1. Articles from Haibo Jia

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    1. In vivo detection of plaque erosion by intravascular optical coherence tomography using artificial intelligence

      In vivo detection of plaque erosion by intravascular optical coherence tomography using artificial intelligence

      Plaque erosion is one of the most common underlying mechanisms for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows in vivo diagnosis of plaque erosion. However, challenge remains due to high inter- and intra-observer variability. We developed an artificial intelligence method based on deep learning for fully automated detection of plaque erosion in vivo , which achieved a recall of 0.800 ± 0.175, a precision of 0.734 ± 0.254, and an area under the precision-recall curve (AUC) of 0.707. Our proposed method is in good agreement with physicians, and can help improve the clinical diagnosis of plaque ...

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    2. Feasibility and Safety of Very-Low Contrast Combined Ringer's Solution in Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

      Feasibility and Safety of Very-Low Contrast Combined Ringer's Solution in Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

      Background: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an important modality used in coronary intervention. However, OCT requires a high amount of contrast media, limiting its extensive application in clinical practice. This study compared OCT images of coronary lesions obtained using contrast media and very-low contrast combined Ringer's solution (VLCCR) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: Thirty ACS patients with a total of 36 native lesions and stenoses from 70 to 90% were included in this study. Two kinds of flushing media (a contrast medium and VLCCR) were used in succession in a random order for OCT image pullback ...

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    3. A Multicenter RCT of OCT-Guided Reperfusion in STEMI With Early Infarct Artery Patency

      A Multicenter RCT of OCT-Guided Reperfusion in STEMI With Early Infarct Artery Patency

      Objectives The aim of this study was to test whether optical coherence tomographic (OCT) guidance would provide additional useful information beyond that obtained by angiography and lead to a shift in reperfusion strategy and improved clinical outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with early infarct artery patency. Background Angiography is limited in assessing the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of the culprit lesion. Methods EROSION III (Optical Coherence Tomography–Guided Reperfusion in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction With Early Infarct Artery Patency) is an open-label, prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled study approved by the ethics committees of participating centers. Patients with ...

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    4. Artificial Intelligence—A Good Assistant to Multi-Modality Imaging in Managing Acute Coronary Syndrome

      Artificial Intelligence—A Good Assistant to Multi-Modality Imaging in Managing Acute Coronary Syndrome

      Acute coronary syndrome is the leading cause of cardiac death and has a significant impact on patient prognosis. Early identification and proper management are key to ensuring better outcomes and have improved significantly with the development of various cardiovascular imaging modalities. Recently, the use of artificial intelligence as a method of enhancing the capability of cardiovascular imaging has grown. AI can inform the decision-making process, as it enables existing modalities to perform more efficiently and make more accurate diagnoses. This review demonstrates recent applications of AI in cardiovascular imaging to facilitate better patient care.

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    5. Automatic Assessment of Calcified Plaque and Nodule by Optical Coherence Tomography Adopting Deep Learning Mode

      Automatic Assessment of Calcified Plaque and Nodule by Optical Coherence Tomography Adopting Deep Learning Mode

      Significance: Detection and characterization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques often need reviews of a large number of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging slices to make a clinical decision. However, it is a challenge to manually review all the slices and consider the interrelationship between adjacent slices. Approach : Inspired by the recent success of deep convolutional network on the classification of medical images, we proposed a ResNet-3D network for classification of coronary plaque calcification in OCT pullbacks. The ResNet-3D network was initialized with a trained ResNet-50 network and a three-dimensional convolution filter filled with zeros padding and non-zeros padding with a convolutional ...

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    6. Artificial intelligence and optical coherence tomography for the automatic characterisation of human atherosclerotic plaques

      Artificial intelligence and optical coherence tomography for the automatic characterisation of human atherosclerotic plaques

      Background: Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) enables detailed plaque characterisation in vivo , but visual assessment is time-consuming and subjective. Aims: This study aimed to develop and validate an automatic framework for IVOCT plaque characterisation using artificial intelligence (AI). Methods: IVOCT pullbacks from five international centres were analysed in a core lab, annotating basic plaque components, inflammatory markers and other structures. A deep convolutional network with encoding-decoding architecture and pseudo-3D input was developed and trained using hybrid loss. The proposed network was integrated into commercial software to be externally validated on additional IVOCT pullbacks from three international core labs, taking the ...

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    7. Focal Geometry and Characteristics of Erosion-Prone Coronary Plaques in vivo Angiography and Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Focal Geometry and Characteristics of Erosion-Prone Coronary Plaques in vivo Angiography and Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Objective: This study compared focal geometry and characteristics of culprit plaque erosion (PE) vs. non-culprit plaques in ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients in whom optical coherence tomography (OCT) identified PE as the cause of the acute event. Background: Culprit PE is a distinct clinical entity with specific coronary risk factors and its own tailored management strategy. However, not all plaques develop erosion resulting in occlusive thrombus formation. Methods: Between January 2017 and July 2019, there were 484 STEMI patients in whom OCT at the time of primary percutaneous intervention identified culprit lesion PE to be the cause of the ...

