1. Articles from Jay Chhablani

    1-24 of 75 1 2 3 4 »
    1. Influence of protocol scan on choroidal vascularity measurements: a spectralis optical coherence tomography study

      Influence of protocol scan on choroidal vascularity measurements: a spectralis optical coherence tomography study

      Objectives To compare choroidal vascularity index (CVI) measurements using the automated image binarization algorithm in healthy subjects with two Spectralis spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) protocol scans. Methods Sixty-nine eyes of 69 healthy volunteers were included in this cross-sectional prospective study. Two subsequent horizontal 20°line scans passing through the fovea were acquired with enhanced-depth imaging mode with high speed (HS) and high resolution (HR) protocol scans. CVI and its subcomponents were measured with the previously validated automated algorithm. Differences between choroidal measurements obtained with HS and HR protocol scans were evaluated with t-test and Bland & Altman plots. Results A ...

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    2. Advances in Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging Technology and Techniques for Choroidal and Retinal Disorders

      Advances in Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging Technology and Techniques for Choroidal and Retinal Disorders

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging has played a pivotal role in the field of retina. This light-based, non-invasive imaging modality provides high-quality, cross-sectional analysis of the retina and has revolutionized the diagnosis and management of retinal and choroidal diseases. Since its introduction in the early 1990s, OCT technology has continued to advance to provide quicker acquisition times and higher resolution. In this manuscript, we discuss some of the most recent advances in OCT technology and techniques for choroidal and retinal diseases. The emerging innovations discussed include wide-field OCT, adaptive optics OCT, polarization sensitive OCT, full-field OCT, hand-held OCT, intraoperative OCT ...

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    3. Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging: Advances in Ophthalmology

      Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging: Advances in Ophthalmology

      Since its advent in 1991, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become the most commonly used imaging modality in vitreo-retina practice [ 1 ]. OCT, a non-invasive imaging modality, has a fast acquisition time, usually within seconds, and provides in vivo, high resolution, three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of the retina and choroid, akin to the histologic section [ 2 ]. These inherent advantages have enabled OCT installation in eye clinics throughout the world, thereby providing invaluable insights about the chorioretinal architecture in diverse ocular diseases. Based on the principle of low coherence interferometry, OCT uses an infrared light wavelength ranging from 840 nm to 1050 nm ...

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    4. Spectral domain OCT features in type 2 macular telangiectasia (type 2 MacTel): its relevance with clinical staging and visual acuity

      Spectral domain OCT features in type 2 macular telangiectasia (type 2 MacTel): its relevance with clinical staging and visual acuity

      Background: To report spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) imaging findings in type 2 macular telangiectasia (MacTel) and correlate them with clinical stages and visual acuity. Methods: This retrospective, cross-sectional study included type 2 MacTel cases who underwent SDOCT imaging with Spectralis machine. Macular SDOCT images were analysed. Imaging features were tested for correlation with different clinicals stages and visual acuity. Results: 212 eyes of 108 type 2 MacTel patients were included. Hyperreflective middle retinal layer (87%) was the most frequently detected abnormality. This was followed by inner retinal cavities (49%), outward bending of inner retinal layers (35%), retinal pigment ...

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    5. Regression patterns of central serous chorioretinopathy using en face optical coherence tomography

      Regression patterns of central serous chorioretinopathy using en face optical coherence tomography

      Purpose To study the regression patterns of subretinal fluid (SRF) in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) on sequential en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) and its relationship to leak locations. Methods Retrospective study on patients with acute CSCR. Inclusion criteria were (i) availability of data, sequential OCT and OCT angiography (B scan and en face OCT) every 2 weeks until resolution of SRF or 6 months, whichever is earlier; (ii) single active leak. Exclusion criteria were (i) presence of macular neovascularization or atypical CSCR, (ii) diffuse pigment epitheliopathy, (iii) multiple leaks. Serial en face OCT scans were evaluated and the area ...

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    6. In-vivo visualization of the photoreceptors using Spectralis High Magnification Module imaging in central serous chorioretinopath

      In-vivo visualization of the photoreceptors using Spectralis High Magnification Module imaging in central serous chorioretinopath

      Purpose To visualize photoreceptors using the Spectralis High Magnification Module (HMM) in a case of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) and to correlate the findings with those of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Observations A 35-year-old Caucasian male presenting with chronic CSCR in the left eye was examined using HMM, OCT and OCT-A. The photoreceptors mosaic was assessed both in diseased and apparently uninvolved areas. A partial topographic correlation between the loss of photoreceptors on HMM images and an altered reflectivity of the photoreceptor layer on en-face OCT was noted. Interestingly, a correlation between the photoreceptor ...

