1. Articles from Thomas E. Milner

    1-24 of 77 1 2 3 4 »
    1. Assessment of Vascular Patency and Inflammation with Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients with Superficial Femoral Artery Disease Treated with Zilver PTX Stents

      Assessment of Vascular Patency and Inflammation with Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients with Superficial Femoral Artery Disease Treated with Zilver PTX Stents

      Purpose Zilver PTX nitinol self-expanding drug-eluting stent with paclitaxel coating is effective for treatment of superficial femoral artery (SFA) disease. However, as with any stent, it induces a measure of vascular inflammatory response. The current clinical trial (NCT02734836) aimed to assess vascular patency, remodeling, and inflammatory markers with intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with SFA disease treated with Zilver PTX stents. Methods Serial OCT examinations were performed in 13 patients at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Variables evaluated included neointimal area, luminal narrowing, thrombus area, stent expansion as well as measures of inflammation including, peri-strut low-intensity area (PLIA), macrophage ...

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    2. Laser brain cancer surgery in a xenograft model guided by optical coherence tomography

      Laser brain cancer surgery in a xenograft model guided by optical coherence tomography

      Higher precision surgical devices are needed for tumor resections near critical brain structures. The goal of this study is to demonstrate feasibility of a system capable of precise and bloodless tumor ablation. An image-guided laser surgical system is presented for excision of brain tumors in vivo in a murine xenograft model. The system combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) guidance with surgical lasers for high-precision tumor ablation (Er:YAG) and microcirculation coagulation (Thulium (Tm) fiber laser). Methods: A fluorescent human glioblastoma cell line was injected into mice and allowed to grow four weeks. Craniotomies were performed and tumors were imaged with ...

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    3. Scattering-Angle-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography of a Hypoxic Mouse Retina Model

      Scattering-Angle-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography of a Hypoxic Mouse Retina Model

      Several studies have noted a correlation between retinal degeneration and traumatic encephalopathy (TE) making the retina a leading candidate for detection and assessment. Scattering-angle-resolved optical coherence tomography (SAR-OCT) is a candidate imaging modality to detect sub-resolution changes in retinal microstructure. SAR-OCT images of murine retinas that experience a hypoxic insult— euthanasia by isoflurane overdose—are presented. A total of 4 SAR-OCT measurement parameters are reported in 6 longitudinal experiments: blood flow volume fraction, total retinal thickness, reflectance index, and scattering angle. As each mouse expires, blood flow volume fraction decreases, total retinal thickness increases, reflectance index decreases, and scattering angle ...

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    4. OCT-IVUS catheter for concurrent luminal imaging

      OCT-IVUS catheter for concurrent luminal imaging

      The invention relates to an apparatus for in vivo imaging. More specifically, the present invention relates to a catheter that incorporates an Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) system and an Intravascular Ultrasound ("IVUS) system for concurrent imaging of luminal systems, such as imaging the vasculature system, including, without limitation, cardiac vasculature, peripheral vasculature and neural vasculature.

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    5. Design Considerations for Murine Retinal Imaging Using Scattering Angle Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography

      Design Considerations for Murine Retinal Imaging Using Scattering Angle Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT), an optical imaging approach enabling cross-sectional analysis of turbid samples, is routinely used for retinal imaging in human and animal models of diseases affecting the retina. Scattering angle resolved (SAR-)OCT has previously been demonstrated as offering additional contrast in human studies, but no SAR-OCT system has been reported in detail for imaging the retinas of mice. An optical model of a mouse eye was designed and extended for validity at wavelengths of light around 1310 nm; this model was then utilized to develop a SAR-OCT design for murine retinal imaging. A Monte Carlo technique simulates ...

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    6. Understanding and improving optical coherence tomography imaging depth in selective laser sintering nylon 12 parts and powder

      Understanding and improving optical coherence tomography imaging depth in selective laser sintering nylon 12 parts and powder

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has shown promise as a process sensor in selective laser sintering (SLS) due to its ability to yield depth-resolved data not attainable with conventional sensors. However, OCT images of nylon 12 powder and nylon 12 components fabricated via SLS contain artifacts that have not been previously investigated in the literature. A better understanding of light interactions with SLS powder and components is foundational for further research expanding the utility of OCT imaging in SLS and other additive manufacturing (AM) sensing applications. Specifically, in this work, nylon powder and sintered parts were imaged in air and in ...

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    7. In situ process monitoring in selective laser sintering using optical coherence tomography

      In situ process monitoring in selective laser sintering using optical coherence tomography

      Selective laser sintering (SLS) is an efficient process in additive manufacturing that enables rapid part production from computer-based designs. However, SLS is limited by its notable lack of in situ process monitoring when compared with other manufacturing processes. We report the incorporation of optical coherence tomography (OCT) into an SLS system in detail and demonstrate access to surface and subsurface features. Video frame rate cross-sectional imaging reveals areas of sintering uniformity and areas of excessive heat error with high temporal resolution. We propose a set of image processing techniques for SLS process monitoring with OCT and report the limitations and ...

