1. Articles from John S. Oghalai

    1-24 of 24
    1. Interplay between traveling wave propagation and amplification at the apex of the mouse cochlea

      Interplay between traveling wave propagation and amplification at the apex of the mouse cochlea

      Sounds entering the mammalian ear produce waves that travel from the base to the apex of the cochlea. An electro-mechanical active process amplifies traveling wave motions and enables sound processing over a broad range of frequencies and intensities. The cochlear amplifier requires combining the global traveling wave with the local cellular processes that change along the length of the cochlea given the gradual changes in hair cell and supporting cell anatomy and physiology. Thus, we measured basilar membrane (BM) traveling waves in vivo along the apical turn of the mouse cochlea using volumetric optical coherence tomography and vibrometry (VOCTV). We ...

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      Mentions: UCLA
    2. Vector of motion measurements in the living cochlea using a 3D OCT vibrometry system

      Vector of motion measurements in the living cochlea using a 3D OCT vibrometry system

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become an important tool for measuring the vibratory response of the living cochlea. It stands alone in its capacity to measure the intricate motion of the hearing organ through the surrounding otic capsule bone. Nevertheless, as an extension of phase-sensitive OCT, it is only capable of measuring motion along the optical axis. Hence, measurements are 1-D. To overcome this limitation and provide a measure of the 3-D vector of motion in the cochlea, we developed an OCT system with three sample arms in a single interferometer. Taking advantage of the long coherence length of our ...

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    3. Endolymphatic Hydrops is a Marker of Synaptopathy Following Traumatic Noise Exposure

      Endolymphatic Hydrops is a Marker of Synaptopathy Following Traumatic Noise Exposure

      After acoustic trauma, there can be loss of synaptic connections between inner hair cells and auditory neurons in the cochlea, which may lead to hearing abnormalities including speech-in-noise difficulties, tinnitus, and hyperacusis. We have previously studied mice with blast-induced cochlear synaptopathy and found that they also developed a build-up of endolymph, termed endolymphatic hydrops. In this study, we used optical coherence tomography to measure endolymph volume in live CBA/CaJ mice exposed to various noise intensities. We quantified the number of synaptic ribbons and postsynaptic densities under the inner hair cells 1 week after noise exposure to determine if they ...

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    4. In vivo functional imaging of the human middle ear with a hand-held optical coherence tomography device

      In vivo functional imaging of the human middle ear with a hand-held optical coherence tomography device

      We describe an optical coherence tomography and vibrometry system designed for portable hand-held usage in the otology clinic on awake patients. The system provides clinically relevant point-of-care morphological imaging with 14-44 µm resolution and functional vibratory measures with sub-nanometer sensitivity. We evaluated various new approaches for extracting functional information including a multi-tone stimulus, a continuous chirp stimulus, and alternating air and bone stimulus. We also explored the vibratory response over an area of the tympanic membrane (TM) and generated TM thickness maps. Our results suggest that the system can provide real-time in vivo imaging and vibrometry of the ear and ...

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    5. In Vivo Cochlear imaging provides a tool to study endolymphatic hydrops

      In Vivo Cochlear imaging provides a tool to study endolymphatic hydrops

      Exposure to noise trauma, such as that from improvised explosive devices, can lead to sensorineural hearing loss and a reduced quality of life. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying noise-induced hearing loss, we have adapted optical coherence tomography (OCT) for real-time cochlear visua lization in live mice after blast exposure. We demonstrated that endolymphatic hydrops develops following blast injury, and that this phenomenon may be associated with glutamate excitotoxicity and cochlear synaptopathy. Additionally, osmotic stabilization of endolymphatic hydrops partially rescues cochlear synapses after blast trauma. OCT is thus a valuable research tool for investigating the mechanisms underlying acoustic trauma ...

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      Mentions: UCLA
    6. Noise and sensitivity in optical coherence tomography based vibrometry

      Noise and sensitivity in optical coherence tomography based vibrometry

      There is growing interest in using the exquisite phase sensitivity of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure the vibratory response in organ systems such as the middle and inner ear. Using frequency domain analysis, it is possible to achieve picometer sensitivity to vibration over a wide frequency band. Here we explore the limits of the frequency domain vibratory sensitivity due to additive noise and consider the implication of phase noise statistics on the estimation of vibratory amplitude and phase. Noise statistics are derived in both the Rayleigh ( s/n = 0 ) and Normal distribution ( s/n > 3 ) limits. These theoretical findings ...