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    7. Choroidal Imaging in uveitis: an update

      Choroidal Imaging in uveitis: an update

      An important goal of advancements in ocular imaging algorithms and devices has been to improve the image acquisition and resolution of deeper ocular tissues, namely the choroid and its vasculature that are otherwise inaccessible to direct clinical examination. These advancements have contributed to the understanding of the pathophysiology of a number of ocular inflammatory conditions. We focuse on the imaging characteristics of clinical conditions where imaging the choroid has improved or radically changed the understanding of the disease, has helped in differentiation of phenotypically similar but distinct lesions, and where imaging features have proven vital formonitoring disease activity. The last ...

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    8. Visual function correlates with foveal slope, retinal and choroidal thickness on optical coherence tomography in type 2 Macular Telangiectasia

      Visual function correlates with foveal slope, retinal and choroidal thickness on optical coherence tomography in type 2 Macular Telangiectasia

      Purpose: To correlate the foveal slope angle (FSA), retinal (RT) and choroidal (CT) thickness measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT) across different stages of type 2 macular telangiectasia (MacTel) with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Methods: A cross-sectional study of 182 gradable quality macular OCT images of 49 patients with type 2 MacTel was carried out. RT was measured on the Spectralis OCT machine from ETDRS (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study) retinal thickness map and later used for calculating FSA. RT and CT were measured at 500-µm intervals up to 1500 µm from foveal centre manually. The change in RT ...

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    9. Evaluation of Choroidal Thickness Using Optical Coherent Tomography: A Review

      Evaluation of Choroidal Thickness Using Optical Coherent Tomography: A Review

      The choroid is the main source of blood and nourishment supply to the eye. The dysfunction of the choroid has been implicated in various retinal and choroidal diseases. The identification and in-depth understanding of pachychoroid spectrum disorders are based on the tremendous progress of optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology in recent years, although visibility of choroid is challenging in the era of the time or spectral domain OCT. The recent rapid revolution of OCTs, such as the enhanced depth imaging OCT and the swept-source OCT, has greatly contributed to the significant improvement in the analysis of the morphology and physiology ...

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    10. Bacillary layer detachment on optical coherence tomography in exudative age-related macular degeneration

      Bacillary layer detachment on optical coherence tomography in exudative age-related macular degeneration

      Purpose: To report the bacillary layer detachment on optical coherence tomography in exudative age-related macular degeneration. Methods: Retrospective, observational cases. Case descriptions: Two cases of exudative age-related macular degeneration, one diagnosed as polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy following exudative age-related macular degeneration and other as wet age-related macular degeneration with choroidal neovascular membrane showed separation of myoid and ellipsoid zones of photoreceptor layer on optical coherence tomography. This is termed as BALAD. Other associated features noted were the presence of subretinal hyperreflective material, submacular hemorrhage and subretinal fluid. Both cases were treated with monthly intravitreal injections of Inj. Ranibizumab (0.5 mg ...

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    11. Wide-field optical coherence tomography imaging in diabetic retinopathy

      Wide-field optical coherence tomography imaging in diabetic retinopathy

      Purpose: To report the individual retinal layer thicknesses up to mid-equator in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) using Spectralis (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) wide-field optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: Retinal layers were segmented using a custom designed semi-automated algorithm, where reference points were marked by the examiner to enable software to automatically compute the thickness values of each retinal sublayer at an interval of 1 mm from reference points. The values of individual retinal thicknesses in eyes with varying severity of DR were compared with the values of healthy subjects. Generalized estimating equation was performed to compensate for inclusion of ...

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    12. Optical computed tomography (OCT) angiolytics: A review of OCT angiography quantiative biomarkers

      Optical computed tomography (OCT) angiolytics: A review of OCT angiography quantiative biomarkers

      Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) provides a noninvasive method to obtain angiography of the chorioretinal vasculature leading to its recent widespread adoption. With growing number of studies exploring the use of OCTA, various biomarkers have been described to quantify vascular characteristics using various techniques. We summarize biomarkers currently described for retinal and choroidal vasculature OCTA systems and the methods used to obtain them. We presents a critical review of these methods and key findings in common retinal diseases andalso appraise future directions, including application of artificial intelligence in OCTA angiolytics.

