1. Articles from Robert J. Zawadzki

    1-24 of 104 1 2 3 4 5 »
    1. Towards standardizing retinal optical coherence tomography angiography: a review

      Towards standardizing retinal optical coherence tomography angiography: a review

      The visualization and assessment of retinal microvasculature are important in the study, diagnosis, monitoring, and guidance of treatment of ocular and systemic diseases. With the introduction of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), it has become possible to visualize the retinal microvasculature volumetrically and without a contrast agent. Many lab-based and commercial clinical instruments, imaging protocols and data analysis methods and metrics, have been applied, often inconsistently, resulting in a confusing picture that represents a major barrier to progress in applying OCTA to reduce the burden of disease. Open data and software sharing, and cross-comparison and pooling of data from different ...

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    2. Extraction of phase-based optoretinograms (ORG) from serial B-scans acquired over tens of seconds by mouse retinal raster scanning OCT system

      Extraction of phase-based optoretinograms (ORG) from serial B-scans acquired over tens of seconds by mouse retinal raster scanning OCT system

      Several specialized retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) acquisition and processing methods have been recently developed to allow in vivo probing of light-evoked photoreceptors function, focusing on measurements in individual photoreceptors (rods and cones). Recent OCT investigations in humans and experimental animals have shown that the outer segments in dark-adapted rods and cones elongate in response to the visible optical stimuli that bleach fractions of their visual photopigment. We have previously successfully contributed to these developments by implementing OCT intensity-based "optoretinograms" (ORG), the paradigm of using near-infrared OCT (NIR OCT) to measure bleaching-induced back-scattering and/or elongation changes of photoreceptors in ...

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    3. Simultaneous directional full-field OCT using path-length and carrier multiplexing

      Simultaneous directional full-field OCT using path-length and carrier multiplexing

      Full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography (FF-SS-OCT) is an emerging technology with potential applications in ophthalmic imaging, microscopy, metrology, and other domains. Here we demonstrate a novel method of multiplexing FF-SS-OCT signals using carrier modulation (CM). The principle of CM could be used to inspect various properties of the scattered light, e.g. its spectrum, polarization, Doppler shift, or distribution in the pupil. The last of these will be explored in this work, where CM was used to acquire images passing through two different optical pupils. The two pupils contained semicircular optical windows with perpendicular orientations, with each window permitting measurement ...

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      Mentions: UCSD
    4. Polarization properties of retinal blood vessel walls measured with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Polarization properties of retinal blood vessel walls measured with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

      A new method based on polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is introduced to determine the polarization properties of human retinal vessel walls, in vivo . Measurements were obtained near the optic nerve head of three healthy human subjects. The double pass phase retardation per unit depth (DPPR/UD), which is proportional to the birefringence, is higher in artery walls, presumably because of the presence of muscle tissue. Measurements in surrounding retinal nerve fiber layer tissue yielded lower DPPR/UD values, suggesting that the retinal vessel wall tissue near the optic nerve is not covered by retinal nerve fiber layer tissue (0 ...

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    5. Postdoc Position for Biomedical Engineer / Vision Scientist in the UC Davis EyePod - Small Animal Ocular Imaging Laboratory at University of California, Davis

      Postdoc Position for Biomedical Engineer / Vision Scientist in the UC Davis EyePod - Small Animal Ocular Imaging Laboratory at University of California, Davis

      Applications are invited for a post-doctoral research associate position in the UC Davis EyePod Small Animal Ocular Imaging Laboratory affiliated with Center for Vision Science ( http://cvs.ucdavis.edu ) at the UC Davis Main Campus. The goal of our research is to develop and translate the next generation in vivo cellular resolution multimodal retinal imaging instruments and data analysis tools from basic science to clinics and to apply them to in vivo study of disease mechanisms and therapeutic interventions. The ideal candidate will have strong skills in some combination of retinal/microscopic imaging modalities, including OCT, SLO, multispectral imaging, fluorescence ...

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      Mentions: UC Davis
    6. Kilohertz retinal FF-SS-OCT and flood imaging with hardware-based adaptive optics

      Kilohertz retinal FF-SS-OCT and flood imaging with hardware-based adaptive optics

      A retinal imaging system was designed for full-field (FF) swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) with cellular resolution. The system incorporates a real-time adaptive optics (AO) subsystem and a very high-speed CMOS sensor, and is capable of acquiring volumetric images of the retina at rates up to 1 kHz. While digital aberration correction (DAC) is an attractive potential alternative to AO, it has not yet been shown to provide resolution allowing visualization of cones in the fovea, where early detection of functional deficits is most critical. Here we demonstrate that FF-SS-OCT with hardware AO permits resolution of foveal cones, imaged ...

