1. Articles from Alessandro Invernizzi

    1-24 of 30 1 2 »
    1. Imaging the Choroid: From Indocyanine Green Angiography to Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Imaging the Choroid: From Indocyanine Green Angiography to Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      The choroid is the vascular structure nourishing the retinal pigment epithelium and the outer retina and it plays a key role in the homeostasis of the eye both under physiological and pathological conditions. In the last 20 years we have moved from “guessing” what was happening beyond the retinal pigment epithelium to actually visualize structural and functional changes of the choroid in vivo noninvasively. In this review we describe the state of the art of choroidal imaging , focusing on the multiple techniques available in the clinical and research setting including indocyanine green angiography , labeled-cells angiographies, optical coherence tomography (OCT), enhanced ...

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    2. Longitudinal Follow-up of Tubercular Serpiginous-Like Choroiditis using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Longitudinal Follow-up of Tubercular Serpiginous-Like Choroiditis using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose: To analyze and describe serial follow-up of choriocapillaris alterations in tubercular serpiginous like choroiditis (TB SLC) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and to compare it with multimodal imaging. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, patients with active TB SLC underwent OCTA using Optovue RTVue XR Avanti® and other imaging including enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI- OCT ) (Heidelberg Spectralis®), autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Serial imaging was performed for a total follow-up of 3 months. Choriocapillaris alterations at the site of lesions were analyzed on OCTA imaging and their mean lesion areas (LA ...

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    3. Optical coherence tomography angiography for detection of macular neovascularization associated with atrophy in age-related macular degeneration

      Optical coherence tomography angiography for detection of macular neovascularization associated with atrophy in age-related macular degeneration

      Purpose To evaluate the ability of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) to detect macular neovascularization (MNV) in eyes with atrophy compared with fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods In this prospective study, eyes with MNV and atrophy (termed macular atrophy or MA) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and AMD eyes with geographic atrophy (GA) without MNV underwent multimodal imaging with FA, ICGA, structural OCT, and OCTA. The presence of MNV was determined using all imaging modalities by senior retina specialists and was considered the gold standard reference. Each individual imaging modality was ...

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    4. Biomarkers in Usher syndrome: ultra-widefield fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography findings and their correlation with visual acuity and electrophysiology findings

      Biomarkers in Usher syndrome: ultra-widefield fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography findings and their correlation with visual acuity and electrophysiology findings

      Purpose To investigate the functional and structural biomarkers and their correlation with Usher syndrome (USH). Methods Medical records, imaging and electrophysiology test results of USH patients attending the Save Sight Institute between 2012 and 2017 were reviewed. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), ultra-widefield autofluorescence (UW-FAF), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), full-field electroretinogram and pattern electroretinogram (pERG) were performed. SD-OCT scans assessed central macular thickness (CMT), greatest linear diameter of preserved outer retinal layers—macular island (MI) and presence of cystoid macular edema (CME). UW-FAF images were qualitatively graded to identify hypo/hyperfluorescence patterns in the peripheral fundus. Results Thirty-six eyes ...

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    5. Optical coherence tomography diagnostic signs in posterior uveitis

      Optical coherence tomography diagnostic signs in posterior uveitis

      A diagnostic sign refers to a quantifiable biological parameter that is measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological, pathogenic, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. When used in translational research discussions, the term itself often alludes to a signs used to accelerate or aid in diagnosis or monitoring and provide insight into “personalized” medicine. Many new diagnostic signs are being developed that involve imaging technology. Optical coherence tomography is an imaging technique that provides in vivo quasi-histological images of the ocular tissues and as such it's able to capture the structural and functional modifications that accompany ...

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    6. Analysis of Retinal Perfusion in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults with Type 1 Diabetes Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Analysis of Retinal Perfusion in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults with Type 1 Diabetes Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      We performed a cross-sectional study to analyze the retinal vasculature in children, adolescent, and young adults with type 1 diabetes using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Patients underwent funduscopic examination for diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening during an annual visit for the screening of diabetes-related complications which included the evaluation of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), microalbuminuria, lipid profile, arterial pressure, and neurological assessment. In addition, OCTA of the retinal vasculature was performed. Quantitative analysis of the OCTA images evaluated the vessel density at the superficial (SCP) and deep (DCP) capillary plexus of the retina. Structural vascular alterations were evaluated qualitatively. Results were ...