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    7. Picometer scale vibrometry in the human middle ear using a surgical microscope based optical coherence tomography and vibrometry system

      Picometer scale vibrometry in the human middle ear using a surgical microscope based optical coherence tomography and vibrometry system

      We have developed a highly phase stable optical coherence tomography and vibrometry system that attaches directly to the accessory area of a surgical microscope common to both the otology clinic and operating room. Careful attention to minimizing sources of phase noise has enabled a system capable of measuring vibrations of the middle ear with a sensitivity of < 5 pm in an awake human patient. The system is shown to be capable of collecting a wide range of information on the morphology and function of the ear in live subjects, including frequency tuning curves below the hearing threshold, maps of tympanic ...

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    8. Organ of Corti vibration within the intact gerbil cochlea measured by volumetric optical coherence tomography and vibrometry

      Organ of Corti vibration within the intact gerbil cochlea measured by volumetric optical coherence tomography and vibrometry

      There is indirect evidence that the mammalian cochlea in the low-frequency apical and the more commonly-studied high-frequency basal regions function in fundamentally different ways. Here, we directly tested this hypothesis by measuring sound-induced vibrations of the organ of Corti (OoC) at three turns of the gerbil cochlea using volumetric optical coherence tomography vibrometry (VOCTV), an approach that permits non-invasive imaging through the bone. In the apical turn, there was little frequency selectivity and the displacement-versus-frequency curves had low-pass filter characteristics with a corner frequency of ~0.5-0.9 kHz. The vibratory magnitudes increased compressively with increasing stimulus intensity at all ...

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    9. Osmotic stabilization prevents cochlear synaptopathy after blast trauma

      Osmotic stabilization prevents cochlear synaptopathy after blast trauma

      Traumatic noise causes hearing loss by damaging sensory hair cells and their auditory synapses. There are no treatments. Here, we investigated mice exposed to a blast wave approximating a roadside bomb. In vivo cochlear imaging revealed an increase in the volume of endolymph, the fluid within scala media, termed endolymphatic hydrops. Endolymphatic hydrops, hair cell loss, and cochlear synaptopathy were initiated by trauma to the mechanosensitive hair cell stereocilia and were K + -dependent. Increasing the osmolality of the adjacent perilymph treated endolymphatic hydrops and prevented synaptopathy, but did not prevent hair cell loss. Conversely, inducing endolymphatic hydrops in control mice ...

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    10. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography enables morphological and subnanometer vibratory imaging of the porcine cochlea through the round window

      Endoscopic optical coherence tomography enables morphological and subnanometer vibratory imaging of the porcine cochlea through the round window

      A highly phase stable hand-held (HH) endoscopic system has been developed for optical coherence tomography and vibrometry. Designed to transit the ear canal to the middle ear space and peer through the round window (RW), it is capable of imaging the vibratory function of the cochlear soft tissues with subnanometer scale sensitivity. A side-looking, 9 cm long rigid endoscope with a distal diameter of 1.2 mm, was able to fit within the RW niche and provide imaging access. The phase stability was achieved in part by fully integrating a Michelson interferometer into the HH device. Ex vivo imaging of ...

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    11. ELHnet: a convolutional neural network for classifying cochlear endolymphatic hydrops imaged with optical coherence tomography

      ELHnet: a convolutional neural network for classifying cochlear endolymphatic hydrops imaged with optical coherence tomography

      Detection of endolymphatic hydrops is important for diagnosing Meniere’s disease, and can be performed non-invasively using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in animal models as well as potentially in the clinic. Here, we developed ELHnet, a convolutional neural network to classify endolymphatic hydrops in a mouse model using learned features from OCT images of mice cochleae. We trained ELHnet on 2159 training and validation images from 17 mice, using only the image pixels and observer-determined labels of endolymphatic hydrops as the inputs. We tested ELHnet on 37 images from 37 mice that were previously not used, and found that the ...

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    12. Computer-aided detection and quantification of endolymphatic hydrops within the mouse cochlea in vivo using optical coherence tomography

      Computer-aided detection and quantification of endolymphatic hydrops within the mouse cochlea in vivo using optical coherence tomography

      Diseases that cause hearing loss and/or vertigo in humans such as Meniere’s disease are often studied using animal models. The volume of endolymph within the inner ear varies with these diseases. Here, we used a mouse model of increased endolymph volume, endolymphatic hydrops, to develop a computer-aided objective approach to measure endolymph volume from images collected in vivo using optical coherence tomography. The displacement of Reissner’s membrane from its normal position was measured in cochlear cross sections. We validated our computer-aided measurements with manual measurements and with trained observer labels. This approach allows for computer-aided detection of ...