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      Mentions: UC Davis
    7. Visible light OCT improves imaging through a highly scattering retinal pigment epithelial wall

      Visible light OCT improves imaging through a highly scattering retinal pigment epithelial wall

      Here we provide a counter-example to the conventional wisdom in biomedical optics that longer wavelengths aid deeper imaging in tissue. Specifically, we investigate visible light optical coherence tomography of Bruch’s membrane (BM) in the non-pathologic eyes of humans and two mouse strains. Surprisingly, we find that shorter visible wavelengths improve the visualization of BM in pigmented eyes, where it is located behind a highly scattering layer of melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transport suggest that, while absorption and scattering are higher at shorter wavelengths, detected multiply scattered light from the RPE is ...

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      Mentions: UC Davis
    8. Optoretinogram: optical measurement of human cone and rod photoreceptor responses to light

      Optoretinogram: optical measurement of human cone and rod photoreceptor responses to light

      Noninvasive, objective measurement of rod function is as significant as that of cone function, and for retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration, rod function may be a more sensitive biomarker of disease progression and efficacy of treatment than cone function. Functional imaging of single human rod photoreceptors, however, has proven difficult because their small size and rapid functional response pose challenges for the resolution and speed of the imaging system. Here, we describe light-evoked, functional responses of human rods and cones, measured noninvasively using a synchronized adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning light ophthalmoscopy ...

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      Mentions: UC Davis
    9. Temporal speckle-averaging of optical coherence tomography volumes for in-vivo cellular resolution neuronal and vascular retinal imaging

      Temporal speckle-averaging of optical coherence tomography volumes for in-vivo cellular resolution neuronal and vascular retinal imaging

      It has been recently demonstrated that structures corresponding to the cell bodies of highly transparent cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer could be visualized noninvasively in the living human eye by optical coherence tomography (OCT) via temporal averaging. Inspired by this development, we explored the application of volumetric temporal averaging in mice, which are important models for studying human retinal diseases and therapeutic interventions. A general framework of temporal speckle-averaging (TSA) of OCT and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is presented and applied to mouse retinal volumetric data. Based on the image analysis, the eyes of mice under anesthesia ...

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      Mentions: UC Davis
    10. Coextensive synchronized SLO-OCT with adaptive optics for human retinal imaging

      Coextensive synchronized SLO-OCT with adaptive optics for human retinal imaging

      We describe the details of a multimodal retinal imaging system which combines adaptive optics (AO) with an integrated scanning light ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system. The OCT subsystem consisted of a swept-source, Fourier-domain mode-locked (FDML) laser, with a very high A-scan rate (1.6 MHz), whose beam was raster scanned on the retina by two scanners—one resonant scanner and one galvanometer. The high sweep rate of the FDML permitted the SLO and OCT to utilize the same scanners for in vivo retinal imaging and, unlike existing multimodal systems, concurrently acquired SLO frames and OCT volumes ...

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      Mentions: UCSD
    11. Directional optical coherence tomography reveals melanin concentration-dependent scattering properties of retinal pigment epithelium

      Directional optical coherence tomography reveals melanin concentration-dependent scattering properties of retinal pigment epithelium

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful tool in ophthalmology that provides in vivo morphology of the retinal layers and their light scattering properties. The directional (angular) reflectivity of the retinal layers was investigated with focus on the scattering from retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The directional scattering of the RPE was studied in three mice strains with three distinct melanin concentrations: albino (BALB/c), agouti (129S1/SvlmJ), and strongly pigmented (C57BL/6J). The backscattering signal strength was measured with a directional OCT system in which the pupil entry position of the narrow OCT beam can be varied across the dilated ...

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    12. Feature Of The Week 03/01/2019: Functional Retina lmaging using Adaptive Optics Swept-Source OCT at 1.6 MHz

      Feature Of The Week 03/01/2019: Functional Retina lmaging using Adaptive Optics Swept-Source OCT at 1.6 MHz

      Functional assessment of the retina is a critical part of both clinical ophthalmology and vision research. Several techniques exist for measuring retinal function, such as Visual acuity/contrast sensitivity tests, Psychophysics and ERG (Electroretinogram and multifocal Electroretinogram). However, these approaches have important limitations, poor spatial resolution, slightly invasive; long duration of tests. There is great excitement about emerging noninvasive approaches to measuring retinal function, both from clinical and basic scientific perspectives .With emerging approaches such as gene therapy, stem cell therapy, and transplantation, there is new hope for rescuing existing dysfunctional photoreceptors. A critical aspect of these therapeutic approaches is ...