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    8. Optical coherence tomography image-guided smart laser knife for surgery

      Optical coherence tomography image-guided smart laser knife for surgery

      Background and Objective Surgical oncology can benefit from specialized tools that enhance imaging and enable precise cutting and removal of tissue without damage to adjacent structures. The combination of high-resolution, fast optical coherence tomography (OCT) co-aligned with a nanosecond pulsed thulium (Tm) laser offers advantages over conventional surgical laser systems. Tm lasers provide superior beam quality, high volumetric tissue removal rates with minimal residual thermal footprint in tissue, enabling a reduction in unwanted damage to delicate adjacent sub-surface structures such as nerves or micro-vessels. We investigated such a combined Tm/OCT system with co-aligned imaging and cutting beams—a configuration ...

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    9. Scattering angle resolved optical coherence tomography for in vivo murine retinal imaging

      Scattering angle resolved optical coherence tomography for in vivo murine retinal imaging

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal imaging contributes to understanding central nervous system (CNS) diseases because the eye is an anatomical “window to the brain” with direct optical access to nonmylenated retinal ganglion cells. However, many CNS diseases are associated with neuronal changes beyond the resolution of standard OCT retinal imaging systems. Though studies have shown the utility of scattering angle resolved (SAR) OCT for particle sizing and detecting disease states ex vivo, a compact SAR-OCT system for in vivo rodent retinal imaging has not previously been reported. We report a fiber-based SAR-OCT system (swept source at 1310 nm ± 65 nm ...

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    10. Polarization-sensitive spectral interferometry as a function of depth for tissue identification

      Polarization-sensitive spectral interferometry as a function of depth for tissue identification

      A polarization sensitive spectral interferometer apparatus and method for analyzing a sample by optical energy reflected from the sample. The polarization sensitive spectral interferometer apparatus and method determines polarization properties of the sample by optical energy reflected from the sample. The method for analyzing a sample with a spectral interferometer identifies the tissue type of the sample by the polarization properties as a function of depth from the sample.

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    11. Diagnosis of Thin-Capped Fibroatheromas in Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Images Effects of Light Scattering

      Diagnosis of Thin-Capped Fibroatheromas in Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Images Effects of Light Scattering

      Background— Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) images are recorded by detecting light backscattered within coronary arteries. We hypothesize that non–thin-capped fibroatheroma (TCFA) causes may scatter light to create the false appearance of IVOCT TCFA. Methods and Results— Ten human cadaver hearts were imaged with IVOCT (n=14 coronary arteries). IVOCT and histological TCFA images were coregistered and compared. Of 21 IVOCT TCFAs (fibrous cap <65 μm, lipid arc >1 quadrant), only 8 were true histological TCFA. Foam cell infiltration was responsible for 70% of false IVOCT TCFA and caused both thick-capped fibroatheromas to appear as TCFA, and the appearance ...

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    12. Effect of image registration on longitudinal analysis of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness of non-human primates using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

      Effect of image registration on longitudinal analysis of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness of non-human primates using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

      Background In this paper we determined the benefits of image registration on estimating longitudinal retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) changes. Methods RNFLT maps around the optic nerve head (ONH) of healthy primate eyes were measured using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) weekly for 30 weeks. One automatic algorithm based on mutual information (MI) and the other semi-automatic algorithm based on log-polar transform cross-correlation using manually segmented blood vessels (LPCC_MSBV), were used to register retinal maps longitudinally. We compared the precision and recall between manually segmented image pairs for the two algorithms using a linear mixed effects model. Results We found ...

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    13. Fourier optics analysis of phase-mask-based path-length-multiplexed optical coherence tomography

      Fourier optics analysis of phase-mask-based path-length-multiplexed optical coherence tomography

      Imaging below fingertip surface might be a useful alternative to the traditional fingerprint sensing since the internal finger features are more reliable than the external ones. One of the most promising subsurface imaging technique is optical coherence tomography (OCT), which, however, has to acquire 3-D data even when a single en face image is required. This makes OCT inherently slow for en face imaging and produce unnecessary large data sets. Here we demonstrate that full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT) can be used to produce en face images of sweat pores and internal fingerprints, which can be used for the identification ...

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    14. Clinical utility of quantitative bright spots analysis in patients with acute coronary syndrome: an optical coherence tomography study

      Clinical utility of quantitative bright spots analysis in patients with acute coronary syndrome: an optical coherence tomography study

      To investigate the clinical significance of bright spots in coronary plaque detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with coronary artery disease. We identified 112 patients [acute coronary syndromes (ACS): n = 50, stable angina pectoris (SAP): n = 62] who underwent OCT imaging of the culprit lesion. A novel OCT algorithm was applied to detect bright spots representing the juxtaposition of a variety of plaque components including macrophages. The density of bright spots within the most superficial 250 μm of the vessel wall was measured at the site of culprit lesion. Bright spot density in the culprit lesion was significantly ...

