysis of foveal avascular zone area with optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose To investigate the relationship between the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and the inner nuclear layer (INL)-free zone in the center of the fovea in order to provide an improved approach to evaluation of the FAZ area with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods Thirty-six healthy individuals (36 eyes) and 15 age-matched patients (15 eyes) with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (nPDR) were included in this study. The FAZ, as well as INL-free zone, was measured on OCTA images. The FAZ area, INL-free zone area, and the ratio of the INL-free zone area to the FAZ area were compared between healthy ...

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    21. Intraretinal fluid identification via enhanced maps using optical coherence tomography images

      Intraretinal fluid identification via enhanced maps using optical coherence tomography images

      Nowadays, among the main causes of blindness in developed countries are age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the diabetic macular edema (DME). Both diseases present, as a common symptom, the appearance of cystoid fluid regions inside the retinal layers. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) image modality was one of the main medical imaging techniques for the early diagnosis and monitoring of AMD and DME via this intraretinal fluid detection and characterization. We present a novel methodology to identify these fluid accumulations by means of generating binary maps (offering a direct representation of these areas) and heat maps (containing the region confidence). To ...

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    22. Nomogram Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Visual Field Parameters to Predict Brain Lesions in Patients with Bitemporal Hemianopia

      Nomogram Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Visual Field Parameters to Predict Brain Lesions in Patients with Bitemporal Hemianopia

      Purpose : This study aims to develop a nomogram to predict brain lesions in patients with complete or incomplete bitemporal hemianopia by combining results from optical coherence tomography (OCT) and visual field (VF) testing. Material and Methods : We reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify brain lesions due to bitemporal hemianopia between January 2010 and March 2017, retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups based on MRI findings: brain-lesion (+) group that had brain lesions on MRI ( n = 63), and brain-lesion (-) group without brain lesions on MRI ( n = 16). We compared OCT and VF ...

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    23. Spectral domain-optical coherence tomographic assessment of macular changes following anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy in patients with retinopathy of prematurity

      Spectral domain-optical coherence tomographic assessment of macular changes following anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy in patients with retinopathy of prematurity

      Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) injection for type 1 and aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and to detect probable alterations in central foveal thickness, to analyze macular structural changes and to observe regression of ROP following IVR therapy. Material and Methods: 40 eyes of 22 patients with type 1 or aggressive posterior ROP who received IVR injections and had macular spectral domain– optical coherence tomography (SD – OCT) images were included in the study. All eyes were scanned using a portable SD-OCT machine before treatment and 1st week, 1st month ...

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      Mentions: Optovue
    24. Association of Foveal Avascular Zone Enlargement and Diabetic Retinopathy Progression Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Association of Foveal Avascular Zone Enlargement and Diabetic Retinopathy Progression Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose: The purpose of this article is to evaluate long-term change of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area in diabetic eyes using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) (AngioVue, Avanti OCT, Optovue). Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients who had undergone OCTA fundus examinations with at least 12 months of follow-up. Eyes with previous laser photocoagulation and antivascular endothelial growth factor treatments were excluded. ImageJ software was used to evaluate the FAZ area in the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP). Results: Forty eyes were analyzed in this study and divided into 3 groups: healthy ...

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