1. Articles from Aniruddha Agarwal

    1-24 of 32 1 2 »
    1. Clear subretinal fluid in a case of non-neovascular early-onset drusen: Swept-source imaging evaluation

      Clear subretinal fluid in a case of non-neovascular early-onset drusen: Swept-source imaging evaluation

      A 50-year-old male presented with recent metamorphopsia in the right eye. Fundus examination revealed bilateral multiple cuticular drusen along with few large colloid drusen (phenotype 3 cuticular drusen). No vitelliform material was evident in the macula in either eye. Fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) did not demonstrate a macular neovascularization (MNV) in either eye. Swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) revealed sub-retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) drusen and a clear space beneath the inter-digitation zone and above the RPE-Bruch’s complex. SS-OCTA did not reveal MNV in either eye. The patient was kept under observation, and follow-up at 3 months ...

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    2. Bacillary layer detachment in tubercular choroidal granuloma: A new optical coherence tomography finding

      Bacillary layer detachment in tubercular choroidal granuloma: A new optical coherence tomography finding

      A 32-year-old Asian Indian male presented with sudden-onset and painless decrease in vision in the right eye (OD) for the past 1 day. On examination, his best-corrected visual acuity was 6/24 in OD and 6/6 in the left eye (OS). Anterior segment was quiescent in both eyes. Fundus examination showed ill-defined yellowish subretinal lesions inferior to fovea with surrounding fluid reaching the inferior arcade in OD. A cystic lesion with well-defined borders was seen in the foveal center. Fluorescein angiography (FA) showed early hypofluorescence and late hyperfluorescence indicating active choroidal inflammation. Pooling of dye was appreciated in the ...

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      Mentions: Vishali Gupta
    3. Bacillary Layer Detachment in Acute Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease: A Novel Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis

      Bacillary Layer Detachment in Acute Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease: A Novel Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis

      Purpose: To report the frequency, optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings, and visual and anatomic outcomes of patients with acute Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH) presenting with bacillary layer detachment (BLD) (intraretinal split at the photoreceptor inner segment myoid). Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of VKH patients having a minimum follow-up of 6 months. All patients had swept-source (SS)-OCT, fluorescein angiography (FA), and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) performed at baseline. The characteristics of serial SS-OCT were recorded and analyzed. Results: Sixty-two subjects (42 females; age: 34.2 ± 12 years) with VKH were included. 118 eyes (95.2 ...

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    4. Longitudinal Follow-up of Tubercular Serpiginous-Like Choroiditis using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Longitudinal Follow-up of Tubercular Serpiginous-Like Choroiditis using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose: To analyze and describe serial follow-up of choriocapillaris alterations in tubercular serpiginous like choroiditis (TB SLC) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and to compare it with multimodal imaging. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, patients with active TB SLC underwent OCTA using Optovue RTVue XR Avanti® and other imaging including enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI- OCT ) (Heidelberg Spectralis®), autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Serial imaging was performed for a total follow-up of 3 months. Choriocapillaris alterations at the site of lesions were analyzed on OCTA imaging and their mean lesion areas (LA ...

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    5. Advances in imaging of uveitis

      Advances in imaging of uveitis

      Advances in multimodal imaging have significantly contributed to the management of many uveitis diseases in recent years. The most significant developments include the use of optical coherence tomography to obtain a more accurate and reproducible assessment of ocular inflammation, the application of optical coherence tomography angiography in choroiditis and retinal vasculitis, new possibilities for studying vitritis with ultrawide field imaging, and the most recent applications of fundus autofluorescence in uveitis. In this review, we provide an overview of the most significant advances in multimodal imaging of uveitis achieved in recent years.

