1. Articles in category: Ophthalmology

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    1. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY OF CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION IN FOUR INHERITED RETINAL DYSTROPHIES

      OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY OF CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION IN FOUR INHERITED RETINAL DYSTROPHIES

      Purpose: To demonstrate the clinical utility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography (OCT-A) in inherited retinal dystrophies complicated by choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Methods: Optical coherence tomography angiography and structural OCT were performed using a 70-kHz spectral domain OCT system using the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm. Semiautomated image processing software was used to segment and measure the CNV. Results: Four participants were enrolled to study the following inherited retinal dystrophies complicated by CNV: choroideremia, EFEMP1-related retinopathy, Best vitelliform dystrophy, and adult-onset vitelliform dystrophy. Interpretation of fluorescein angiography was difficult because of abnormal retinal architecture but suggested the presence of CNV. Structural ...

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    2. Agreement between intraoperative measurements and optical coherence tomography of the limbus-insertion distance of the extraocular muscles

      Agreement between intraoperative measurements and optical coherence tomography of the limbus-insertion distance of the extraocular muscles

      Objective To assess the agreement between intraoperative measurements of the limbus-insertion distance of the extraocular muscles with those measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Methods An analysis was made of a total of 67 muscles of 21 patients with strabismus. The limbus-insertion distance of the horizontal rectus muscles were measured using pre-operative SD-OCT and intra-operatively in 2 ways: 1) direct, after a conjunctival dissection in patients who underwent surgery, or 2) transconjunctival in patients who were treated with botulinum toxin, or in those who were not going to be operated. The intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plots were calculated ...

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    3. Central Corneal Thickness in Spectral-Domain OCT and Associations with Ocular and Systemic Parameters

      Central Corneal Thickness in Spectral-Domain OCT and Associations with Ocular and Systemic Parameters

      Background . Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows quantitative analysis of the anterior segment of the eye with a noncontact examination. The aim of this study is to analyze associations of central corneal thickness (CCT) as measured by OCT with ocular and systemic cardiovascular parameters. Methods . A cross-sectional study of 734 persons was performed in a working age population. Only healthy eyes were included. A comprehensive ophthalmological examination including refraction, noncontact tonometry, and imaging of the anterior segment by SD-OCT was performed. In parallel, a broad range of systemic cardiovascular parameters were measured. Associations were analyzed using a generalized estimating equations’ model ...

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    4. Clinical applications of spectral domain optical coherence tomography in retinal diseases

      Clinical applications of spectral domain optical coherence tomography in retinal diseases

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was introduced about two decades ago and has revolutionized ophthalmic practice in recent years. It is a noninvasive noncontact imaging modality that provides a high-resolution cross-sectional image of the cornea, retina, choroid and optic nerve head, analogous to that of the histological section. Advances in OCT technology in signal detection technique from time-domain (TD) to spectral-domain (SD) detection have given us the potential to study various retinal layers more precisely and in less time. SD-OCT better delineates structural changes and fine lesions in the individual retinal layers. Thus, we have gained substantial information about the pathologic ...

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    5. Vessel density analysis in patients with retinitis pigmentosa by means of optical coherence tomography angiography

      Vessel density analysis in patients with retinitis pigmentosa by means of optical coherence tomography angiography

      Aims To describe the vascular abnormalities in patients affected by retinitis pigmentosa (RP) by means of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Methods Cross-sectional case series; patients with RP presenting at the Medical Retina Service of the Department of Ophthalmology, University Vita-Salute San Raffaele in Milan were recruited. Inclusion criteria were: diagnosis of RP, clear ocular media, adequate pupillary dilation, and stable fixation. Patients underwent best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), biomicroscopy, short-wavelength fundus autofluorescence (SW-FAF), and 3×3 Swept Source OCT-A. 30 healthy subjects were chosen as controls. The main outcome was identification of abnormalities in density of the superficial capillary plexus ...

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    6. Optical coherence tomography of outer retinal holes in senile retinoschisis and schisis-detachment

      Optical coherence tomography of outer retinal holes in senile retinoschisis and schisis-detachment

      Purpose On clinical examination, it can be challenging to differentiate retinoschisis with outer retinal hole from schisis-detachment. This study examined the role of outer retinal hole spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging in conjunction with imaging of the posterior schisis cavity edge in differentiating between these conditions. Methods This is a retrospective case series. Out of 500 subjects with ICD-9 diagnoses of senile retinoschisis (361.10, 361.11, 361.12, 361.19) from January 2004 to December 2014, 62 had evidence of retinoschisis on fundus photography or optical coherence tomography (OCT). Six eyes of five patients had outer retinal ...

