1. Articles in category: Ophthalmology

    577-600 of 9786 « 1 2 ... 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 ... 406 407 408 »
    1. Old and New Methods of Glaucoma Diagnosis Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography: Testing Limitations of Older Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measurements and Diagnostic Potential of Newer Retinal Volume Measurements (Thesis)

      Old and New Methods of Glaucoma Diagnosis Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography: Testing Limitations of Older Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measurements and Diagnostic Potential of Newer Retinal Volume Measurements (Thesis)

      Purpose: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements are a reproducible and quantitative diagnostic modality widely used for glaucoma evaluations, but a high rate of testing artifacts limits its clinical utility. In Part I of this thesis, we aimed to characterize artifact types and assess artifact rates in two-dimensional (2D) RNFL thickness measurements obtained by the Spectralis OCT machine (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), as well as to determine patient factors and eye conditions associated with a higher artifact prevalence. In Part II of this thesis, we aimed to compare a new parameter, peripapillary retinal volume (RV ...

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    2. Feature Of The Week 05/28/2017: In Vivo 3-Dimensional Strain Mapping Confirms Large Optic Nerve Head Deformations Following Horizontal Eye Movements

      Feature Of The Week 05/28/2017: In Vivo 3-Dimensional Strain Mapping Confirms Large Optic Nerve Head Deformations Following Horizontal Eye Movements

      Glaucoma is characterized by an irreversible damage of retinal ganglion cells within the optic nerve head (ONH) at the back of the eye. Currently we know that elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is associated with increased prevalence of glaucoma but not all glaucoma patients have an elevated IOP. The biomechanical theory of glaucoma hypothesizes that elevated (or fluctuating) IOP deforms the ONH tissues, including the lamina cribrosa (LC), and that these deformations drive retinal ganglion cell injury and death. However, IOP is not the only load that can deform the ONH. Eye movements have recently been hypothesized to be able to ...

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    3. Focal Capillary Dropout Associated With Optic Disc Drusen Using Optical Coherence Tomographic Angiography

      Focal Capillary Dropout Associated With Optic Disc Drusen Using Optical Coherence Tomographic Angiography

      Optic disc drusen may be a cause of visual field defects and visual loss. The mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. We report a patient who developed decreased vision in the right eye and was found to have a heavy burden of superficial optic disc drusen. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) confirmed focal retinal nerve fiber layer thinning that corresponded with the distribution of drusen. OCT angiography, with superficial laminar segmentation, showed focal capillary attenuation overlying the most prominent drusen. These findings demonstrate alterations in the superficial retinal capillary network associated with optic disc drusen.

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    4. Unveiling idiopathic macular telangiectasia: clinical applications of optical coherence tomography angiography

      Unveiling idiopathic macular telangiectasia: clinical applications of optical coherence tomography angiography

      Idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 2 (IMT2) is a bilateral acquired maculopathy, with a spectrum of clinical presentations associated with inner retinal telangiectatic vascular anomalies. Cases often are underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Current diagnostic modalities such as spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and fluorescein angiography (FA) are valuable to the understanding of the clinicopathology. More recently, optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), as an emerging noninvasive technology, has been shown to be particularly useful in the assessment and management of IMT2. Three clinical cases of IMT2 are discussed. Clinical presentation, fundus photography, FA, SD-OCT, and OCTA are presented. Each case illustrates variable presentation ...

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    5. Comparison of Ocular Biometry and Refractive Outcomes Using IOL Master 700, IOL Master 500, and Ultrasound

      Comparison of Ocular Biometry and Refractive Outcomes Using IOL Master 700, IOL Master 500, and Ultrasound

      Purpose To compare the new swept-source optical coherence tomography based IOL Master 700 to both the partial coherence interferometry based IOL Master 500 and ultrasound A-scan in terms of the ocular biometry and the prediction of postoperative refractive outcomes. Methods A total 67 eyes of 55 patients who received cataract surgery were included in our study. The axial length, anterior chamber depth, and keratometry were measured using IOL Master 700, IOL Master 500, and A-scan. The predictive errors, which are the differences between predictive refraction and post-operative refraction 1 month after surgery, were also compared. Results Axial length measurements were ...