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      Mentions: UC Davis
    13. Functional retinal imaging using adaptive optics swept-source OCT at 1.6  MHz

      Functional retinal imaging using adaptive optics swept-source OCT at 1.6  MHz

      Objective optical assessment of photoreceptor function may permit earlier diagnosis of retinal disease than current methods such as perimetry, electrophysiology, and clinical imaging. In this work, we describe an adaptive optics (AO) optical coherence tomography (OCT) system designed to measure functional responses of single cones to visible stimuli. The OCT subsystem consisted of a raster-scanning Fourier-domain mode-locked laser that acquires A scans at 1.64 MHz with a center wavelength of 1063 nm and an AO system operating in closed-loop. Analysis of serial volumetric images revealed phase changes of cone photoreceptors consistent with outer segment elongation and proportional to stimulus ...

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      Mentions: UCSD Optores
    14. Aperture phase modulation with adaptive optics

      Aperture phase modulation with adaptive optics

      Speckle is an inevitable consequence of the use of coherent light in imaging and acts as noise that corrupts image formation in most applications. Optical coherence tomographic imaging, as a technique employing coherence time gating, suffers from speckle. We present here a novel method of suppressing speckle noise intrinsically compatible with adaptive optics (AO) for confocal coherent imaging: modulation of the phase in the system pupil aperture with a segmented deformable mirror (DM) to introduce minor perturbations in the point spread function. This approach creates uncorrelated speckle patterns in a series of images, enabling averaging to suppress speckle noise while ...

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    15. Megahertz-rate optical coherence tomography angiography improves the contrast of the choriocapillaris and choroid in human retinal imaging

      Megahertz-rate optical coherence tomography angiography improves the contrast of the choriocapillaris and choroid in human retinal imaging

      Angiographic imaging of the human eye with optical coherence tomography (OCT) is becoming an increasingly important tool in the scientific investigation and clinical management of several blinding diseases, including age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. We have observed that OCT angiography (OCTA) of the human choriocapillaris and choroid with a 1.64 MHz A-scan rate swept-source laser yields higher contrast images as compared to a slower rate system operating at 100 kHz. This result is unexpected because signal sensitivity is reduced when acquisition rates are increased, and the incident illumination power is kept constant. The contrast of angiography images generated ...

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    16. Intraframe motion correction for raster-scanned adaptive optics images using strip-based cross-correlation lag biases

      Intraframe motion correction for raster-scanned adaptive optics images using strip-based cross-correlation lag biases

      In retinal raster imaging modalities, fixational eye movements manifest as image warp, where the relative positions of the beam and retina change during the acquisition of single frames. To remove warp artifacts, strip-based registration methods–in which fast-axis strips from target images are registered to a reference frame–have been applied in adaptive optics (AO) scanning light ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). This approach has enabled object tracking and frame averaging, and methods have been described to automatically select reference frames with minimal motion. However, inconspicuous motion artifacts may persist in reference frames and propagate themselves throughout the ...

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    17. Aperture Phase Modulation with Adaptive Optics: A Novel Approach for Speckle Reduction and Structure Extraction in Optical Coherence Tomography

      Aperture Phase Modulation with Adaptive Optics: A Novel Approach for Speckle Reduction and Structure Extraction in Optical Coherence Tomography

      Speckle is an inevitable consequence of the use of coherent light in optical coherence tomography (OCT), and often acts as noise that obscures micro-structures of biological tissue. We here present a novel method of suppressing speckle noise intrinsically compatible with adaptive optics (AO) in OCT system: by modulating the phase inside the imaging system pupil aperture with a segmented deformable mirror, thus producing minor perturbations in the point spread function (PSF) to create un-correlated speckle pattern between B-scans, and further averaging to wash out the speckle but maintain the structures. It is a well-controlled and universal method which can efficiently ...

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    18. Functional retinal imaging using adaptive optics swept-source OCT at 1.6MHz

      Functional retinal imaging using adaptive optics swept-source OCT at 1.6MHz

      bjective optical assessment of photoreceptor function may permit earlier diagnosis of retinal disease than current methods such as perimetry, electrophysiology, and clinical imaging. In this work, we describe an adaptive optics (AO) optical coherence tomography (OCT) system designed to measure functional responses of single cones to visible stimuli. The OCT subsystem consisted of a raster-scanning Fourier-domain mode-locked laser that acquires A-scans at 1.64MHz with a center wavelength of 1063nm, and an AO subsystem providing diffraction-limited imaging. Analysis of serial volumetric images revealed phase changes of cone photoreceptors consistent with outer segment elongation and proportional to stimulus intensity, as well ...

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      Mentions: UCSD
    19. Investigation of the effect of directional (off-axis) illumination on the reflectivity of retina layers in mice using swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Investigation of the effect of directional (off-axis) illumination on the reflectivity of retina layers in mice using swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Changes in visibility of the Henle fiber layer and photoreceptor bands of the human retina with illumination directionality have been reported in OCT clinical imaging. These are a direct consequence of the changes in back scattering due to fibrous tissue orientation and to waveguiding properties of the photoreceptors respectively. Here we report the preliminary results of a study on the effects of retinal images acquired with OCT of illumination directionality in the mouse retina. The quantitative assessment of the reflectivity of retinal layers of a BALB/c and WT pigmented mice was performed in-vivo using a swept-source optical coherence tomography ...

