1. Articles from Cynthia L. Darling

    1-24 of 45 1 2 »
    1. Near-IR and CP-OCT imaging of suspected occlusal caries lesions

      Near-IR and CP-OCT imaging of suspected occlusal caries lesions

      Introduction Radiographic methods have poor sensitivity for occlusal lesions and by the time the lesions are radiolucent they have typically progressed deep into the dentin. New more sensitive imaging methods are needed to detect occlusal lesions. In this study, cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) and near-IR imaging were used to image questionable occlusal lesions (QOC's) that were not visible on radiographs but had been scheduled for restoration on 30 test subjects. Methods Near-IR reflectance and transillumination probes incorporating a high definition InGaAs camera and near-IR broadband light sources were used to acquire images of the lesions before restoration. The ...

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    2. Activity assessment of root caries lesions with thermal and near-IR imaging methods

      Activity assessment of root caries lesions with thermal and near-IR imaging methods

      The purpose of this study was to evaluate thermal and near-infrared (NIR) reflectance imaging methods for the assessment of the activity of root caries lesions. In addition, changes in the lesion structure were monitored with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). Artificial bovine and natural root caries lesions were imaged with PS-OCT, and their dehydration rate was measured with thermal and NIR cameras. The lesion activity of the natural root caries samples was also assessed by two clinicians by conventional means according to ICDAS II guidelines. The thickness of the highly mineralized transparent surface layer measured using PS-OCT increased and ...

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    3. Enhancement of OCT images with vinyl polysiloxane (VPS)

      Enhancement of OCT images with vinyl polysiloxane (VPS)

      Several studies have shown that optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used to measure the remaining enamel thickness and detect the location of subsurface lesions hidden under the sound enamel. Moreover studies have shown that high refractive index liquids can be used to improve the visibility of subsurface lesions in OCT images. In this study, we demonstrate that vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) impression materials which are routinely used in dentistry can be used to enhance the detection of dentinal lesions on tooth occlusal surfaces. Lesion presence was confirmed with polarized light microscopy and microradiography.

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    4. Clinical monitoring of smooth surface enamel lesions using CP-OCT during nonsurgical intervention

      Clinical monitoring of smooth surface enamel lesions using CP-OCT during nonsurgical intervention

      Introduction Studies have shown that cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) can be used to image the internal structure of carious lesions in vivo . The objective of this study was to show that CP-OCT can be used to monitor changes in the internal structure of early active carious lesions on smooth surfaces during non-surgical intervention with fluoride. Methods Lesions on the smooth surfaces of teeth were imaged using CP-OCT on 17 test subjects. Lesion structural changes were monitored during fluoride varnish application at 6-week intervals for 30 weeks. The lesion depth ( L d ), integrated reflectivity (Δ R ), and surface zone thickness ( S ...

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    5. Near-infrared imaging of secondary caries lesions around composite restorations at wavelengths from 1300–1700-nm

      Near-infrared imaging of secondary caries lesions around composite restorations at wavelengths from 1300–1700-nm

      Background and objectives Current clinical methods for diagnosing secondary caries are unreliable for identifying the early stages of decay around restorative materials. The objective of this study was to access the integrity of restoration margins in natural teeth using near-infrared (NIR) reflectance and transillumination images at wavelengths between 1300 and 1700-nm and to determine the optimal NIR wavelengths for discriminating composite materials from dental hard tissues. Materials and methods Twelve composite margins ( n = 12) consisting of class I, II and V restorations were chosen from ten extracted teeth. The samples were imaged in vitro using NIR transillumination and reflectance, polarization ...

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    6. Near-IR image-guided laser ablation of demineralization on tooth occlusal surfaces

      Near-IR image-guided laser ablation of demineralization on tooth occlusal surfaces

      Introduction Studies have shown that reflectance images at near-IR wavelengths coincident with higher water absorption are well-suited for image-guided laser ablation of carious lesions since the contrast between sound and demineralized enamel is extremely high and interference from stains is minimized. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that near-IR reflectance images taken at a wavelength range of 1,500–1,700 nm can be used to guide a 9.3 μm CO 2 laser for the selective ablation of early demineralization on tooth occlusal surfaces. Methods The occlusal surfaces of ten sound human molars were used in this ...