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    8. Imaging depth adaptive resolution enhancement for optical coherence tomography via deep neural network with external attention

      Imaging depth adaptive resolution enhancement for optical coherence tomography via deep neural network with external attention

      Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a promising non-invasive imaging technique that owns many biomedical applications. In this paper, a deep neural network is proposed for enhancing the spatial resolution of OCT en face images. Different from the previous reports, the proposed can recover high resolution en face images from low resolution en face images at arbitrary imaging depth. This kind of imaging depth adaptive resolution enhancement is achieved through an external attention mechanism, which takes advantage of morphological similarity between the arbitrary-depth and full-depth en face images. Firstly, the deep feature maps are extracted by a feature extraction network from ...

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    9. Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Patient-Specific Residual Multi-Thrombus Coronary Plaque Models with Fluid-Structure Interaction for Better Treatment Decisions: A Biomechanical Modeling Case Study

      Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Patient-Specific Residual Multi-Thrombus Coronary Plaque Models with Fluid-Structure Interaction for Better Treatment Decisions: A Biomechanical Modeling Case Study

      Intracoronary thrombus from plaque erosion could cause fatal acute coronary syndrome (ACS). A conservative anti-thrombotic therapy has been proposed to treat ACS patients in lieu of stenting. It is speculated that the residual thrombus after aspiration thrombectomy would influence the prognosis of this treatment. However, biomechanical mechanisms affecting intracoronary thrombus remodeling and clinical outcome remain largely unknown. In vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) data of a coronary plaque with two residual thrombi after anti-thrombotic therapy were acquired from an ACS patient with consent obtained. Three OCT-based FSI models with different thrombus volumes, fluid-only and structure-only models were constructed to simulate ...

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    10. Is the effect of atorvastatin 60 mg on stabilization of lipid-rich plaque equivalent to that of rosuvastatin 10 mg? A serial optical coherence tomography combined with intravascular ultrasound imaging

      Is the effect of atorvastatin 60 mg on stabilization of lipid-rich plaque equivalent to that of rosuvastatin 10 mg? A serial optical coherence tomography combined with intravascular ultrasound imaging

      Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effect of atorvastatin 60 (AT60) mg to that of rosuvastatin 10 (RT10) mg on the morphological changes in lipid-rich plaques (LRPs) and plaque volume, using serial optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound imaging (IVUS). Background: Intensive lipid lowering therapy by statin provides more clinical benefit compared to that of moderate lipid lowering therapy. Methods: Fifty patients who underwent OCT and IVUS at baseline, 6, and 12 months were grouped by statin therapy into the AT60 mg (n = 27) and RT10 mg (n = 23) groups. The relationships between absolute and percentage changes in ...

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    11. Is the effect of atorvastatin 60 mg on stabilization of lipid‐rich plaque equivalent to that of rosuvastatin 10 mg? A serial optical coherence tomography combined with intravascular ultrasound imaging

      Is the effect of atorvastatin 60 mg on stabilization of lipid‐rich plaque equivalent to that of rosuvastatin 10 mg? A serial optical coherence tomography combined with intravascular ultrasound imaging

      Objectives This study aimed to compare the effect of atorvastatin 60 (AT60) mg to that of rosuvastatin 10 (RT10) mg on the morphological changes in lipid‐rich plaques (LRPs) and plaque volume, using serial optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound imaging (IVUS). Background Intensive lipid lowering therapy by statin provides more clinical benefit compared to that of moderate lipid lowering therapy. Methods Fifty patients who underwent OCT and IVUS at baseline, 6, and 12 months were grouped by statin therapy into the AT60 mg ( n = 27) and RT10 mg ( n = 23) groups. The relationships between absolute and percentage changes ...

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    12. Association of the age shock index with coronary plaque characteristics in ST‐segment elevation myocardial infarction: A 3‐vessel optical coherence tomography study

      Association of the age shock index with coronary plaque characteristics in ST‐segment elevation myocardial infarction: A 3‐vessel optical coherence tomography study

      Objectives We investigated whether the age shock index (SI) was associated with coronary plaque characteristics in patients with ST‐segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Background The age SI is a simple clinical parameter that effectively predicts poor clinical outcomes among patients with STEMI. Methods This retrospective study evaluated 408 STEMI patients who underwent 3‐vessel OCT during emergency percutaneous coronary interventions at a single center between January 2017 and October 2018. Patients were divided into groups with low or high age SI values (<41 vs. ≥41). Plaque characteristics were compared between the two groups for ...