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    6. Juvenile Macular Degenerations

      Juvenile Macular Degenerations

      In this paper we review three common juvenile macular degenerations: Stargardt disease, X-linked retinoschisis, and Best vitelliform macular dystrophy. These are inherited disorders that typically present during childhood, when vision is still developing. They are sufficiently common that they should be included in the differential diagnosis of visual loss in pediatric patients. Diagnosis is secured by a combination of clinical findings, optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, and genetic testing. Early diagnosis promotes optimal management. While there is currently no definitive cure for these conditions, therapeutic modalities under investigation include pharmacologic treatment, gene therapy, and stem cell transplantation.

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    7. Optical Coherence Tomography Reveals Changes to Corneal Reflectivity and Thickness in Individuals with Tear Hyperosmolarity

      Optical Coherence Tomography Reveals Changes to Corneal Reflectivity and Thickness in Individuals with Tear Hyperosmolarity

      Purpose : To investigate whether tear hyperosmolarity, a feature of dry eye disease (DED), affects central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal light reflectivity, and/or tear film reflectivity. Methods : This prospective, cross-sectional study involved 48 participants (38 with hyperosmolar tears and 10 controls with normo-osmolar tears). Symptoms and signs of DED (tear osmolarity, sodium fluorescein tear break-up time, ocular surface staining, Schirmer test) were assessed. CCT, and the reflectivity of the cornea and the tear-epithelial interface were quantified relative to background noise using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). Results : CCT of eyes with severe tear hyperosmolarity, defined as eyes in the upper ...

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    8. Regression-based algorithm for bulk motion subtraction in optical coherence tomography angiography

      Regression-based algorithm for bulk motion subtraction in optical coherence tomography angiography

      We developed an algorithm to remove decorrelation noise due to bulk motion in optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) of the posterior eye. In this algorithm, OCTA B-frames were divided into segments within which the bulk motion velocity could be assumed to be constant. This velocity was recovered using linear regression of decorrelation versus the logarithm of reflectance in axial lines (A-lines) identified as bulk tissue by percentile analysis. The fitting parameters were used to calculate a reflectance-adjusted upper bound threshold for bulk motion decorrelation. Below this threshold, voxels are identified as non-flow tissue, their flow values are set to zeros ...

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    9. POLYPOIDAL CHOROIDAL VASCULOPATHY UPON OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHIC ANGIOGRAPHY

      POLYPOIDAL CHOROIDAL VASCULOPATHY UPON OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHIC ANGIOGRAPHY

      Purpose: To study polypoidal lesions and branching choroidal vascular networks in eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy by optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based angiography (OCTA). Methods: In the observational cross-sectional study, patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, as diagnosed by indocyanine green angiography, underwent OCTA. Results: Thirty-two eyes of 31 patients with an age of 61.1 +/- 7.6 years were included. Branching choroidal vascular networks were detected by indocyanine green angiography and OCTA in 25 of 32 (78 +/- 73%) and in 30 of 32 (94 +/- 4%) eyes, respectively, with a marginally significant difference (P = 0.06) in the detection rate between ...

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    10. Dimensionality Reduction of Optical Coherence Tomography Images for the Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease

      Dimensionality Reduction of Optical Coherence Tomography Images for the Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease

      Chicago Style Research Article Open Access Peer-reviewed Dimensionality Reduction of Optical Coherence Tomography Images for the Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease Sandeep C S , Sukesh Kumar A , K Mahadevan , Manoj P American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering . 2017 , 5(2), 58-63. DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-5-2-4 Published online: April 27, 2017 Alzheimer’s disease OCT early diagnosis wavelons Full Text Authors Metrics Citations Related Content Licencing Abstract Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and its incidence is increasing worldwide along with population aging. Previous clinical and histologic studies suggest that the neurodegenerative process, which ...

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    11. Proposal of a simple optical coherence tomography-based scoring system for progression of age-related macular degeneration

      Proposal of a simple optical coherence tomography-based scoring system for progression of age-related macular degeneration

      Purpose To develop a simple, clinically practical, optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based scoring system for early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) to prognosticate risk for progression to late AMD. Methods We retrospectively reviewed OCT images (512 × 128 macular cube, Cirrus) from 138 patients diagnosed of early AMD in at least one eye and follow-up of at least 12 months. For patients with early AMD in both eyes, only the right eye was chosen as the study eye for longitudinal assessment. Scans were graded on four SD-OCT criteria associated with disease progression in previous studies: drusen volume within a central 3-mm circle ...