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    7. Determination and Validation of Thresholds of Anterior Chamber Parameters by Dedicated Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Determination and Validation of Thresholds of Anterior Chamber Parameters by Dedicated Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose To determine and validate thresholds of anterior chamber angle (ACA) parameters in discriminating open versus narrow angle eyes using images from dedicated anterior segment optical coherence tomography (DASOCT). Design Reliability analysis Methods Eyes imaged by DASOCT and examined with gonioscopy were reviewed. By gonioscopy, eyes were classified as narrow if posterior trabecular meshwork was not visible and open if the angle was open to scleral spur and beyond. Imaging was performed in the dark with the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey, Nagoya, Japan). ACA parameters angle opening distance (AOD), trabecular-iris space area (TISA), trabecular-iris circumference volume (TICV), length of irido-trabecular contact ...

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    8. Subretinal hyperreflective material imaged with optical coherence tomography angiography

      Subretinal hyperreflective material imaged with optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose The range of subretinal hyperreflective material (SHRM) seen in macular disease includes type 2 macular neovascularization, fibrosis, exudation, vitelliform material and hemorrhage. The prognostic significance of SHRM has been evaluated retrospectively in clinical trials but discriminating SHRM subtypes traditionally requires multiple imaging modalities. The purpose of this study is to describe optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) flow characteristics and artifacts which might help to distinguish SHRM subtypes. Design Validity analysis. Methods Patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), myopia, pachychoroid disease and macular dystrophy, manifesting SHRM on optical coherence tomography (OCT), were recruited. Clinical chart review and multimodal imaging established ...

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    9. Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings in Multifocal Choroiditis with Active Lesions

      Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings in Multifocal Choroiditis with Active Lesions

      Purpose To describe optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) findings in multifocal choroiditis (MFC) with active lesions and to characterize the concordance between the OCTA and other traditional imaging modalities. Design Reliability and validity analysis. Methods Patients with suspected choroidal neovascularization (CNV) or acute inflammatory lesions associated with MFC were assessed in this study. All participants underwent preliminary traditional multimodal imaging including color fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, near-infrared reflectance imaging, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and fluorescence angiography (FA). The participants were prospectively recruited to perform OCTA. OCTA findings of active lesions were compared with other traditional imaging results. Vascular flow signal ...

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    10. Diagnostic performance of a novel 3D neuroretinal rim parameter for glaucoma using high-density volume scans

      Diagnostic performance of a novel 3D neuroretinal rim parameter for glaucoma using high-density volume scans

      Purpose To describe optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) findings in multifocal choroiditis (MFC) with active lesions and to characterize the concordance between the OCTA and other traditional imaging modalities. Design Reliability and validity analysis. Methods Patients with suspected choroidal neovascularization (CNV) or acute inflammatory lesions associated with MFC were assessed in this study. All participants underwent preliminary traditional multimodal imaging including color fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, near-infrared reflectance imaging, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and fluorescence angiography (FA). The participants were prospectively recruited to perform OCTA. OCTA findings of active lesions were compared with other traditional imaging results. Vascular flow signal ...

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    11. Multimodal Imaging: Redefining Retinal Disease With Current Technology

      Multimodal Imaging: Redefining Retinal Disease With Current Technology

      Ophthalmic imaging has long been a mainstay of the diagnosis and treatment of eye disease. This aspect of retinal specialists’ practice has undergone many recent advances, leading to an expanding structural understanding of disease processes. The combination of multiple imaging modalities has helped retinal physicians to further understand disease progression and treatment response. In the era of multimodal imaging, recent observations have helped to clarify the underlying pathogenesis of many retinal diseases. Each imaging “modality” has tissue-specific characteristics that have allowed for the redefinition of many common retinal conditions and have led to an evolution of our understanding of vitreoretinal ...

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    12. Continuous intraoperative OCT guided management of post-deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty descemet’s membrane detachment

      Continuous intraoperative OCT guided management of post-deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty descemet’s membrane detachment

      Continuous intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) integrated into the operating microscope is a new modification in the current operating microscope to aid in the surgical procedures involving both the anterior and the posterior segment. This helps in intraoperative planning, modification of the surgical steps if required and confirmation of the surgical endpoint in the operating room itself. iOCT was used for the successful management of descemet’s membrane detachment (DMD) following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) with intracameral injection of 20% Sulphur hexafluoride. The gas was injected under direct visualization through the microscope with continuous real time monitoring of the ...