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    13. Automatic Characterisation of Human Atherosclerotic Plaque Composition from Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Using Artificial Intelligence

      Automatic Characterisation of Human Atherosclerotic Plaque Composition from Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Using Artificial Intelligence

      Background Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) enables detailed plaque characterisation in-vivo, but visual assessment is time-consuming and subjective. Aims This study aims to develop and validate an automatic framework for IVOCT plaque characterisation using artificial intelligence (AI). Methods IVOCT pullbacks from 5 international centres were analysed in a corelab, annotating basic plaque components, inflammatory markers and other structures. A deep convolutional network with encoding-decoding architecture and pseudo-3D input was developed and trained using hybrid loss. The proposed network was integrated into commercial software to be externally validated on additional IVOCT pullbacks from three international corelabs, taking the consensus among corelabs ...

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    14. Unexpected Findings and Tailored Treatments of In-Stent Restenosis: Novel Insights from Optical Coherence Tomography

      Unexpected Findings and Tailored Treatments of In-Stent Restenosis: Novel Insights from Optical Coherence Tomography

      A 68-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with unstable angina. His medical history was remarkable for an acute myocardial infarction one year ago, treated with a zotarolimus-eluting stent (3.5×30 mm) in the mid right coronary artery. Coronary angiography showed a diffused in-stent restenosis (ISR) with haziness and filling defects (Figure 1A, Video 1). In order to identify the underlying mechanisms of ISR, optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed due to its high resolution. OCT showed a large, recanalized thrombus with multiple channels divided by thin septa (longitudinal view and Figure 1C-1E) in the setting of an undersized ...

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    15. Clinical use of intracoronary imaging. Part 2: acute coronary syndromes, ambiguous coronary angiography findings, and guiding interventional decision-making: an expert consensus document of the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Intervent

      Clinical use of intracoronary imaging. Part 2: acute coronary syndromes, ambiguous coronary angiography findings, and guiding interventional decision-making: an expert consensus document of the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Intervent

      This consensus document is the second of two reports summarizing the views of an expert panel organized by the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) on the clinical use of intracoronary imaging including intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-IVUS. Beyond guidance of stent selection and optimization of deployment, invasive imaging facilitates angiographic interpretation and may guide treatment in acute coronary syndrome. Intravascular imaging can provide additional important diagnostic information when confronted with angiographically ambiguous lesions and allows assessment of plaque morphology enabling identification of vulnerability characteristics. This second document focuses on useful ...

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    16. Clinical use of intracoronary imaging. Part 2: acute coronary syndromes, ambiguous coronary angiography findings, and guiding interventional decision-making: an expert consensus document of the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Intervent

      Clinical use of intracoronary imaging. Part 2: acute coronary syndromes, ambiguous coronary angiography findings, and guiding interventional decision-making: an expert consensus document of the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Intervent

      This consensus document is the second of two reports summarizing the views of an expert panel organized by the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) on the clinical use of intracoronary imaging including intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-IVUS. Beyond guidance of stent selection and optimization of deployment, invasive imaging facilitates angiographic interpretation and may guide treatment in acute coronary syndrome. Intravascular imaging can provide additional important diagnostic information when confronted with angiographically ambiguous lesions and allows assessment of plaque morphology enabling identification of vulnerability characteristics. This second document focuses on useful ...

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    17. Pre-infarction Angina and Culprit Lesion Morphologies in Patients with a First ST-segment Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction: Insights from In Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography

      Pre-infarction Angina and Culprit Lesion Morphologies in Patients with a First ST-segment Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction: Insights from In Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography

      Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between pre-infarction angina (PIA) and in vivo culprit lesion characteristics as assessed by intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with a first ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods and results: A total of 305 consecutive patients with a first STEMI who underwent OCT imaging of culprit lesions during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were prospectively enrolled. OCT findings of the culprit plaque were compared between patients with (n=206) and without PIA (n=99). Patients with PIA showed lower rates of thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) (62.6% vs. 80.8%, P=0 ...

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    18. Clinical use of intracoronary imaging. Part 1: guidance and optimization of coronary interventions. An expert consensus document of the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions

      Clinical use of intracoronary imaging. Part 1: guidance and optimization of coronary interventions. An expert consensus document of the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions

      his Consensus Document is the first of two reports summarizing the views of an expert panel organized by the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) on the clinical use of intracoronary imaging including intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The first document appraises the role of intracoronary imaging to guide percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) in clinical practice. Current evidence regarding the impact of intracoronary imaging guidance on cardiovascular outcomes is summarized, and patients or lesions most likely to derive clinical benefit from an imaging-guided intervention are identified. The relevance of the use of IVUS or OCT prior ...