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    7. In vitro near-infrared imaging of natural secondary caries

      In vitro near-infrared imaging of natural secondary caries

      Secondary caries stands as the leading reason for the failure of composite restorations and dentists spend more time replacing existing restorations than placing new ones. Current clinical strategies, and even modern visible light methods designed to detect decay, lack the sensitivity to distinguish incipient lesions, are confounded by staining on the surface and within the tooth, or are limited to detecting decay on the tooth surface. Near-IR (NIR) imaging methods, such as NIR reflectance and transillumination imaging, and optical coherence tomography are promising strategies for imaging secondary caries. Wavelengths longer than 1300-nm avoid interference from stain and exploit the greater ...

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    8. Enhanced detection of dentinal lesions in OCT images using the RKT transformation

      Enhanced detection of dentinal lesions in OCT images using the RKT transformation

      Several studies have shown that optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used to measure the remaining enamel thickness and detect the location of subsurface lesions hidden under the sound enamel. The purpose of this study was to develop algorithms to enhance the visibility of subsurface structures such as hidden occlusal lesions and the dentinal-enamel junction. Extracted teeth with natural occlusal lesions were imaged with OCT with and without added high index fluids. A Rotating Kernel Transformation (RKT) nonlinear image processing filter was applied to PS-OCT images to enhance the visibility of the subsurface lesions under the sound enamel. The filter ...

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    9. Automated detection of dentinal lesions in OCT images using the RKT transformation

      Automated detection of dentinal lesions in OCT images using the RKT transformation

      Several studies have shown that optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used to measure the remaining enamel thickness and detect the location of subsurface lesions hidden under the sound enamel. The purpose of this study was to develop algorithms to enhance the visibility of subsurface structures such as hidden occlusal lesions and the dentinal-enamel junction. Extracted teeth with natural occlusal lesions were imaged with OCT with and without added high index fluids. A Rotating Kernel Transformation (RKT) nonlinear image processing filter was applied to PS-OCT images to enhance the visibility of the subsurface lesions under the sound enamel. The filter ...

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    10. A method for monitoring enamel erosion using laser irradiated surfaces and optical coherence tomography

      A method for monitoring enamel erosion using laser irradiated surfaces and optical coherence tomography

      Introduction Since optical coherence tomography (OCT) is well suited for measuring small dimensional changes on tooth surfaces, OCT has great potential for monitoring tooth erosion. Previous studies have shown that enamel areas ablated by a carbon dioxide laser manifested lower rates of erosion compared to the non-ablated areas. The purpose of this study was to develop a model to monitor erosion in vitro that could potentially be used in vivo . Methods Thirteen bovine enamel blocks were used in this in vitro study. Each 10 mm × 2 mm block was partitioned into five regions, the central region was unprotected, the adjacent ...

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    11. Automated assessment of the remineralization of artificial enamel lesions with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Automated assessment of the remineralization of artificial enamel lesions with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Accurate measurement of the highly mineralized transparent surface layer that forms on caries lesions is important for diagnosis of the lesion activity because chemical intervention can slow or reverse the caries process via remineralization. Previous in-vitro and in-vivo studies have demonstrated that polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can nondestructively image the subsurface lesion structure and the highly mineralized transparent surface zone of caries lesions. The purpose of this study was to develop an approach to automatically process 3-dimensional PS-OCT images and to accurately assess the remineralization process in simulated enamel lesions. Artificial enamel lesions were prepared on twenty bovine enamel ...

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    12. Attenuation of near-IR light through dentin at wavelengths from 1300-1650-nm

      Attenuation of near-IR light through dentin at wavelengths from 1300-1650-nm

      Light scattering in dental enamel decreases markedly from the UV to the near-IR and recent studies employing near-IR transillumination and reflectance imaging including optical coherence tomography indicate that this wavelength region is ideally suited for imaging dental caries due to the high transparency of enamel. The opacity of dentin is an important factor in optimizing the contrast of demineralization in reflectance measurements. It also influences the contrast of occlusal lesions in transillumination. Light scattering in dentin is an order of magnitude larger than in enamel, it is highly anisotropic and has a different spectral light scattering dependence than enamel. The ...