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    7. UNDERDIAGNOSED OPTIC DISK PIT MACULOPATHY: Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Features For Accurate Diagnosis

      UNDERDIAGNOSED OPTIC DISK PIT MACULOPATHY: Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Features For Accurate Diagnosis

      Purpose: To report a cohort with optic disk pit maculopathy (ODPM) presenting with neurosensory macular detachment that were initially misdiagnosed and mistreated; and to describe structural features on spectral domain optical coherence tomography in misdiagnosed and all other consecutive cases of ODPM. Methods: Multicenter international retrospective cohort study. Participants: 59 eyes from 59 patients with ODPM. Main outcome measures: 1) Proportion of patients with ODPM initially misdiagnosed, inaccurate diagnosis and treatment. 2) Morphologic features on spectral domain optical coherence tomography : other causes of subretinal and/or intraretinal fluid, inner/outer retinoschisis, communication with optic disk pit, and retinal pigment epithelium ...

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    8. SWEPT-SOURCE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY IN CHOROIDAL MELANOMA: An Analysis of 22 Consecutive Cases

      SWEPT-SOURCE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY IN CHOROIDAL MELANOMA: An Analysis of 22 Consecutive Cases

      Purpose: To describe the imaging features of choroidal melanoma using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS- OCT-A ) and to evaluate its ability to display tumor intrinsic vasculature. Methods: Consecutive patients diagnosed with choroidal melanoma underwent a complete ophthalmic evaluation, including best-corrected visual acuity, color fundus photography, B-scan ultrasound, fluorescein angiography , indocyanine green angiography , and SS- OCT-A ( PLEX Elite 9000; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc, Dublin, CA). Results: Twenty-two eyes of 22 consecutive patients were included in the study; 11 cases (50%) were treatment naive. Three lesions (14%) were located at the macula, 14 (63%) between the macula and equator, and 5 ...

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    9. Comparing optical coherence tomography findings in different aetiologies of infectious necrotising retinitis

      Comparing optical coherence tomography findings in different aetiologies of infectious necrotising retinitis

      Abstract Aims To compare optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of active necrotising infectious retinitis (NIR) due to toxoplasmosis or herpesviruses and to determine distinctive OCT signs for these two causes of infectious retinitis. Methods OCT scans from eyes with active NIR due to varicella zoster virus (VZV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and toxoplasmosis (TOXO) were reviewed. All images were evaluated for the presence of previously described OCT findings in TOXO-NIR and compared with the viral group. New OCT findings were recorded and compared. Retinal and choroidal thickness were measured at the site of NIR and compared. Results 10 ...

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    10. Objective Quantification of Anterior Chamber Inflammation

      Objective Quantification of Anterior Chamber Inflammation

      Purpose To assess the ability of swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the anterior segment (AS) to measure anterior chamber (AC) inflammation (both flare and cells) objectively. To compare OCT-derived inflammatory indices with standard techniques. Design Prospective evaluation of a diagnostic test. Participants Patients diagnosed with anterior uveitis (active or inactive) and controls. Methods Participants underwent an AC inflammation evaluation including: clinical cell and flare grading and laser flare photometry (LFP). Uveitis patients were divided into active or inactive uveitis status according to clinical grading. Anterior segment SS-OCT scans were obtained for each participant. Tomographic images were analyzed to ...

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    11. Analysis of Retinochoroidal Vasculature in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Using Spectral-Domain OCT Angiography

      Analysis of Retinochoroidal Vasculature in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Using Spectral-Domain OCT Angiography

      Purpose To describe the retinochoroidal vascular alterations in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection using en face OCT angiography (OCTA). Design Cross-sectional study. Participants Twenty-six patients with HIV infection (5 women, with and without HIV retinopathy) were included in the study. Nineteen healthy participants (7 women) with no known ocular disease were recruited as healthy controls. Methods Multimodal imaging was performed using OCTA (Optovue RTVue XR Avanti; Optovue, Inc, Fremont, CA), enhanced-depth imaging OCT (Heidelberg Spectralis; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), color fundus photography, and fluorescein angiography (FA). Vessel flow density (VFD) was calculated automatically by the OCTA software. Morphologic ...