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    12. CORRELATION BETWEEN PREOPERATIVE EN FACE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY OF PHOTORECEPTOR LAYER AND VISUAL PROGNOSIS AFTER MACULAR HOLE SURGERY

      CORRELATION BETWEEN PREOPERATIVE EN FACE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY OF PHOTORECEPTOR LAYER AND VISUAL PROGNOSIS AFTER MACULAR HOLE SURGERY

      Purpose: To investigate the correlation between preoperative en face spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings of the photoreceptor layer with restoration of foveal microstructure and visual acuity in repaired macular holes. Methods: Medical records of 106 patients with surgically closed macular holes were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative OCT slabs of the external limiting membrane (ELM) and ellipsoid zone (EZ) were generated using embedded tools. All patients were classified into two groups according to the presence of preoperative retinal pigment epithelium protrusion seen as hyperreflective spots in EZ slab. Visual acuity, homogenous reflectivity, and glial proliferation in the ELM and EZ slabs ...

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    13. PARAFOVEAL MICROVASCULAR FEATURES ON OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY IN EYES WITH CIRCUMSCRIBED CHOROIDAL HEMANGIOMA

      PARAFOVEAL MICROVASCULAR FEATURES ON OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY IN EYES WITH CIRCUMSCRIBED CHOROIDAL HEMANGIOMA

      Purpose: To evaluate parafoveal microvasculature in eyes with circumscribed choroidal hemangioma using optical coherence tomography angiography. Methods: Fourteen eyes with unilateral circumscribed choroidal hemangioma were imaged using OCT for central macular thickness and optical coherence tomography angiography for superficial and deep foveal avascular zone area, and superficial and deep capillary density (CD), comparing affected and paired fellow eyes. Results: Mean patient age was 53 years, and mean visual acuity was 20/60 in the involved eye and 20/25 in the fellow eye. In the affected eye, clinical findings included cystoid macular edema (CME) in 1, parafoveal/subfoveal subretinal fluid ...

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    14. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography and retained vegetal intraocular foreign body masquerading as chronic anterior uveitis

      Anterior segment optical coherence tomography and retained vegetal intraocular foreign body masquerading as chronic anterior uveitis

      Background The purpose of this single case report was to report the use of anterior segment optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis and management of a retained vegetal intraocular foreign body. Results A 23-year-old otherwise healthy male presented with a progressive vision loss in the right eye (RE). He reported a mild ocular trauma with a tree leaf 1 year ago followed by recurrent episodes of redness and pain in the RE that partially resolved after a self-medication with topical steroids. Visual acuity of the RE was limited to light perception. Slit-lamp examination of the RE showed an iris granuloma ...

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    15. MORPHOFUNCTIONAL EVALUATION IN DOME-SHAPED MACULA: A MICROPERIMETRY AND OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY STUDY

      MORPHOFUNCTIONAL EVALUATION IN DOME-SHAPED MACULA: A MICROPERIMETRY AND OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY STUDY

      Purpose: To investigate retinal sensitivity (Se) in dome-shaped macula (DSM) using microperimetry and to correlate functional findings to specific spectral domain optical coherence tomography features. Methods: Patients affected by DSM in at least 1 eye were consecutively enrolled in a prospective, cross-sectional study. All studied eyes performed best-corrected visual acuity measurement, microperimetry to assess Se and optical coherence tomography to investigate DSM pattern and to measure bulge height and retinal and choroidal thicknesses. Results: Fifty-three eyes of 29 patients were studied. Dome-shaped macula was vertically oriented (V-DSM) in 23 (43.4%), symmetric (S-DSM) in 17 (32.1%), and horizontally oriented ...

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    16. MULTIMODAL IMAGING OF ACUTE EXUDATIVE POLYMORPHOUS VITELLIFORM MACULOPATHY WITH OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY AND ADAPTIVE OPTICS SCANNING LASER OPHTHALMOSCOPY

      MULTIMODAL IMAGING OF ACUTE EXUDATIVE POLYMORPHOUS VITELLIFORM MACULOPATHY WITH OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY AND ADAPTIVE OPTICS SCANNING LASER OPHTHALMOSCOPY

      Purpose: To report a case of acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy including the findings of optical coherence tomography angiography and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Methods: Findings on clinical examination, color fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, infrared reflectance, autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography angiography, and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Results: A 54-year-old white man with no significant medical history and history of smoking presented with bilateral multiple serous and vitelliform detachments consistent with acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy. Extensive infectious, inflammatory, and malignancy workup was negative. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed thickened, hyperreflective ellipsoid zone, subretinal fluid, and focal ...

