1. Articles from Fernando Alfonso

    1-24 of 92 1 2 3 4 »
    1. Clinical outcomes of calcified nodules detected by optical coherence tomography

      Clinical outcomes of calcified nodules detected by optical coherence tomography

      Aims: The goal of the present post hoc analysis of the CLIMA registry was to establish the relationship between calcified nodules (CNs) with (CND) or without (CNWD) disruption of the superficial intimal fibrous layer and one-year occurrence of target lesion myocardial infarction (MI) and/or cardiac death. Methods and results: CND and CNWD were identified based on the presence or absence of superficial irregularities indicative of disruption of the intimal fibrous layer, with possible overlying local thrombus. In total, 222 CNs were found in the 1,776 non-culprit LAD plaques. CND had larger maximum calcific arc and smaller lumen area ...

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    2. Prevalence and quantitative assessment of macrophages in coronary plaques

      Prevalence and quantitative assessment of macrophages in coronary plaques

      Although optical coherence tomography (OCT) proved to be able to identify macrophage clusters, there are no available data on the possibility to obtain reproducible measurements of their circumferential extension and location. The purpose of the present post-hoc analysis of the CLIMA study was to revise the clinical and demographic variables of patients having coronary plaques with macrophages and to investigate the reproducibility of their quantitative assessment. A total of 577 patients out of 1003 undergoing OCT showed macrophage accumulation. Three groups were identified; group 1 (426 patients) without macrophages, group 2 (296) patients with low macrophage content (less than median ...

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    3. Diagnosis of Intraplaque Hemorrhage by High-Definition Intravascular Ultrasound and Optical Coherence Tomography

      Diagnosis of Intraplaque Hemorrhage by High-Definition Intravascular Ultrasound and Optical Coherence Tomography

      A 67-year-old woman, a heavy smoker and with hypothyroidism, presented with a non–STsegment elevation myocardial infarction with negative T waves on the inferior leads. Coronary angiography revealed a focal stenosis in the mid right coronary artery (arrow in Figure 1A) but no other coronary lesions. High-definition (60-MHz) intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) (ACIST Medical Systems, Eden Prairie, Minnesota) revealed a large hyperechoic noncalcific plaque encompassing a well-delineated, crescent-shaped area showing a striking hypoechogenicity (echolucent “black” area) (yellow asterisks in Figures 1B and 1C [white asterisk denotes wire artifact]). The immediately adjacent plaque had a more reflective pattern with marked speckling (Figures ...

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    4. Severe coronary spasm in a COVID‐19 patient

      Severe coronary spasm in a COVID‐19 patient

      Myocardial injury is frequently detected in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) patients. However, up to one‐third of COVID‐19 patients showing ST‐segment elevation on the electrocardiogram have angiographically normal coronary arteries. We present a case of an acute coronary syndrome due to a coronary spasm in a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) patient. This pathophysiological mechanism was clearly demonstrated by intracoronary imaging techniques (optical coherence tomography) and invasive vasospasm test.

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      Mentions: Fernando Alfonso
    5. Outcomes of Optical Coherence Tomography Compared With Intravascular Ultrasound and With Angiography to Guide Coronary Stent Implantation: One-Year Results from the ILUMIEN III: OPTIMIZE PCI trial

      Outcomes of Optical Coherence Tomography Compared With Intravascular Ultrasound and With Angiography to Guide Coronary Stent Implantation: One-Year Results from the ILUMIEN III: OPTIMIZE PCI trial

      Aims: In the ILUMIEN III trial, among 450 randomised patients with non-complex lesions undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), optical coherence tomography (OCT) guidance led to greater stent expansion than angiography guidance, similar minimal stent area compared to both intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance and angiography guidance, and lower rates of uncorrected dissection and malapposition than both IVUS guidance and angiography guidance. Whether these differences impact clinical outcomes is unknown. Methods and results : OCT-guided PCI, using an external elastic lamina-based protocol, was compared to operator-directed IVUS-guided or angiography-guided PCI. Target lesion failure (TLF) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) at 12 months ...