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    13. Repeatability of Choroidal Thickness Measurements on Enhanced Depth Imaging OCT using Different Posterior Boundaries

      Repeatability of Choroidal Thickness Measurements on Enhanced Depth Imaging OCT using Different Posterior Boundaries

      Purpose To assess the reliability of manual choroidal thickness measurements by comparing different posterior boundary definitions of the choroidal-scleral junction on enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Design Reliability analysis Methods Two graders marked the choroidal-scleral junction with segmentation software using different posterior boundaries: 1) the outer border of the choroidal vessel lumen, 2) the outer border of the choroid stroma, and 3) the inner border of the sclera, to measure the vascular choroidal thickness (VCT), stromal choroidal thickness (SCT), and total choroidal thickness (TCT), respectively. Measurements were taken at 0.5 mm intervals from 1.5 mm nasal ...

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    14. Correlation of optic neuritis and retinal nerve fibre thickness using optical coherence tomography in ...

      Correlation of optic neuritis and retinal nerve fibre thickness using optical coherence tomography in ...

      Background: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a fast, non-invasive imaging technology that produces 3D, high-resolution images of the retina. Direct visualisation of the retina allows a unique opportunity to study the effects of multiple sclerosis (MS)-associated neurodegeneration on retinal ganglion cells as well as effects of retrobulbar demyelination on axonal and retinal architecture through measurement of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness and total macular volume (TMV). These findings are clinically important as axonal loss is irreversible and correlates with disability. Aim: To determine the role and usefulness of OCT in a local cohort of MS patients. Setting: Neurology ...

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    15. Age-related differences in corneal epithelial thickness measurements with anterior segment optical coherence tomography

      Age-related differences in corneal epithelial thickness measurements with anterior segment optical coherence tomography

      Purpose To measure corneal epithelial thickness (CET) in healthy adults and to investigate its variation with age by use of anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods A total of 210 healthy individuals were enrolled and divided into four, almost equally sized groups on the basis of age: 18–29 years (group 1), 30–44 years (group 2), 45–59 years (group 3), and 60–80 years (group 4). The CET and total corneal thickness in the central area (diameter 6.0 mm) of each patient were obtained by Fourier-domain OCT, and the regional thickness and topographic variability were compared ...

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    16. Artifactual Flow Signals Within Drusen Detected by OCT Angiography

      Artifactual Flow Signals Within Drusen Detected by OCT Angiography

      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate possible flow artifacts when imaging drusen with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with drusen were enrolled in a prospective OCT study using the Zeiss AngioPlex OCTA instrument (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA). Two kinds of en face slabs were created for visualizing both structure and flow. The first slab followed the contour of Bruch's membrane. The second slab had an inner boundary following the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) contour and an outer boundary following the contour of Bruch's membrane. The structure and flow signals from within the drusen were ...

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    17. A Focal Chorioretinal Bartonella Lesion Analyzed by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      A Focal Chorioretinal Bartonella Lesion Analyzed by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Neovascularization may be associated with cat-scratch neuroretinitis in the absence of retinal vascular occlusion. Bartonella organisms establish an intimate relationship with the vascular endothelium, causing angioproliferative lesions, which might represent a dedicated pathogenic strategy for expanding the bacterial host cell habitat. In the eye, pathological angiogenesis caused by Bartonella has been described as peripapillary or macular choroidal neovascularization, but the presence of neovascularization within foci of chorioretinitis has never before been reported. The authors present a case of Bartonella chorioretinitis in which optical coherence tomography angiography, by detecting erythrocyte motion, was able to identify neovessels inside the infectious focus.

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    18. Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Lipemia Retinalis

      Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Lipemia Retinalis

      Severe hypertriglyceridemia can give rise to a fundus appearance with whitish-colored retinal vessels called lipemia retinalis. A 52-year-old man with hypertriglyceridemia presented with a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 in both eyes and creamy-white retinal vessels on fundus. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) revealed hyperreflective and engorged retinal vessels and white dots mainly accumulated in the inner nuclear and ganglion cell layer. Follow-up fundus examination after plasmapheresis sessions revealed normal retinal vessels. The hyperreflective appearance of the retinal vessels in OCT reversed rapidly 5 days after the treatment, whereas hyperreflective dots in retina disappeared slowly in 3 months. OCT ...