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    6. Swept-source optical coherence tomography imaging of the retinochoroid and beyond

      Swept-source optical coherence tomography imaging of the retinochoroid and beyond

      Introduction : Swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) imaging has ushered in an era of rapid and high-resolution imaging of the retinochoroid that provides detailed patho-anatomy of various layers. Areas Covered : In this detailed review, the technology of swept-source imaging including its principles and working have been discussed. The applications of SS-OCT in various conditions including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, pachychoroid spectrum of diseases, and inflammatory vitreoretinal conditions has been elaborated. For each disease, a brief review of literature along with the utility of SS-OCT and optical coherence tomography angiography has been provided with supporting figures. The advantages of SS-OCT over ...

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    7. Topographic correlation between multifocal electroretinography, microperimetry, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the macula in patients with birdshot chorioretinopathy

      Topographic correlation between multifocal electroretinography, microperimetry, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the macula in patients with birdshot chorioretinopathy

      Purpose To correlate the findings of retinal function with multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG), microperimetry (MP), and structural assessments with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in topographically corresponding areas of the macula of patients with birdshot chorioretinopathy (BSCR). Methods Patients diagnosed with BSCR by clinical and imaging findings were included in the study. The mfERG was performed using 61 hexagon stimulus patterns grouped into 5 rings (Diagnosys Inc., USA). Individual responses [N1-P1 amplitudes in nanovolt (NV)/degree 2 and P1 implicit time in milliseconds (msec)] for each hexagon in the central 3 rings (R1, 0°–2.3°; R2,2.3°–7.7 ...

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    8. Intraoperative optical coherence tomography and proportional reflux hydrodissection-guided pars plana vitrectomy for complex severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy

      Intraoperative optical coherence tomography and proportional reflux hydrodissection-guided pars plana vitrectomy for complex severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy

      The study describes the technique of combining microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography (mi-OCT) and proportional reflux hydrodissection (PRH) during pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) in eyes with complex proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) including tractional retinal detachment (TRD), combined retinal detachment (CRD), and taut posterior hyaloid membrane (TPHM). In this technique, PRH is used to create tissue planes between fibrovascular adhesions in areas identified using mi-OCT for insinuating the vitrector, enabling tissue dissection and release of traction. About 46 patients were operated using this technique. 34 eyes had TRD, 9 eyes had CRD, and 3 eyes were diagnosed with TPHM. A second instrument ...

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    9. Swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in vertically oriented oval dome-shaped maculopathy

      Swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in vertically oriented oval dome-shaped maculopathy

      A 48-year-old female presented with complaints of recent onset diminution of vision of the left eye (OS) for the past 2 months. She was highly myopic and was using glasses for the past 30 years. Ocular examination revealed presence of a myopic fundus with high axial lengths in both the eyes. Fundus examination of the OS revealed a myopic tessellated fundus with prominent choroidal vessels and a blunted foveal reflex. There was a small pale whitish lesion just superior to the foveal center. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans (both horizontal and vertical) confirmed presence of dome-shaped maculopathy. There was subretinal ...

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      Mentions: Vishali Gupta
    10. Commentary: Choroidal thickness in the era of swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Commentary: Choroidal thickness in the era of swept-source optical coherence tomography

      In this issue of Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , the authors have performed a large study with 119 healthy patients (238 eyes) with an aim to establish a normative database of subfoveal choroidal thickness in Asian Indian eyes using the technology of swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography (OCT). [1] The authors included subjects with a mean age of 28.7 years (range: 19–45 years). The authors concluded that the mean subfoveal choroidal thickness (in the central 1 mm) was 299.10 ± 131.2 μm compared with 294.8 ± 46.5 μm obtained using spectral-domain (SD) technology. [1] In the era ...

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    11. Current role of optical coherence tomography angiography: Expert panel discussion

      Current role of optical coherence tomography angiography: Expert panel discussion

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography is a promising technique that provides depth resolved images of blood flow in the retina and choroid with levels of detail far exceeding that obtained with older forms of imaging and offers several advantages over conventional angiography to visualize the chorioretinal vasculature in a rapid and noninvasive manner. However, as with any evolving imaging technique, there are ongoing challenges in terms of need for new equipment, limitations of imaging capability and software processing techniques, as well as in understanding the implications of the imaging and its correlation with pathophysiology of the retina and choroid. This ...