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    17. A Case of Retinal Cavernous Hemangioma Diagnosed with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      A Case of Retinal Cavernous Hemangioma Diagnosed with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Dear Editor, Retinal cavernous hemangioma (RCH) is a rare, benign, congenital vascular anomaly, incidentally diagnosed in asymptomatic patients. Its characteristics were first reported by Gass [ 1 ] in 1971, as multiple saccular intraretinal aneurysms with dark red color. In most cases, RCH presents with no symptoms, but sometimes it causes visual deterioration when the lesion involves macular and/or vitreous hemorrhage. Several reports have demonstrated that RCH may accompany cutaneous and central nervous system angiomatous lesions, so that RCH could be classified as part of a neuro-oculocutaneous syndrome [ 2 , 3 ]. The lesions are mostly located in the inner retinal layer or ...

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    18. Optical coherence tomography angiography wide-field montage in branch retinal vein occlusion before and after anti-vascular endothelial-derived growth factor injection

      Optical coherence tomography angiography wide-field montage in branch retinal vein occlusion before and after anti-vascular endothelial-derived growth factor injection

      The wide-field montage technique of optical coherence tomography angiography provides good delineation of the improvement in microvascular disturbance associated with branch retinal vein occlusion after treatment with anti-vascular endothelial-derived growth factor injection. It may be further evaluated for the assessment of treatment progress in patients with retinal vein occlusion.

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    19. New algorithm helps interpret vision loss

      New algorithm helps interpret vision loss

      Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed technology that can take a three-dimensional image of the inside of the human eye , revolutionising eye care. These images are especially suited to detecting and monitoring two of the most common causes of progressive vision loss: glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration. Advances in computing power and LCD screen technology have both contributed to the adoption of digital imaging in eye care. However, the brain plays such a powerful role in generating our sense of sight that damage to the light-sensing retina does not necessarily result in a one-to-one corresponding loss of vision ...

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    20. A Potential of Mechanism of Retinal Injury

      A Potential of Mechanism of Retinal Injury

      Purpose: To investigate the structural optical coherence tomography and related microvascular flow characteristics in eyes with retinal vasculitis. Methods: Regions involved with perivascular infiltration in eyes with retinal vasculitis, but no evidence of large vessel occlusion were evaluated with optical coherence tomography (OCT), OCT angiography, and fluorescein angiography. Results: Ten eyes of 5 patients with a variety of etiologies of retinal vasculitis were evaluated. These patients did not have either cotton wool spots or deeper placoid areas of retinal ischemia. Around large vessels there was perivascular infiltration with leakage and staining seen during fluorescein angiography. Structural OCT showed slight thickening ...

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    21. B-Scan and En Face Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Evaluation

      B-Scan and En Face Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Evaluation

      Purpose: To evaluate hyperreflective retinal spots (HRS), in normal subjects and diabetic patients without and with macular edema (diabetic macular edema, DME), on linear B-scans and corresponding en face image of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Methods: Retrospective evaluation of images of 54 eyes/subjects (16 normal subjects, 19 diabetic patients without DME, and 19 with DME). On horizontal B-scan spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, passing through the center of the fovea, the following characteristics of HRS were evaluated: location (inner retina or outer retina), size (≤30 or >30 μ m), reflectivity (similar to nerve fiber layer or to retinal pigment epithelium–Bruch ...

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    22. A Novel Optical Coherence Tomography Based Parameter in Patients With Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration

      A Novel Optical Coherence Tomography Based Parameter in Patients With Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration

      Purpose: To evaluate choroidal structural changes in exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using choroidal vascularity index computed from image binarization on spectral domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging. Methods: This prospective case series included 42 consecutive patients with unilateral exudative AMD. Choroidal images were segmented into luminal area and stromal area. Choroidal vascularity index was defined as the ratio of luminal area to total choroid area. Mean choroidal vascularity index and mean choroidal thickness between study and fellow eyes of the same patient with dry AMD were compared using Student's t -test. Results: There was a significantly ...

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    23. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Follow-up of Retinal Vein Occlusion

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Follow-up of Retinal Vein Occlusion

      Purpose: To evaluate changes of vascular flow of patients treated with intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO) with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: Patients with RVO with macular edema and treated with intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factors were retrospectively evaluated. The following examinations were performed before and after treatment: best-corrected visual acuity, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and OCTA (Optovue, Inc). Automatic measurement of vascular density of the superficial and deep capillary plexus was also performed and compared with age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Results ...

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