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    19. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Demonstration of Choroidal Neovascularization in Malattia Leventinese

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Demonstration of Choroidal Neovascularization in Malattia Leventinese

      In a case of Malattia Leventinese, optical coherence tomography angiography led to the diagnosis of type 1 neovascularization, despite absence of evidence on conventional dye-based angiography. The authors hypothesize that, at least in some cases, accumulation of subretinal fluid in Malattia Leventinese could be due to a subretinal pigment epithelium (RPE) neovascular component rather than creation of hydrophobic barrier at the RPE and Bruch's membrane.

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    20. OPTIC COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY SHOWS INFLAMMATION AND DEGENERATION IN MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER PATIENTS CORRELATED WITH DISEASE SEVERITY

      OPTIC COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY SHOWS INFLAMMATION AND DEGENERATION IN MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER PATIENTS CORRELATED WITH DISEASE SEVERITY

      Background Previous research has consistently detected inflammation in the etiology of depression and neuroimaging studies have demonstrated grey matter abnormalities implying a neurodegenerative process in depression. The aim of this study was to compare ganglion cell layer (GCL), and inner plexiform layer (IPL) volumes and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness between first episode and recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) patients and controls using optic coherence tomography (OCT) in order to detect findings supporting a degenerative process. Also choroid thicknesses of the same groups were compared to examine effects of inflammation on MDD. Methods This study included 50 recurrent MDD ...

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    21. Quantitative Characteristics of Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Corresponding Areas of Increased Autofluorescence at the Margin of Geographic Atrophy in Patients With Age-Related Macular Degeneration

      Quantitative Characteristics of Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Corresponding Areas of Increased Autofluorescence at the Margin of Geographic Atrophy in Patients With Age-Related Macular Degeneration

      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) characteristics of the junctional zone corresponding to areas of increased autofluorescence (IAF) at the margin of geographic atrophy (GA) in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: SD-OCT and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) images from untreated eyes with GA available from archived studies at Doheny Image Reading Center were evaluated. Areas of definite decreased autofluorescence (DDAF) corresponding to GA, and areas of IAF at the margins of the GA were manually segmented. Eyes with evidence of IAF were selected. Following manual registration of FAF and OCT data, areas ...

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    22. Optical Coherence Tomography Parameters in Morbidly Obese Patients Who Underwent Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

      Optical Coherence Tomography Parameters in Morbidly Obese Patients Who Underwent Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

      Purpose . To investigate changes in optical coherence tomography parameters in morbidly obese patients who had undergone laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Methods . A total of 41 eyes of 41 morbidly obese patients (BMI ≥ 40) who had undergone LSG were included in study. The topographic optic disc parameters, central macular thickness (CMT), total macular volume (TMV), and retinal ganglion cell layer (RGCL) were measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) was measured by enhanced deep imaging-optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Results . The mean CMT was   μ m,   μ m, and   μ m preoperatively, 3 months postoperatively, and 6 months postoperatively, respectively ( ). The ...

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    23. Early Optical Coherence Tomography Findings after Vitreomacular Traction Release

      Early Optical Coherence Tomography Findings after Vitreomacular Traction Release

      After the introduction of intravitreal ocriplasmin (Jetrea; ThromboGenics, Iselin, NJ) for symptomatic vitreomacular traction (VMT), reports began surfacing of diffuse ellipsoid zone (EZ) changes and acute visual loss after treatment. 1–5 Two explanations for these abnormalities have been proposed. 2 Because ocriplasmin is a recombinant protease, the drug may cleave layers in the outer retina beyond the vitreomacular interface. Alternatively, because these changes are found primarily after successful VMT release, the effect could be secondary to a transient increase in mechanical traction on the retina when the vitreous separates.

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    24. Ophthalmic optical coherence tomography system and method for quick switching to realize anterior and posterior eye segments imaging

      Ophthalmic optical coherence tomography system and method for quick switching to realize anterior and posterior eye segments imaging

      An ophthalmic optical coherence tomography system and a method for quick switching to realize anterior and posterior eye segments imaging are provided, the system includes: an OCT interferometer primary module and a sample arm module, the OCT interferometer primary module includes an OCT light source, a fiber coupler, a reference arm, a detection module, an X-direction scanning unit, and a Y-direction scanning unit; the sample arm module includes an anterior eye segment imaging module and a posterior eye segment imaging module; the Y-direction scanning unit is rotatable; when the Y-direction scanning unit is at a first rotation angle, the Y-direction ...

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