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    12. Diurnal variation of choriocapillaris vessel flow density in normal subjects measured using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Diurnal variation of choriocapillaris vessel flow density in normal subjects measured using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Background Vessel flow density (VFD) may provide important information regarding perfusion status. Diurnal variation in VFD of choriocapillaris has not been reported in literature. In the index study, optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) was used to assess the diurnal variation of the VFD in the choriocapillaris of subjects with no known ocular disease. Methods Fifty eyes with no known ocular disease (25 subjects) were included. OCTA images were acquired using AngioVue (Optovue, Fremont, CA, USA) at two different time points on a single day: 9:00 AM and 6:00 PM. Macular cube scan protocol (3 × 3 mm) centered on ...

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    13. FRACTAL DIMENSION AND OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY FEATURES OF THE CENTRAL MACULA AFTER REPAIR OF RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENTS

      FRACTAL DIMENSION AND OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY FEATURES OF THE CENTRAL MACULA AFTER REPAIR OF RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENTS

      Purpose: Patients with macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RRDs) may have suboptimal visual recovery, despite successful reattachment due to various reasons. This study was performed to evaluate the retinal microvasculature in subjects undergoing surgery for RRD using optical coherence tomography angiography . Methods: In this case–control study, the analysis of optical coherence tomography angiography findings of 19 eyes of 19 patients (15 men) who underwent RRD surgery at a tertiary institute were compared with 19 eyes of 19 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects with no known ocular disease. 3 × 3-mm optical coherence tomography angiography scans were obtained at 3 months postoperatively ...

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      Mentions: Vishali Gupta
    14. Type 2 Choroidal Neovascularization in a Choroidal Granuloma Detected Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Type 2 Choroidal Neovascularization in a Choroidal Granuloma Detected Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      The authors describe the imaging characteristics and progression of a type 2 choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV) using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCTA). A 27-year-old male presented with an active possible tubercular choroidal granuloma associated with exudative retinal detachment in the right eye. The patient received anti-tubercular drugs, oral corticosteroids, and intravitreal bevacizumab and showed complete resolution in 3 months. At the 7-month follow-up, SS-OCTA imaging revealed a type 2 CNV. SS-OCTA is a very useful tool to detect and monitor the growth of CNV in active and healed posterior uveitis without the risks of dye-based angiography.

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      Mentions: Vishali Gupta
    15. DETECTION OF TYPE 1 CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULAR MEMBRANES USING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY IN TUBERCULAR POSTERIOR UVEITIS

      DETECTION OF TYPE 1 CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULAR MEMBRANES USING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY IN TUBERCULAR POSTERIOR UVEITIS

      Purpose: To study optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and multimodal imaging features of Type 1 inflammatory choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in tubercular serpiginous-like choroiditis and response to anti–vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. Methods: In this study, multimodal imaging was performed using OCTA, enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography . Correlation of OCTA with other imaging modalities in the detection of CNV was performed. The changes in CNV configuration after anti–vascular endothelial growth factor therapy were assessed. Results: In this study, nine eyes (8 patients; 5 females; mean age: 32.5 ± 11.57 years) with diagnosis ...

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      Mentions: Vishali Gupta
    16. Optical coherence tomography angiography features of bilateral retinopathy associated with Chikungunya fever

      Optical coherence tomography angiography features of bilateral retinopathy associated with Chikungunya fever

      A 66-year-old male patient presented with decreased vision in both eyes following episode of Chikungunya fever. Examination revealed bilateral retinal lesions with stippled pigmentary changes at the level of the choriocapillaris, involving the macula in the left eye. The retinopathy consisted of outer retinal disruption and retinochoroidal flow abnormalities detected using with additional imaging, including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), autofluorescence, and OCT angiography (OCTA). The index case report describes unique OCTA findings in both eyes of an elderly male secondary to Chikungunya fever. Using the technique of OCTA, insights into the mechanisms of visual damage in viral retinopathies such ...