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    19. Non-culprit plaque characteristics in acute coronary syndrome patients with raised hemoglobinA1c: an intravascular optical coherence tomography study

      Non-culprit plaque characteristics in acute coronary syndrome patients with raised hemoglobinA1c: an intravascular optical coherence tomography study

      Background Raised hemoglobinA1c (HbA1c) is an indicator of pre-diabetes, which is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease. However, the detailed morphological characteristics of non-culprit plaques in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients remain largely unknown. Methods A total of 305 non-culprit plaques from 216 ACS patients were analyzed by intravascular optical coherence tomography. These patients were divided into three groups according to the serum glycosylated hemoglobin level: normal HbA1c (< 5.7%), pre-diabetes with raised HbA1c (5.7–6.4%) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Results Plaques in patients with raised HbA1c had a longer lipid length (17.0 ± 8.3 ...

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    20. Impact of vessel curvature on neointimal healing after stent implantation as assessed by optical coherence tomography

      Impact of vessel curvature on neointimal healing after stent implantation as assessed by optical coherence tomography

      Purpose: Previous studies have indicated that stent implantation could alter the vessel geometry, which may impact the neointimal healing process. Curvature is an important parameter for evaluating vessel geometry. The purpose of our study was to investigate the relationship between vessel curvature and neointimal healing after stent implantation. Methods: Fifty-nine patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who underwent stent implantation were enrolled in the study. According to the post-percutaneous coronary intervention vessel curvature measured by quantitative coronary angiography, patients were divided into high (n = 30) and low (n = 29) curvature groups. Neointimal thickness and area together with the neointimal type ...

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    21. In vivo predictors of plaque erosion in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: a clinical, angiographical, and intravascular optical coherence tomography study

      In vivo predictors of plaque erosion in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: a clinical, angiographical, and intravascular optical coherence tomography study

      Aims Plaque erosion is a significant substrate of acute coronary thrombosis. This study sought to determine in vivo predictors of plaque erosion in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods and results A prospective series of 822 STEMI patients underwent pre-intervention optical coherence tomography. Using established diagnostic criteria, 209 had plaque erosion (25.4%) and 564 had plaque rupture (68.6%). Plaque erosion was more frequent in women <50 years when compared with those ≥50 years of age ( P  = 0.009). There was a similar, but less striking, trend in men ( P  = 0.011). Patients with plaque erosion were ...

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    22. Does spotty calcification attenuate the response of nonculprit plaque to statin therapy?: A serial optical coherence tomography study

      Does spotty calcification attenuate the response of nonculprit plaque to statin therapy?: A serial optical coherence tomography study

      Objectives The aim of this study was to determine if spotty calcification decreases the response of plaque progression to statin therapy. Background Previous studies showed that the presence of spotty calcification is a marker of vulnerable plaque. However, the relationship between spotty calcification and plaque progression is not clear. Methods Ninety-six nonculprit lipid-rich plaques in 69 patients who received serial optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging were included. Plaques were divided into three groups: spotty calcification ( n = 38), calcified ( n = 12) and noncalcified ( n = 46) plaques. Spotty calcification was identified by the presence of a lesion <4 mm in length with ...

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    23. EROSION Study (Effective Anti-Thrombotic Therapy Without Stenting: Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography–Based Management in Plaque Erosion)

      EROSION Study (Effective Anti-Thrombotic Therapy Without Stenting: Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography–Based Management in Plaque Erosion)

      Background— The initial EROSION study (Effective Anti-Thrombotic Therapy Without Stenting: Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography–Based Management in Plaque Erosion) demonstrated that patients with acute coronary syndrome caused by plaque erosion might be stabilized with aspirin and ticagrelor without stenting for ≤1 month. However, a long-term evaluation of outcomes is lacking. The aim of this study was to assess whether the initial benefit of noninterventional therapy for patients with acute coronary syndrome caused by plaque erosion is maintained for ≤1 year. Methods and Results— Among 53 patients who completed clinical follow-up, 49 underwent repeat optical coherence tomography imaging at 1 year ...

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    24. Role of Optical Coherence Tomography in Diagnosis and Treatment of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

      Role of Optical Coherence Tomography in Diagnosis and Treatment of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

      Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is the main cause of death worldwide and the leading cause of disease burden in high-income countries. ACS refers to a constellation of clinical symptoms that are compatible with acute myocardial ischemia. It describes a spectrum of clinical manifestations that result from a common pathophysiological process. The most common cause of ACS are rupture of an atherosclerotic lesion containing a large necrotic core and a thin fibrous cap followed by acute luminal thrombosis. It was thought that a high-resolution imaging modality would be ideal to detect high-risk plaques before their disruption and the formation of an ...

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