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    12. SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FINDINGS IN ENDOGENOUS CANDIDA ENDOPHTHALMITIS AND THEIR CLINICAL RELEVANCE

      SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FINDINGS IN ENDOGENOUS CANDIDA ENDOPHTHALMITIS AND THEIR CLINICAL RELEVANCE

      Purpose: To describe vitreal, retinal, and choroidal features of eyes affected by Endogenous candida endophthalmitis (ECE) analyzed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and to evaluate their clinical impact. Methods: Medical records and SD-OCT images from eyes diagnosed with ECE at four retina and uveitis tertiary referral centers were retrospectively evaluated. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography images were analyzed to evaluate the structural changes occurring in the vitreous, the retina, and the choroid in areas involved by ECE. Baseline and final best-corrected visual acuity were correlated with SD-OCT findings. Results: Fifteen eyes from nine patients were enrolled. Vitreous involvement ...

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    13. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FINDINGS IN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS RETINITIS: A Longitudinal Study

      OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FINDINGS IN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS RETINITIS: A Longitudinal Study

      Purpose: To evaluate the vitreal, retinal, and choroidal features using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in eyes affected by cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. Methods: Patients diagnosed with either active or inactive CMV retinitis were included in the study. Complete ophthalmic examination, serial color fundus photography, and SD-OCT (with and without enhanced depth imaging function) were performed for all the subjects at baseline and follow-up visits. The SD-OCT images were analyzed by two independent graders to evaluate the structural changes in areas of CMV retinitis. Prevalence data for vitreal, retinal, and choroidal SD-OCT features were collected. Results: Twelve eyes from 9 ...

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    14. The Role of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in the Diagnosis and Management of Acute Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada Disease

      The Role of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in the Diagnosis and Management of Acute Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada Disease

      Purpose : To report the imaging characteristics of acute Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada (VKH) disease using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods : In this prospective study, patients with acute VKH ( n = 10; mean age: 30.5 ± 13.43 years) underwent multimodal imaging (baseline and follow-up) using fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), OCT, and OCTA. The OCTA images were analyzed to assess the retinochoroidal vasculature and compared with other imaging techniques. Results : During the active stage, all eyes showed multiple foci of choriocapillaris flow void that correlated with ICGA. These foci decreased in number and size after initiation of ...

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      Mentions: Vishali Gupta
    15. LONGITUDINAL FOLLOW-UP OF CHOROIDAL GRANULOMAS USING ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      LONGITUDINAL FOLLOW-UP OF CHOROIDAL GRANULOMAS USING ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      Purpose: To assess the ability of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) in detecting variations in the structure and size of choroidal granulomas in response to treatment and to compare these findings with indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Methods: EDI-OCT and ICGA images of choroidal granulomas in eyes of patients diagnosed with tubercular or sarcoid uveitis were obtained at baseline and follow-up visits. Two independent masked observers analyzed the lesions to compare changes in their structural features such as shape, reflectivity, and margins, among others, through time. The size of each lesion was manually measured on EDI-OCT and ICGA images ...

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    16. New appraisals of Kyrieleis plaques: a multimodal imaging study

      New appraisals of Kyrieleis plaques: a multimodal imaging study

      Purpose Kyrieleis retinal periarteritis reflects the severe intraocular inflammation experienced by the eye. Its aetiology has not been well established, since only nine cases have been reported and there is no pathological study available in the literature. We determine the pathogenesis of Kyrieleis periarteritis based on interpretation of multimodal imaging findings. Methods Charts of patients with Kyrieleis arteritis seen between 2006 and 2014 were retrieved from eight uveitis referral centres throughout the world. Follow-up ranged from 5 to 12 months. Results Twenty-five eyes with Kyrieleis arteritis from 25 patients were included in the study. Nineteen patients (72%) were male and ...