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    13. Near-IR imaging of demineralization under sealants

      Near-IR imaging of demineralization under sealants

      Previous studies have shown that near-IR reflectance and transillumination imaging can be used to acquire high contrast images of early caries lesions and composite restorative materials. The aim of the study was to determine the optimum near-IR wavelengths for imaging demineralized areas under dental sealants. Fifteen natural human premolars and molars with occlusal lesions were used in this in vitro study. Images before and after application of sealants were acquired using near-IR reflectance and near-IR transillumination at wavelengths of 1300 nm, 1460 nm, and 1500 - 1700 nm. Images were also acquired using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography for comparison. The ...

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    14. Near-IR imaging of cracks in teeth

      Near-IR imaging of cracks in teeth

      Dental enamel is highly transparent at near-IR wavelengths and several studies have shown that these wavelengths are well suited for optical transillumination for the detection and imaging of tooth decay. We hypothesize that these wavelengths are also well suited for imaging cracks in teeth. Extracted teeth with suspected cracks were imaged at several wavelengths in the near-IR from 1300-1700-nm. Extracted teeth were also examined with optical coherence tomography to confirm the existence of suspected cracks. Several teeth of volunteers were also imaged in vivo at 1300-nm to demonstrate clinical potential. In addition we induced cracks in teeth using a carbon ...

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    15. High contrast optical imaging methods for image guided laser ablation of dental caries lesions

      High contrast optical imaging methods for image guided laser ablation of dental caries lesions

      Laser based methods are well suited for automation and can be used to selectively remove dental caries to minimize the loss of healthy tissues and render the underlying enamel more resistant to acid dissolution. The purpose of this study was to determine which imaging methods are best suited for image-guided ablation of natural non-cavitated carious lesions on occlusal surfaces. Multiple caries imaging methods were compared including near-IR and visible reflectance and quantitative light fluorescence (QLF). In order for image-guided laser ablation to be feasible, chemical and physical modification of tooth surfaces due to laser irradiation cannot greatly reduce the contrast ...

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    16. Automated detection of remineralization in simulated enamel lesions with PS-OCT

      Automated detection of remineralization in simulated enamel lesions with PS-OCT

      Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to nondestructively image the subsurface structure and measure the thickness of the highly mineralized transparent surface zone of caries lesions. There are structural differences between active lesions and arrested lesions, and the surface layer thickness may correlate with activity of the lesion. The purpose of this study was to develop a method that can be used to automatically detect and measure the thickness of the transparent surface layer in PS-OCT images. Automated methods of analysis were used to measure the thickness of ...

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    17. Enhancing the detection of hidden occlusal caries lesions with OCT using high index liquids

      Enhancing the detection of hidden occlusal caries lesions with OCT using high index liquids

      In a previous study, we investigated the influence of several high refractive index fluids on the performance of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). That study showed that these liquids can increase the effective imaging depth and lesion contrast. Other in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that OCT can be used to show whether occlusal lesions have penetrated to the dentinal-enamel junction (DEJ) and spread laterally under the enamel. The purpose of this study was to determine if high index fluids can enhance the ability of OCT to detect hidden occlusal lesions and show if these lesions have ...

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    18. Longitudinal monitoring of demineralization peripheral to orthodontic brackets using cross polarization optical coherence tomography

      Longitudinal monitoring of demineralization peripheral to orthodontic brackets using cross polarization optical coherence tomography

      Objectives The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) can be used to longitudinally monitor demineralization peripheral to orthodontic brackets in an extended clinical study. Methods A high-speed CP-OCT system was used to acquire 3D volumetric images of the area at the base of orthodontic brackets over a period of 12-months after placement. The reflectivity was measured at 3-month intervals for 12-months to determine if there was increased demineralization. Two teeth were monitored on twenty test subjects and the brackets were bonded using two types of adhesives This was a randomized controlled ...