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    6. Influence of neoatherosclerosis on prognosis and treatment response in patients with in-stent restenosis

      Influence of neoatherosclerosis on prognosis and treatment response in patients with in-stent restenosis

      Introduction and objectives Neoatherosclerosis is one of the causes of in-stent restenosis (ISR). Our objective was to evaluate the influence of neoatherosclerosis on prognosis and treatment response in patients with ISR. Methods This is a pooled analysis of the optical coherence tomography (OCT)-substudies of 2 multicenter, randomized clinical trials, RIBS IV and V, comparing treatment with paclitaxel-coated balloon vs everolimus-eluting stent in patients with ISR. OCT evaluation was performed at baseline and at 6 to 9 months. Neoatherosclerosis was defined in baseline OCT as neointima with calcified or lipid content. We evaluated the angiographic and OCT results at 6 ...

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    7. Influence of neoatherosclerosis on prognosis and treatment response in patients with in-stent restenosis

      Influence of neoatherosclerosis on prognosis and treatment response in patients with in-stent restenosis

      Introduction and objectives Neoatherosclerosis is one of the causes of in-stent restenosis (ISR). Our objective was to evaluate the influence of neoatherosclerosis on prognosis and treatment response in patients with ISR. Methods This is a pooled analysis of the optical coherence tomography (OCT)-substudies of 2 multicenter, randomized clinical trials , RIBS IV and V, comparing treatment with paclitaxel-coated balloon vs everolimus-eluting stent in patients with ISR. OCT evaluation was performed at baseline and at 6 to 9 months. Neoatherosclerosis was defined in baseline OCT as neointima with calcified or lipid content. We evaluated the angiographic and OCT results at 6 ...

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    8. Very late stent thrombosis of a titanium-nitride-oxide-coated bioactive stent resulting from neoatherosclerosis: Optical coherence tomography insights

      Very late stent thrombosis of a titanium-nitride-oxide-coated bioactive stent resulting from neoatherosclerosis: Optical coherence tomography insights

      This is the first reported case of a BAS very late stent thrombosis resulting from ruptured neoatherosclerosis. • Optical Coherence Tomography provides unique insight to unravel the presence of neoatherosclerosis. • Very late stent thrombosis of BAS resulting from neoatherosclerosis is an uncommon but feared complication.

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    9. Characteristic findings of acute spontaneous coronary artery dissection by cardiac computed tomography

      Characteristic findings of acute spontaneous coronary artery dissection by cardiac computed tomography

      Background: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an infrequent cause of acute coronary syndrome (ACS); however, its detection carries relevant clinical implications. Cardiac computed tomography (CCT) has been found to be useful for follow-up, but data during the acute phase are scarce. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the early diagnostic ability of CCT to detect SCAD. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed all the in-hospital CCT performed in a prospective cohort of patients with SCAD from 2012 to 2016. An independent expert blindly evaluated the studies and described the radiologic characteristics of the lesions. These features were compared with the invasive ...

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    10. Randomized comparison of optical coherence tomography versus angiography to guide Bioresorbable vascular scaffold implantation: The OPTICO BVS stud

      Randomized comparison of optical coherence tomography versus angiography to guide Bioresorbable vascular scaffold implantation: The OPTICO BVS stud

      Purpose We investigated whether optical coherence tomography (OCT)-guided bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) implantation can improve in-scaffold minimal lumen area (MLA) at 6-month compared with angiography guidance. Methods The OPTICO BVS was a randomized, international multicenter, assessor blind, superiority trial comparing OCT- versus angiography-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (1:1 allocation) in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing Absorb BVS 1.1 implantation. The primary endpoint was in-scaffold MLA at 6-month. Results The trial was prematurely stopped on May 31, 2017 after enrollment of 38 of 270 planned patients (14%) following the retraction of the device in Europe. Patients were ...

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    11. Plasmonic Copper Sulfide Nanoparticles Enable Dark Contrast in Optical Coherence Tomography

      Plasmonic Copper Sulfide Nanoparticles Enable Dark Contrast in Optical Coherence Tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique affording noninvasive optical biopsies. Like for other imaging techniques, the use of dedicated contrast agents helps better discerning biological features of interest during the clinical practice. Although bright OCT contrast agents have been developed, no dark counterpart has been proposed yet. Herein, plasmonic copper sulfide nanoparticles as the first OCT dark contrast agents working in the second optical transparency window are reported. These nanoparticles virtually possess no light scattering capabilities at the OCT working wavelength (≈1300 nm); thus, they exclusively absorb the probing light, which in turn results in dark contrast. The ...