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      Mentions: Vishali Gupta
    17. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FINDINGS IN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS RETINITIS: A Longitudinal Study

      OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FINDINGS IN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS RETINITIS: A Longitudinal Study

      Purpose: To evaluate the vitreal, retinal, and choroidal features using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in eyes affected by cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. Methods: Patients diagnosed with either active or inactive CMV retinitis were included in the study. Complete ophthalmic examination, serial color fundus photography, and SD-OCT (with and without enhanced depth imaging function) were performed for all the subjects at baseline and follow-up visits. The SD-OCT images were analyzed by two independent graders to evaluate the structural changes in areas of CMV retinitis. Prevalence data for vitreal, retinal, and choroidal SD-OCT features were collected. Results: Twelve eyes from 9 ...

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    18. Optical coherence tomography angiography features of acute macular neuroretinopathy in dengue fever

      Optical coherence tomography angiography features of acute macular neuroretinopathy in dengue fever

      A 39-year-old female with dengue fever presented with decreased vision in both eyes. Visual acuity was 20/200 and 20/80 in the right eye (OD) and left eye (OS), respectively. Fundus showed granular, grayish-white lesions in the parafoveal region in OD. Multimodal imaging including optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and fluorescein angiography (FA) was performed. FA showed late hyperfluorescence with few microaneurysms in OS. OCT showed hyperreflectivity in various layers, suggestive of acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN). OCTA showed disruption of retinal capillary plexuses. This case shows how OCTA provides newer insights into the pathogenesis of ...

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      Mentions: Vishali Gupta
    19. Evaluation of macular and peripapillary vessel flow density in eyes with no known pathology using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Evaluation of macular and peripapillary vessel flow density in eyes with no known pathology using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose To assess normal vessel flow density (VFD) in macular and peripapillary regions of eyes with no known ocular pathology using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods AngioVue (Optovue, Fremont, CA, USA) was used to capture OCTA images. A 3 × 3 mm grid and a 4.5 × 4.5 mm grid was used to scan parafoveal and peripapillary regions, respectively. ReVue software was utilized to measure VFD in five sectors within the inner two circles of ETDRS grid in macular region and correlated to retinal thickness of same sectors. At optic disc, VFD was calculated in six sectors based on ...

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    20. Analysis of Retinochoroidal Vasculature in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Using Spectral-Domain OCT Angiography

      Analysis of Retinochoroidal Vasculature in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Using Spectral-Domain OCT Angiography

      Purpose To describe the retinochoroidal vascular alterations in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection using en face OCT angiography (OCTA). Design Cross-sectional study. Participants Twenty-six patients with HIV infection (5 women, with and without HIV retinopathy) were included in the study. Nineteen healthy participants (7 women) with no known ocular disease were recruited as healthy controls. Methods Multimodal imaging was performed using OCTA (Optovue RTVue XR Avanti; Optovue, Inc, Fremont, CA), enhanced-depth imaging OCT (Heidelberg Spectralis; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), color fundus photography, and fluorescein angiography (FA). Vessel flow density (VFD) was calculated automatically by the OCTA software. Morphologic ...

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    21. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FINDINGS IN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS RETINITIS: A Longitudinal Study

      OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FINDINGS IN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS RETINITIS: A Longitudinal Study

      Purpose: To evaluate the vitreal, retinal, and choroidal features using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in eyes affected by cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. Methods: Patients diagnosed with either active or inactive CMV retinitis were included in the study. Complete ophthalmic examination, serial color fundus photography, and SD-OCT (with and without enhanced depth imaging function) were performed for all the subjects at baseline and follow-up visits. The SD-OCT images were analyzed by two independent graders to evaluate the structural changes in areas of CMV retinitis. Prevalence data for vitreal, retinal, and choroidal SD-OCT features were collected. Results: Twelve eyes from 9 ...