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    15. Translating Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography from a Research to a Clinical Tool

      Translating Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography from a Research to a Clinical Tool

      Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) continues to be a hot topic as a method for studying vulnerable plaque in research laboratories across the globe. It is also growing in popularity as a tool for interventional cardiologists to guide percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The power of IVOCT for diagnosis of thin-capped fibroatheromas (TCFAs) has yet to receive mainstream clinical attention due to the fact that clinicians still do not have a protocol to follow if TCFA are identified and that TCFA identification requires extensive training in IVOCT image analysis—it is not yet an automated process. In this review, we will ...

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    16. Detection of plaque structure and composition using OCT combined with two-photon luminescence (TPL) imaging

      Detection of plaque structure and composition using OCT combined with two-photon luminescence (TPL) imaging

      Background and Objectives Atherosclerosis and plaque rupture leads to myocardial infarction and stroke. A novel hybrid optical coherence tomography (OCT) and two-photon luminescence (TPL) fiber-based imaging system was developed to characterize tissue constituents in the context of plaque morphology. Study Design/Materials and Methods Ex vivo coronary arteries (34 regions of interest) from three human hearts with atherosclerotic plaques were examined by OCT–TPL imaging. Histological sections (4 μm in thickness) were stained with Oil Red O for lipid, Von Kossa for calcium, and Verhoeff–Masson Tri-Elastic for collagen/elastin fibers and compared with imaging results. Results Biochemical components in ...

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    17. Group Refractive Index Measurement of Liquids Using Common-Path Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Group Refractive Index Measurement of Liquids Using Common-Path Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      A fiber-optic based common-path swept source optical coherence tomography for a simple and high-resolution measurement of the group refractive indices of liquids has been investigated. The group refractive index measurement has been based on the optical length change before and after injection of liquid into a transparent glass tube. The gas-cell referenced fiber based common-path swept source optical coherence tomography instrument was utilized to obtain the group refractive indices of liquids. The standard deviations of the group refractive indices measured by this method were about 1 × 10–4. The measurement results on the group refractive indices of liquids showed an ...

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    18. Intravascular optical coherence tomography light scattering artifacts: merry-go-rounding, blooming, and ghost struts

      Intravascular optical coherence tomography light scattering artifacts: merry-go-rounding, blooming, and ghost struts

      We sought to elucidate the mechanisms underlying two common intravascular optical coherence tomography (IV-OCT) artifacts that occur when imaging metallic stents: “merry-go-rounding” (MGR), which is an increase in strut arc length (SAL), and “blooming,” which is an increase in the strut reflection thickness (blooming thickness). Due to uncontrollable variables that occur in vivo , we performed an in vitro assessment of MGR and blooming in stented vessel phantoms. Using Xience V and Driver stents, we examined the effects of catheter offset, intimal strut coverage, and residual blood on SAL and blooming thickness in IV-OCT images. Catheter offset and strut coverage both ...

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    19. Evaluation of IVOCT imaging of coronary artery metallic stents with neointimal coverage

      Evaluation of IVOCT imaging of coronary artery metallic stents with neointimal coverage

      Accuracy of IVOCT for measurement of neointimal thickness and effect of neointima in the appearance of metallic struts in IVOCT images was investigated. Phantom vessels were constructed and coronary stents were deployed and covered with thick (250–400 μm) and thin (30–70 μm) phantom neointima. High resolution Micro-CT images of the stent struts were recorded as a gold standard. IVOCT images of the phantom vessels were acquired with various luminal blood scattering strengths and measured neointimal thicknesses from IVOCT and Micro-CT images were compared. In transparent lumen, comparison of IVOCT and Micro-CT neointima thickness measurements found no significant difference ...

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    20. Macrophages and intravascular optical coherence tomography bright spots: a quantitative study

      Macrophages and intravascular optical coherence tomography bright spots: a quantitative study

      Objectives We hypothesized that bright spots in intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) images may originate by co-localization of plaque materials of differing indices of refraction (IR). To quantitatively identify bright spots, we developed an algorithm that accounts for factors including tissue depth, distance from light source, and signal-to-noise ratio. We used this algorithm to perform a bright spot analysis of IVOCT images, and compared these results with histologic examination of matching tissue sections. Background Although bright spots are thought to represent macrophages in IVOCT images, studies of alternative etiologies have not been reported. Methods Fresh human coronary arteries (n=14 ...

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    1-24 of 77 1 2 3 4 »
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    1. (76 articles) Thomas E. Milner
    2. (69 articles) University of Texas at Austin
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