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      Mentions: Fernando Alfonso
    12. Role of optical coherence tomography for distal left main stem angioplasty

      Role of optical coherence tomography for distal left main stem angioplasty

      Objective The objective is to analyze the acute and midterm angiographic outcome of percutaneous treatment of left main coronary stem (LM‐PCI) guided by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Background LM‐PCI is a complex procedure, and several anatomical factors may impair its outcome. Intravascular imaging is emerging as a useful tool to guide the procedure. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients undergoing LM‐PCI at three European centers between 2014 and 2017 with a control angiography at 6–12 months. Patients were divided into two groups: OCT‐guidance (pre‐ and post‐PCI) and control group (standard angiographic guidance ...

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    13. Second-generation drug-eluting absorbable metal scaffold target-lesion revascularization: an optical coherence tomography case series study and literature review

      Second-generation drug-eluting absorbable metal scaffold target-lesion revascularization: an optical coherence tomography case series study and literature review

      Bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) were introduced into clinical practice to overcome long-term limitations of drug-eluting stents (DES), but they were instead associated with a high rate of target lesion revascularization (TLR) and thrombosis. Whereas scaffold discontinuity was the most frequent mechanism for polymeric-BRS TLR1, there are no studies on the causes of second-generation drug-eluting absorbable metal scaffold (MgBRS) TLR (Magmaris, BIOTRONIK, Bulach, Switzerland). We sought to determine the optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings in patients who experienced a MgBRS TLR. Moreover, we performed a systematic review of the reported cases. 

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    14. Intracoronary imaging for the diagnosis of the underlying substrate and clinical management of acute coronary syndromes: from evidence to expert consensus … and back!

      Intracoronary imaging for the diagnosis of the underlying substrate and clinical management of acute coronary syndromes: from evidence to expert consensus … and back!

      ntracoronary imaging (ICI) has matured into a well-established clinical and research tool for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are now widely accepted for the assessment of lesion morphology in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The large body of evidence gathered on the clinical value of these techniques cannot be summarised in a conventional clinical practice guideline format. Accordingly, a recent expert consensus document on the importance of ICI to guide coronary interventions 1 has now been followed by another expert consensus detailing the value of these techniques to unravel ...

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    15. Relationship between coronary plaque morphology of the left anterior descending artery and 12 months clinical outcome: the CLIMA study

      Relationship between coronary plaque morphology of the left anterior descending artery and 12 months clinical outcome: the CLIMA study

      Aims The CLIMA study, on the relationship between c oronary p l aque morphology of the left anter i or descending artery and twelve m onths clinic a l outcome, was designed to explore the predictive value of multiple high-risk plaque features in the same coronary lesion [minimum lumen area (MLA), fibrous cap thickness (FCT), lipid arc circumferential extension, and presence of optical coherence tomography (OCT)-defined macrophages] as detected by OCT. Composite of cardiac death and target segment myocardial infarction was the primary clinical endpoint. Methods and results From January 2013 to December 2016, 1003 patients undergoing OCT evaluation ...

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    16. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: Pathophysiological Insights From Optical Coherence Tomography

      Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: Pathophysiological Insights From Optical Coherence Tomography

      Objectives This study used optical coherence tomography to investigate the mechanism of false lumen (FL) formation in spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) by studying: 1) differences between fenestrated and nonfenestrated SCAD; 2) vasa vasorum density; and 3) light attenuation characteristics of the FL. Background SCAD is an increasingly recognized cause of acute coronary syndromes , characterized by FL formation and compression of the true lumen (TL). The mechanisms underlying FL formation remain poorly understood. Methods A total of 65 SCAD patients (68 vessels) who underwent acute OCT imaging as part of routine clinical care were included. Images were classified by the ...

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    17. Qualitative and quantitative neointimal characterization by optical coherence tomography in patients presenting with in-stent restenosis

      Qualitative and quantitative neointimal characterization by optical coherence tomography in patients presenting with in-stent restenosis

      Aims To describe optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings in patients with in-stent restenosis (ISR) and determine predictors of neointimal patterns and neoatherosclerosis. Methods and results Patients undergoing OCT prior to PCI for ISR in three European centres were included. Analyses were performed in a core laboratory. Qualitative and quantitative [gray-scale signal intensity (GSI)] neointima analyses were performed on a per quadrant basis. A total of 107 patients were included. Predominantly homogeneous lesions included 4.5% (0.0–14.3) non-homogeneous quadrants, while predominantly non-homogeneous ones included 28.1% (20.3–37.5) homogeneous quadrants. Mean GSI values differed significantly between ...