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    19. Monitoring the remineralization of early simulated lesions using a pH cycling model with CP-OCT

      Monitoring the remineralization of early simulated lesions using a pH cycling model with CP-OCT

      If caries lesions are detected early enough they can be arrested by chemical intervention and dietary changes without the need for chemical intervention. Optical coherence tomography is ideally suited to monitor the changes that occur in caries lesions as a result of nonsurgical intervention, since OCT can nondestructively image the internal structure of the lesion. One of the most important changes that occurs in a lesion is preferential deposition of mineral in the outer surface zone. The deposition creates a highly mineralized and weakly scattering surface zone that is clearly visible in OCT images. Since this zone is near the ...

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    20. Use of 2D images of depth and integrated reflectivity to represent the severity of demineralization in cross-polarization optical coherence tomography

      Use of 2D images of depth and integrated reflectivity to represent the severity of demineralization in cross-polarization optical coherence tomography

      Several studies have demonstrated the potential of cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) to quantify the severity of early caries lesions (tooth decay) on tooth surfaces. The purpose of this study is to show that 2D images of the lesion depth and the integrated reflectivity can be used to accurately represent the severity of early lesions. Simulated early lesions of varying severity were produced on tooth samples using simulated lesion models. Methods were developed to convert the 3D CP-OCT images of the samples to 2D images of the lesion depth and lesion integrated reflectivity. Calculated lesion depths from OCT were compared ...

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    21. Clinical monitoring of early caries lesions using cross polarization optical coherence tomography

      Clinical monitoring of early caries lesions using cross polarization optical coherence tomography

      New methods are needed for the nondestructive measurement of tooth demineralization and remineralization and to monitor the progression of incipient caries lesions (tooth decay) for effective nonsurgical intervention and to evaluate the performance of anti-caries treatments such as chemical treatments or laser irradiation. Studies have shown that optical coherence tomography (OCT) has great potential to fulfill this role, since it can be used to measure the depth and severity of early lesions with an axial resolution exceeding 10-μm. It is easy to apply in vivo and it can be used to image the convoluted topography of tooth occlusal surfaces ...

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    22. Methods for monitoring erosion using optical coherence tomography

      Methods for monitoring erosion using optical coherence tomography

      Since optical coherence tomography is well suited for measuring small dimensional changes on tooth surfaces it has great potential for monitoring tooth erosion. The purpose of this study was to explore different approaches for monitoring the erosion of enamel. Application of an acid resistant varnish to protect the tooth surface from erosion has proven effective for providing a reference surface for in vitro studies but has limited potential for in vivo studies. Two approaches which can potentially be used in vivo were investigated. The first approach is to measure the remaining enamel thickness, namely the distance from the tooth surface ...

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    23. Nondestructive monitoring of the repair of enamel artificial lesions by an acidic remineralization model using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Nondestructive monitoring of the repair of enamel artificial lesions by an acidic remineralization model using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Objectives It is difficult to completely remineralize carious lesions because diffusion into the interior of the lesion is inhibited as new mineral is deposited in the outermost layers. In previous remineralization studies employing polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT), two models of remineralization were employed and in both models there was preferential deposition of mineral in the outer most layer. In this study we attempted to remineralize the entire lesion using an acidic remineralization model and demonstrate that this remineralization can be monitored using PS-OCT. Methods Artificial lesions approximately 100–150μm in-depth were exposed to an acidic remineralization regimen and ...

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    24. Nondestructive monitoring of the repair of enamel artificial lesions by an acidic remineralization model using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Nondestructive monitoring of the repair of enamel artificial lesions by an acidic remineralization model using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography
      Objectives It is difficult to completely remineralize carious lesions because diffusion into the interior of the lesion is inhibited as new mineral is deposited in the outermost layers. In previous remineralization studies employing polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT), two models of remineralization were employed and in both models there was preferential deposition of mineral in the outer most layer. In this study we attempted to remineralize the entire lesion using an acidic remineralization model and demonstrate that this remineralization can be monitored using PS-OCT.MethodsArtificial lesions approximately 100–150 μm in-depth were exposed to an acidic remineralization regimen and ...
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    1-24 of 45 1 2 »
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