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    20. Adaptive optics with combined optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy for in vivo mouse retina imaging

      Adaptive optics with combined optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy for in vivo mouse retina imaging

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) are two state-of-the-art imaging technologies commonly used to study retina. Adaptive Optics (AO) methodologies enable high-fidelity correction of ocular aberrations, resulting in improved resolution and sensitivity for both SLO and OCT systems. Here we present work integrating OCT into a previously described mouse retinal AO-SLO system, allowing simultaneous reflectance and fluorescence imaging. The new system allows simultaneous data acquisition of AO-SLO and AO-OCT, facilitating registration and comparison of data from both modalities. The system has data acquisition speed of 200 kHz A-scans/pixel, and high volumetric resolution.

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    21. Volumetric imaging of rod and cone photoreceptor structure with a combined adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography-scanning laser ophthalmoscope

      Volumetric imaging of rod and cone photoreceptor structure with a combined adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography-scanning laser ophthalmoscope

      We have designed and implemented a dual-mode adaptive optics (AO) imaging system that combines spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) for in vivo imaging of the human retina. The system simultaneously acquires SLO frames and OCT B-scans at 60 Hz with an OCT volume acquisition time of 4.2 s. Transverse eye motion measured from the SLO is used to register the OCT B-scans to generate three-dimensional (3-D) volumes. Key optical design considerations include: minimizing system aberrations through the use of off-axis relay telescopes, conjugate pupil plane requirements, and the use of dichroic beam splitters ...

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    22. The Properties of Outer Retinal Band Three Investigated With Adaptive-Optics Optical Coherence Tomography

      The Properties of Outer Retinal Band Three Investigated With Adaptive-Optics Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : Optical coherence tomography's (OCT) third outer retinal band has been attributed to the zone of interdigitation between RPE cells and cone outer segments. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the structure of this band with adaptive optics (AO)-OCT. Methods : Using AO-OCT, images were obtained from two subjects. Axial structure was characterized by measuring band 3 thickness and separation between bands 2 and 3 in segmented cones. Lateral structure was characterized by correlation of band 3 with band 2 and comparison of their power spectra. Band thickness and separation were also measured in a clinical OCT ...

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      Mentions: UC Davis
    23. In vivo optophysiology reveals that G-protein activation triggers osmotic swelling and increased light scattering of rod photoreceptors

      In vivo optophysiology reveals that G-protein activation triggers osmotic swelling and increased light scattering of rod photoreceptors

      The light responses of rod and cone photoreceptors have been studied electrophysiologically for decades, largely with ex vivo approaches that disrupt the photoreceptors’ subretinal microenvironment. Here we report the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure light-driven signals of rod photoreceptors in vivo. Visible light stimulation over a 200-fold intensity range caused correlated rod outer segment (OS) elongation and increased light scattering in wild-type mice, but not in mice lacking the rod G-protein alpha subunit, transducin (Gα t ), revealing these responses to be triggered by phototransduction. For stimuli that photoactivated one rhodopsin per Gα t the rod OS swelling ...

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    1-24 of 104 1 2 3 4 5 »
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    Evaluation of complex conjugate artifact removal methods used in spectrometer-based Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography systems - a comparative study Feature Of The Week 02/01/2015: Progress on Developing Adaptive Optics OCT for In Vivo Retinal Imaging: Monitoring and Correction of Eye Motion Artifacts (with Audio Narration) Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography in Ocular Diseases Special Interest Group at ARVO Post-Doc Position for biomedical engineer / vision scientist in the UC Davis EyePod - Small Animal Retinal Imaging Laboratory at University of California, Davis Post-Doc Position for Biomedical Engineer / Vision Scientist in the UC Davis EyePod - Small Animal Retinal Imaging Laboratory at University of California, Davis Mirau-based line-field confocal optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional high-resolution skin imaging Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Choroidal Melanoma-Associated Subretinal Fluid Evaluation of retinal vessel and perfusion density in migraine patients by optical coherence tomography angiography Postdoctoral Opening in Retinal OCT/OCTA and AI Classification at University of Illinois Chicago Analysis of Peripapillary Intrachoroidal Cavitation and Myopic Peripapillary Distortions in Polar Regions by Optical Coherence Tomography Reproducibility of Neuroretinal Rim Measurements Obtained from High-Density Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Volume Scans High neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio with type 2 diabetes mellitus predicts poor prognosis in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a large-scale cohort study