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    13. High-speed spectral calibration by complex FIR filter in phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      High-speed spectral calibration by complex FIR filter in phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Swept-laser sources offer a number of advantages for Phase-sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PhOCT). However, inter- and intra-sweep variability leads to calibration errors that adversely affect phase sensitivity. While there are several approaches to overcoming this problem, our preferred method is to simply calibrate every sweep of the laser. This approach offers high accuracy and phase stability at the expense of a substantial processing burden. In this approach, the Hilbert phase of the interferogram from a reference interferometer provides the instantaneous wavenumber of the laser, but is computationally expensive. Fortunately, the Hilbert transform may be approximated by a Finite Impulse-Response (FIR ...

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    14. Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography-based vibrometry using a highly phase-stable akinetic swept laser source

      Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography-based vibrometry using a highly phase-stable akinetic swept laser source

      Phase-sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PhOCT) is an emerging tool for in vivo investigation of the vibratory function of the intact middle and inner ear. PhOCT is able to resolve micron scale tissue morphology in three dimensions as well as measure picometer scale motion at each spatial position. Most PhOCT systems to date have relied upon the phase stability offered by spectrometer detection. On the other hand swept laser source based PhOCT offers a number of advantages including balanced detection, long imaging depths, and high imaging speeds. Unfortunately the inherent phase instability of traditional swept laser sources has necessitated complex user ...

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    15. Miniature, minimally invasive, tunable endoscope for investigation of the middle ear

      Miniature, minimally invasive, tunable endoscope for investigation of the middle ear

      We demonstrate a miniature, tunable, minimally invasive endoscope for diagnosis of the auditory system. The probe is designed to sharply image anatomical details of the middle ear without the need for physically adjusting the position of the distal end of the endoscope. This is achieved through the addition of an electrowetted, tunable, electronically-controlled lens to the optical train. Morphological imaging is enabled by scanning light emanating from an optical coherence tomography system. System performance was demonstrated by imaging part of the ossicular chain and wall of the middle ear cavity of a normal mouse. During the experiment, we electronically moved ...

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    16. Feature Of The Week 04/05/15: Noninvasive in vivo Imaging Reveals Differences Between Tectorial Membrane and Basilar Membrane Traveling Waves in the Mouse Cochlea

      Feature Of The Week 04/05/15: Noninvasive in vivo Imaging Reveals Differences Between Tectorial Membrane and Basilar Membrane Traveling Waves in the Mouse Cochlea

      Sound is encoded within the auditory portion of the inner ear, the cochlea, after propagating down its length as a traveling wave. For over half a century, vibratory measurements to study cochlear traveling waves have been made using invasive approaches such as laser Doppler vibrometry. While these studies have provided critical information regarding the non-linear processes within the living cochlea that increase the amplitude of vibration and sharpen frequency tuning, the data have typically been limited to point measurements of basilar membrane vibration. In addition, opening the cochlea may alter its function and affect the findings. Here we describe volumetric ...

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    17. Noninvasive in vivo imaging reveals differences between tectorial membrane and basilar membrane traveling waves in the mouse cochlea

      Noninvasive in vivo imaging reveals differences between tectorial membrane and basilar membrane traveling waves in the mouse cochlea

      Sound is encoded within the auditory portion of the inner ear, the cochlea, after propagating down its length as a traveling wave. For over half a century, vibratory measurements to study cochlear traveling waves have been made using invasive approaches such as laser Doppler vibrometry. Although these studies have provided critical information regarding the nonlinear processes within the living cochlea that increase the amplitude of vibration and sharpen frequency tuning, the data have typically been limited to point measurements of basilar membrane vibration. In addition, opening the cochlea may alter its function and affect the findings. Here we describe volumetric ...

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    18. Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography using an Vernier-tuned distributed Bragg reflector swept laser in the mouse middle ear

      Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography using an Vernier-tuned distributed Bragg reflector swept laser in the mouse middle ear

      Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PhOCT) offers exquisite sensitivity to mechanical vibration in biological tissues. There is growing interest in using PhOCT for imaging the nanometer scale vibrations of the ear in animal models of hearing disorders. Swept-source-based systems offer fast acquisition speeds, suppression of common mode noise via balanced detection, and good signal roll-off. However, achieving high phase stability is difficult due to nonlinear laser sweeps and trigger jitter in a typical swept laser source. Here, we report on the initial application of a Vernier-tuned distributed Bragg reflector (VT-DBR) swept laser as the source for a fiber-based PhOCT system. The ...

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    19. Method And Apparatus For Examining Inner Ear

      Method And Apparatus For Examining Inner Ear

      An apparatus, for examining an inner ear is provided. An endoscope is provided, comprising a wave guide and an end piece comprising an end window to be placed a first distance from an inner ear, wherein the waveguide focuses light to create a focal plane the first distance from the end window. An optical coherence tomography (OCT) system is connected to a second end of the wave guide and comprises an imaging system connected to the OCT system for generating an image of the inner ear.