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    18. Calcified neoatherosclerosis causing in-stent restenosis: prevalence, predictors, and implications

      Calcified neoatherosclerosis causing in-stent restenosis: prevalence, predictors, and implications

      Background Neoatherosclerosis has emerged as a major cause of in-stent restenosis (ISR). Although this entity has been described as a unique process, optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables depiction of distinct morphologic patterns, including the presence of calcified sheets within the stent. We sought to assess prevalence, predictors, and implications of calcified neoatherosclerosis (cNA) as the cause of ISR. Methods and results From January 2014 to August 2016, 75 consecutive patients with 81 ISR lesions with a clinical indication for revascularization were evaluated by OCT before reintervention. In 13 (16%) lesions, cNA was the predominant pattern of ISR, all of them ...

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      Mentions: Fernando Alfonso
    19. Early restenosis of resorbable magnesium scaffolds: Optical coherence tomography findings

      Early restenosis of resorbable magnesium scaffolds: Optical coherence tomography findings

      Resorbable Magnesium Scaffolds (RMS) represent an interesting alternative to current drug‐eluting stents. Current data from clinical trials seems to confirm good performance of these new devices with low rates of late device failure. Little is known about mechanisms leading to RMS failure. Herein, we present the first description of an early RMS in‐scaffold restenosis. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) analysis at implantation detected acute non‐severe malapposition and underexpansion as main promoters of RMS failure. OCT during in‐scaffold restenosis intervention confirmed early severe neointimal proliferation and RMS late recoil and dismantling as the main mechanisms of device failure ...

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      Mentions: Fernando Alfonso
    20. Neoatherosclerosis in Patients With Coronary Stent Thrombosis: Findings From Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging (A Report of the PRESTIGE Consortium)

      Neoatherosclerosis in Patients With Coronary Stent Thrombosis: Findings From Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging (A Report of the PRESTIGE Consortium)

      Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess neoatherosclerosis in a registry of prospectively enrolled patients presenting with stent thrombosis using optical coherence tomography . Background In-stent neoatherosclerosis was recently identified as a novel disease manifestation of atherosclerosis after coronary stent implantation. Methods Angiography and intravascular optical coherence tomography were used to investigate etiologic factors of neoatherosclerosis in patients presenting with stent thrombosis >1 year after implantation (very late stent thrombosis [VLST]). Clinical data were collected according to a standardized protocol. Optical coherence tomographic acquisitions were analyzed in a core laboratory. Cox regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated ...

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    21. Delayed Appearance of Intramural Hematoma After Stent Implantation: Diagnosis by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Delayed Appearance of Intramural Hematoma After Stent Implantation: Diagnosis by Optical Coherence Tomography

      A 55-year-old man presented with an inferior myocardial infarction successfully treated with fibrinolysis. Elective coronary angiography revealed a tight lesion at the most proximal segment of the right coronary artery ( Video1 ). Following lesion predilation a drug-eluting stent (DES) was implanted and subsequently optimized using optical coherence tomography (OCT) guidance (Video 2). OCT confirmed an excellent final result. In particular, the distal edge of the stent was nicely expanded and apposed against the vessel wall and no edge-dissections were detected ( Figure 1A-D, Video 3 )

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      Mentions: Fernando Alfonso
    22. Bioresorbable vascular scaffold restenosis treated with sirolimus-eluting balloon: Optical coherence tomography findings

      Bioresorbable vascular scaffold restenosis treated with sirolimus-eluting balloon: Optical coherence tomography findings

      A 60-year-old man was admitted for unstable angina. Two-years ago he was treated with two bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVSs) on the proximal and distal segments of the left anterior descending coronary artery ( Figure 1 A, white arrows). Coronary angiography showed critical in-scaffold restenosis of the proximal BVS ( Figure 1 B, yellow arrow). Optical coherence tomography revealed heterogeneous tissue filling the BVS ( Figure 2 , A, B and D) with areas depicting bright neointimal hyperplasia with dorsal attenuation and marked shadowing of the underlying BVS struts. There was no evidence of scaffold disruption and neoatherosclerosis was considered the cause of late BVS ...

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      Mentions: Fernando Alfonso
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