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    13. Imaging of iris vasculature: current limitations and future perspective

      Imaging of iris vasculature: current limitations and future perspective

      Fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography have been the traditional ways to image the vasculature of the iris in the last few decades. Because of the invasive nature of these procedures, they are performed in rare situations, and thus, our understanding about iris vasculature is very limited. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a noninvasive imaging method that enables the detailed visualization of the retinal and choroidal vascular networks. More recently, it has been also used for the examination of the iris vasculature in healthy and disease eyes. However, there is a lack of uniformity in the image acquisition protocols and ...

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    14. Optical coherence tomography predictors of progression of non-exudative age-related macular degeneration to advanced atrophic and exudative disease

      Optical coherence tomography predictors of progression of non-exudative age-related macular degeneration to advanced atrophic and exudative disease

      Purpose: To study the natural history of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging-based findings seen in non-exudative age-related macular degeneration (neAMD) and model their relative likelihood in predicting development of incomplete retinal pigment epithelium and outer retinal atrophy (iRORA), complete retinal pigment epithelium and outer retinal atrophy (cRORA), and neovascular AMD (nAMD). Methods: Retrospective chart review was performed at two academic practices. Patients diagnosed with neAMD for whom yearly OCT scans were obtained for at least 4 consecutive years were included. Baseline demographic, visual acuity, AREDS staging, and OCT data were collected. OCTs were assessed for the presence or absence of ...

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    15. OCT Imaging in Infants

      OCT Imaging in Infants

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is widely applied in diagnosis and management of retina diseases particularly macular diseases in adult retina practices. However, it has been under-utilized in pediatric retinal diseases especially in neonates and infants. Utilization of OCT in primary macular diseases in this age group is also uncommon and is less reported. Challenges involved in image acquisition and limitations with available devices technique can explain the limited research and accurate data availability in the literature in this field. Purpose of this review article is to summarize the use of OCT and its importance in various infantile retinal pathologies such ...

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    16. Internal limiting membrane detachment in acute central retinal artery occlusion: a novel prognostic sign seen on OCT

      Internal limiting membrane detachment in acute central retinal artery occlusion: a novel prognostic sign seen on OCT

      ackground: To present a series of acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) cases showing internal limiting membrane detachment (ILMD) on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to describe the possible etiopathogenesis and outcomes associated with it. Methods: Demographic and OCT features of patients with acute CRAO were analysed retrospectively. OCT parameters noted were posterior vitreous opacities, ILMD, inner retinal layer stratification, hyperreflectivity and thickening, cystoid macular edema, neurosensory detachment. Eyes were grouped into Group (1) CRAO with ILMD; Group (2) CRAO with no ILMD. Results: A total of 28 eyes of acute CRAO who had undergone OCT scans at the time ...

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    17. Real-world outcomes of anti-VEGF therapy in treatment-naïve neovascular age-related macular degeneration diagnosed on OCT angiography: the REVEAL study

      Real-world outcomes of anti-VEGF therapy in treatment-naïve neovascular age-related macular degeneration diagnosed on OCT angiography: the REVEAL study

      Purpose: To compare the 12 months visual and anatomical outcomes of treatment-naïve neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) patients diagnosed by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) compared with fluorescein angiography (FA)/indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), after anti-VEGF treatment in a real-world setting. Methods: Monocentric, observational, parallel-group study of nAMD patients diagnosed with either FA/ICGA or non-invasive OCT-A methods. Patients were treated with a fixed dosing regimen of intravitreal ranibizumab or aflibercept and followed up for 12 months. Primary outcomes were the 12 months functional (BCVA) and anatomical (CST reduction) gains between the two groups. The stratification of BCVA and ...