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    17. ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FEATURES IN AREAS OF CHORIOCAPILLARIS HYPOPERFUSION

      ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FEATURES IN AREAS OF CHORIOCAPILLARIS HYPOPERFUSION

      Purpose: To detect choriocapillaris changes by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) in areas of choriocapillaris hypoperfusion visualized on indocyanine green angiography. Methods: Combined indocyanine green angiography and EDI-OCT from patients diagnosed with inflammatory choriocapillaris hypoperfusion were retrospectively analyzed. The EDI-OCTs were compared with indocyanine green angiography to detect choriocapillaris changes suggestive of choriocapillaris hypoperfusion in both active stage (AS) and inactive stage of the disease. The EDI-OCT was graded by two independent observers for choriocapillaris pattern (normal/altered) and reflectivity (hyper/hypo/isoreflective) changes. Manual measurements of choriocapillaris thickness were obtained. Interobserver agreement was assessed using Cohen's ...

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    18. Sudden occurrence of Roth spots and retinal hemorrhages following endoscopic adhesiolysis: an SD-OCT evaluation

      Sudden occurrence of Roth spots and retinal hemorrhages following endoscopic adhesiolysis: an SD-OCT evaluation

      To document the occurrence of Roth spots and retinal hemorrhages by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) following endoscopic adhesiolysis for failed back surgery syndrome. Case report. A 47-year-old patient noted progressive and bilateral visual loss immediately after epidural endoscopy and endoscopic adhesiolysis. Funduscopic examination showed multiple Roth spots and retinal hemorrhages at the posterior pole and the retinal midperiphery in both eyes. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography demonstrated that Roth spots involved the inner retina, while dot hemorrhages involved the outer retina. Most retinal hemorrhages and Roth spots resolved over 6 weeks, with complete functional recovery in both eyes. However, SD-OCT ...

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    19. Three-Dimensional Morphometric Analysis of the Iris by Swept-Source Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography in a Caucasian Population

      Three-Dimensional Morphometric Analysis of the Iris by Swept-Source Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography in a Caucasian Population

      Purpose : We analyzed by swept-source anterior segment optical coherence tomography (SS-ASOCT) the three-dimensional iris morphology in a Caucasian population, and correlated the findings with iris color, iris sectors, subject age, and sex. Methods : One eye each from consecutive healthy emmetropic (refractive spherical equivalent ±3 diopters) volunteers were selected for the study. The enrolled eye underwent standardized anterior segment photography to assess iris color. Iris images were assessed by SS-ASOCT for volume, thickness, width, and pupil size. Sectoral variations of morphometric data among the superior, nasal, inferior, and temporal sectors were recorded. Results : A total of 135 eyes from 57 males ...

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    20. CHOROIDAL GRANULOMAS VISUALIZED BY ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      CHOROIDAL GRANULOMAS VISUALIZED BY ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      Purpose: To assess the visualization of choroidal granulomas (CG) by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) and to describe their EDI-OCT characteristics. Methods: Combined indocyanine green (ICG) angiography and EDI-OCT images of 44 CG (sarcoid, tubercular, or Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada related) were reviewed. By ICG angiography, CG were classified as full thickness or partial thickness and as small or large. Two independent operators evaluated EDI-OCT scans over granulomas to record their characteristics (full thickness/partial thickness, shape, reflectivity, internal pattern, margins, and shadowing/increased transmission effect). The agreement between ICG angiography and EDI-OCT, the interobserver agreement, and the correlations between EDI-OCT ...

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    21. ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY VERSUS ULTRASONOGRAPHY B-SCAN FOR MEASURING RETINOCHOROIDAL THICKNESS IN NORMAL EYES

      ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY VERSUS ULTRASONOGRAPHY B-SCAN FOR MEASURING RETINOCHOROIDAL THICKNESS IN NORMAL EYES

      Purpose: To assess the accuracy of retinochoroidal thickness measurements obtained by ultrasonography (USG) B-Scan (over eyelids) and high-resolution immersion USG (with lids open) compared with enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) in normal subjects. Methods: Retinochoroidal thickness measurements were performed in normal subjects using USG over eyelids and high-resolution immersion USG (with lids open) using the 20-MHz probe keeping EDI-OCT as the gold standard. Mean retinochoroidal thickness at the fovea, 1.5 mm nasally and temporally were analyzed for interobserver agreement using intraclass correlation coefficient test. Paired t-test was used to compare the values obtained by the three techniques ...

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      Mentions: Amod Gupta
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