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    20. In vivo vibrometry inside the apex of the mouse cochlea using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      In vivo vibrometry inside the apex of the mouse cochlea using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      Sound transduction within the auditory portion of the inner ear, the cochlea, is a complex nonlinear process. The study of cochlear mechanics in large rodents has provided important insights into cochlear function. However, technological and experimental limitations have restricted studies in mice due to their smaller cochlea. These challenges are important to overcome because of the wide variety of transgenic mouse strains with hearing loss mutations that are available for study. To accomplish this goal, we used spectral domain optical coherence tomography to visualize and measure sound-induced vibrations of intracochlear tissues. We present, to our knowledge, the first vibration measurements ...

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    21. Methodology for assessment of structural vibrations by spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      Methodology for assessment of structural vibrations by spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      Clinical diagnosis of cochlear dysfunction typically remains incomplete due to a lack of proper diagnostic methods. Medical imaging modalities can only detect gross changes in the cochlea, and non-invasive in vivo cochlear measurements are scarce. As a result, extensive efforts have been made to adapt optical coherence tomography (OCT) techniques to analyze and study the cochlea. Herein, we detail the methods for measuring vibration using OCT. We used spectral domain OCT with ~950 nm as the center wavelength and a bandwidth of ~80 nm. The custom spectrometer used was based on a high speed line scan camera which is capable ...

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      Mentions: Rice University
    22. Imaging high-frequency periodic motion in the mouse ear with coherently interleaved optical coherence tomography

      Imaging high-frequency periodic motion in the mouse ear with coherently interleaved optical coherence tomography

      Vibratory measurements of the structures of the ear are key to understanding much of the pathology in mouse models of hearing loss. Unfortunately the high-speed sampling required to interrogate the high end of the mouse hearing spectrum is beyond the reach of most optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems. To address this issue, we have developed an algorithm that enables phase-sensitive OCT measurements over the full range of the mouse hearing spectrum (4–90 kHz). The algorithm phase-locks the line-trigger to the acoustic stimulation and then uses interleaved sampling to reconstruct the signal with higher temporal sampling. The algorithm was evaluated ...

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    23. Biophysical Mechanisms Underlying Hearing Loss Associated with a Shortened Tectorial Membrane

      Biophysical Mechanisms Underlying Hearing Loss Associated with a Shortened Tectorial Membrane

      The tectorial membrane (TM) connects to the stereociliary bundles of outer hair cells (OHCs). Herein, we summarize key experimental data and modeling analyses that describe how biophysical alterations to these connections underlie hearing loss. The heterozygous C1509G mutation in alpha tectorin produces partial congenital hearing loss that progresses in humans. We engineered this mutation in mice, and histology revealed that the TM was shortened. DIC imaging of freshly-dissected cochlea as well as imaging with optical coherence tomography indicated that the TM is malformed and only stimulates the first row of OHCs. Noise exposure produced acute threshold shifts that fully recovered ...

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    24. Quantitative imaging of cochlear soft tissues in wild-type and hearing-impaired transgenic mice by spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      Quantitative imaging of cochlear soft tissues in wild-type and hearing-impaired transgenic mice by spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      Human hearing loss often occurs as a result of damage or malformations to the functional soft tissues within the cochlea, but these changes are not appreciable with current medical imaging modalities. We sought to determine whether optical coherence tomography (OCT) could assess the soft tissue structures relevant to hearing using mouse models. We imaged excised cochleae with an altered tectorial membrane and during normal development. The soft tissue structures and expected anatomical variations were visible using OCT, and quantitative measurements confirmed the ability to detect critical changes relevant to hearing.

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    1-24 of 24
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    Quantitative imaging of cochlear soft tissues in wild-type and hearing-impaired transgenic mice by spectral domain optical coherence tomography Biophysical Mechanisms Underlying Hearing Loss Associated with a Shortened Tectorial Membrane Imaging high-frequency periodic motion in the mouse ear with coherently interleaved optical coherence tomography Methodology for assessment of structural vibrations by spectral domain optical coherence tomography In vivo vibrometry inside the apex of the mouse cochlea using spectral domain optical coherence tomography Method And Apparatus For Examining Inner Ear Noninvasive in vivo imaging reveals differences between tectorial membrane and basilar membrane traveling waves in the mouse cochlea Feature Of The Week 04/05/15: Noninvasive in vivo Imaging Reveals Differences Between Tectorial Membrane and Basilar Membrane Traveling Waves in the Mouse Cochlea Miniature, minimally invasive, tunable endoscope for investigation of the middle ear Osmotic stabilization prevents cochlear synaptopathy after blast trauma The truth about invisible posterior vitreous structures The Influence of Eyelid Position and Environmental Conditions on the Corneal Changes in Early Postmortem Interval: A Prospective, Multicentric OCT Study