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    18. Intraretinal, sub-retinal, and sub-retinal pigmented epithelium fluid in non-exudative age-related macular degeneration: follow-up with OCT imaging

      Intraretinal, sub-retinal, and sub-retinal pigmented epithelium fluid in non-exudative age-related macular degeneration: follow-up with OCT imaging

      Background/objectives: To evaluate the presence and evolution of fluid in non-exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) through serial OCT. Subjects/methods: A retrospective analysis of eyes with non-exudative AMD with a minimum of 4 year follow-up was done. Parameters including intraretinal fluid (IRF), subretinal fluid (SRF), and sub-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) fluid (SRPEF); subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and type of drusen were evaluated using optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans at baseline and follow up visits. Results: Seventy-two eyes (in 63 patients) were followed up for an average of 5.83 ± 2.17 years. A total of 26/72 (36%) and ...

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    19. Retinal Pigment Epithelium Reflectivity at Leakage Site on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Acute Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

      Retinal Pigment Epithelium Reflectivity at Leakage Site on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Acute Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

      Purpose: To study the reflectivity of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) at the leakage site in acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Methods: Twenty-nine patients (24 males and 5 females, mean age 46.1 ± 11.0 years) were included. The mean relative RPE reflectivity and the difference between the maximum and minimum relative RPE reflectivity at the leakage site and control site were measured on cross-sectional optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans. In eyes with pinpoint leakage, cross-sectional OCT scans and corresponding reflectivity profile plots were reviewed by a masked grader for the presence of visible RPE defects and focal depression of ...

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    20. Study of retinal structural–functional relationship in choroideremia using fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography

      Study of retinal structural–functional relationship in choroideremia using fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography

      Objective The objective of this study was to assess the structural–functional relationship in choroideremia (CHM) patients using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and autofluorescence (AF) images. Methods In this study, 53 eyes of 28 CHM patients were included. Demographic, ocular and clinical fundus features were recorded. Fundus AF and OCT images were analysed. Patients were classified into two groups based on AF features: group 1, CHM patients where the foveal island was present and group 2, CHM patients where the foveal island was absent. Inner and outer retinal layer thicknesses, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) were ...

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    21. Topographic Analysis of Short Posterior Ciliary Arteries Using Wide-Field Swept-Source En-Face Optical Coherence Tomography

      Topographic Analysis of Short Posterior Ciliary Arteries Using Wide-Field Swept-Source En-Face Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : To study the topographic distribution of the short posterior ciliary arteries (SPCA) entry sites into the choroid in normal eyes using structural en-face swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods : Retrospective analysis of SS-OCT scans (wide-field structural SS-OCT 12x12mm) of 13 healthy subjects was performed. Cross-sectional swept-source OCT scans derived from a volume scan were represented as en-face image display following the Choroid-Scleral Interface to obtain en-face OCT. SPCAs in their last scleral location before choroidal entrance were identified manually, counted and localized by two masked observers. Correlations between two masked observers were analyzed using inter- and intra- class ...

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    22. OCT-Angiography as a reliable prognostic tool in laser-treated proliferative diabetic retinopathy: The RENOCTA Study

      OCT-Angiography as a reliable prognostic tool in laser-treated proliferative diabetic retinopathy: The RENOCTA Study

      Purpose: To quantitatively assess retinal neovascularizations (RNVs) in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) before and after photocoagulative laser treatment (PLT) using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCT-A). Methods: Consecutive patients with PDR were examined with fluorescein angiography (FA) and OCT-A before and after PLT. Baseline and after-treatment FA images were quantitatively analyzed to assess both the RNVs area and leakage area. On OCT-A RNVs area, vascular perfusion density (VPD), vessel length density (VLD) and fractal dimension were computed. VPD of the full-retina OCT-A underneath the RNV was determined to evaluate potential laser-induced changes in vascular perfusion. Results: Fifteen eyes of 13 patients ...

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    23. Subclinical subretinal fluid detectable only by optical coherence tomography in choroidal naevi—the SON study

      Subclinical subretinal fluid detectable only by optical coherence tomography in choroidal naevi—the SON study

      Background Subretinal fluid is a risk factor for growth and malignant transformation of choroidal naevi, however it is unclear if this applies to subclinical fluid that is only detectable by optical coherence tomography (OCT). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and associations of subclinical but OCT-detectable subretinal fluid over choroidal naevi. Methods Cross-sectional study of 309 consecutive cases of choroidal naevi imaged by OCT between July 2017 to January 2019. Multicentre international study involving ten retinal specialist centres. All patients presenting to retinal specialists had routine clinical examination and OCT imaging. The prevalence of subclinical OCT-detectable ...

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