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    22. Distinguishing features of acute Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease and acute central serous chorioretinopathy on optical coherence tomography angiography and en face optical coherence tomography imaging

      Distinguishing features of acute Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease and acute central serous chorioretinopathy on optical coherence tomography angiography and en face optical coherence tomography imaging

      Background The aim of this study is to determine the differences in optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) features of acute Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH) and acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Clinical and imaging data of patients with acute CSC and VKH in a tertiary-care institute were analyzed. Multimodal imaging including fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), and enhanced-depth imaging OCT were performed. OCTA images were analyzed for alterations in retinochoroidal microvasculature. Results Thirty-four eyes (24 patients; 10 with VKH and 14 with CSC) were included. OCTA en face images showed apparent areas of choriocapillaris flow void due to shadowing effect from ...

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      Mentions: Vishali Gupta
    23. Morphological differences between optic disc collaterals and neovascularization on optical coherence tomography angiography

      Morphological differences between optic disc collaterals and neovascularization on optical coherence tomography angiography

      Background To study morphological features of optic disc venous collaterals (OVCs) and neovascularization of optic disc (NVD) on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods Patients with OVCs and NVDs secondary to ischemic retinal diseases were prospectively enrolled. Multimodal imaging was performed using color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA), and OCTA. Morphological evaluation of en-face structural OCT, cross-sectional and en-face OCTA was performed. Results Twenty eyes (20 patients; OVCs: n  = 10 and NVD: n  = 10) were included. OVCs appeared as small, loopy vessels distinct from surrounding peripapillary capillaries on OCTA in the radial peripapillary capillary frame. NVDs appeared as a mesh ...

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      Mentions: Vishali Gupta
    24. NOVEL FINDINGS ON OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY IN PATIENTS WITH TUBERCULAR SERPIGINOUS-LIKE CHOROIDITIS

      NOVEL FINDINGS ON OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY IN PATIENTS WITH TUBERCULAR SERPIGINOUS-LIKE CHOROIDITIS

      Purpose: To analyze and describe the imaging characteristics of tubercular serpiginous-like choroiditis using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and to compare these findings with multimodal imaging. Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, multimodal imaging was performed in subjects with tubercular serpiginous-like choroiditis using OCTA (Optovue RTVue XR Avanti), enhanced-depth imaging OCT (Heidelberg Spectralis), fundus autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography. Distinct morphologic features of the retinochoroidal vasculature at the sites of choroiditis lesions were analyzed on OCTA imaging. Multimodal imaging analysis was performed to study the changes observed on OCTA. Results: Eighteen eyes (18 subjects, 16 males) were included ...

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    1-24 of 32 1 2 »
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    ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY VERSUS ULTRASONOGRAPHY B-SCAN FOR MEASURING RETINOCHOROIDAL THICKNESS IN NORMAL EYES Spectral domain optical coherence tomography changes following intravitreal dexamethasone implant, Ozurdex ® in patients with uveitic cystoid macular edema SPECTRAL-DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY EVALUATION OF RETINAL STRUCTURE IN PATIENTS WITH SUSACS SYNDROME The Role of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in the Diagnosis and Management of Acute Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada Disease Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Reveals Choriocapillaris Flow Reduction in Placoid Chorioretinitis NOVEL FINDINGS ON OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY IN PATIENTS WITH TUBERCULAR SERPIGINOUS-LIKE CHOROIDITIS Morphological differences between optic disc collaterals and neovascularization on optical coherence tomography angiography Distinguishing features of acute Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease and acute central serous chorioretinopathy on optical coherence tomography angiography and en face optical coherence tomography imaging OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FINDINGS IN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS RETINITIS: A Longitudinal Study Analysis of Retinochoroidal Vasculature in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Using Spectral-Domain OCT Angiography Fantom Encore Sirolimus-eluting Bioresorbable Scaffold for Treatment of De-novo CAD: the ENCORE-I Study Assessment of Microcirculatory Dysfunction in Septic Shock Patients by OCTA