1. Articles from Kristin M. Galetta

    1-5 of 5
    1. Monocular and binocular low-contrast visual acuity and optical coherence tomography in pediatric multiple sclerosis

      Monocular and binocular low-contrast visual acuity and optical coherence tomography in pediatric multiple sclerosis

      Background Low-contrast letter acuity and optical coherence tomography (OCT) capture visual dysfunction and axonal loss in adult-onset multiple sclerosis (MS), and have been proposed as secondary outcome metrics for therapeutic trials. Clinical trials will soon be launched in pediatric MS, but such outcome metrics have not been well-validated in this population. Objectives To determine whether MS onset during childhood and adolescence is associated with measurable loss of visual acuity and thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), whether such features are noted only in the context of clinical optic nerve inflammation (optic neuritis, ON) or are a feature of ...

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    2. Vision in Multiple Sclerosis: The Story, Structure-Function Correlations, and Models for Neuroprotection

      Vision in Multiple Sclerosis: The Story, Structure-Function Correlations, and Models for Neuroprotection
      Abstract: Visual dysfunction is one of the most common clinical manifestations of multiple sclerosis (MS). Just over a decade ago, MS clincial trials did not include visual outcomes, but experts recognized the need for more sensitive measures of visual function. Low-contrast letter acuity emerged as the leading candidate to measure visual disability in MS, and subsequent studies found low-contrast acuity testing to correlate well with brain MRI lesion burden, visual-evoked potentials, quality of life (QOL), and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) loss, as measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT in MS has allowed for assessment of structure-function correlations that ...
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    3. Retinal Ganglion Cell Layer Volumetric Assessment by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Multiple Sclerosis: Application of a High-Precision Manual Estimation Technique

      Retinal Ganglion Cell Layer Volumetric Assessment by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Multiple Sclerosis: Application of a High-Precision Manual Estimation Technique
      Background: Neuronal loss in the retina has been demonstrated pathologically in eyes of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In vivo, MS eyes have reduced total macular volumes by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Using a high-resolution spectral-domain OCT, this pilot study used a manual method to measure ganglion cell layer (GCL) volumes and to determine the relation of these volumes to visual function in MS eyes. Methods: Sixteen eyes of 8 patients with MS and 8 eyes of 5 disease-free control participants were studied using fast macular OCT scans performed with Spectralis OCT (Heidelberg Engineering). Visual function tests of low-contrast letter ...
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    4. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): Imaging the Visual Pathway as a Model for Neurodegeneration

      Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): Imaging the Visual Pathway as a Model for Neurodegeneration
      Axonal and neuronal degeneration are important features of multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neurologic disorders that affect the anterior visual pathway. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technique that allows imaging of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), a structure which is principally composed of ganglion cell axons that form the optic nerves, chiasm, and optic tracts. Since retinal axons are nonmyelinated until they penetrate the lamina cribrosa, the RNFL is an ideal structure (no other central nervous system tract has this unique arrangement) for visualizing the processes of neurodegeneration, neuroprotection and, potentially, even neuro-repair. OCT is capable of ...
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    5. Longitudinal study of vision and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis

      Longitudinal study of vision and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis

      Objective Cross-sectional studies of optical coherence tomography (OCT) show that retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness is reduced in multiple sclerosis (MS) and correlates with visual function. We determined how longitudinal changes in RNFL thickness relate to visual loss. We also examined patterns of RNFL thinning over time in MS eyes with and without a prior history of acute optic neuritis (ON). Methods Patients underwent OCT measurement of RNFL thickness at baseline and at 6-month intervals during a mean follow-up of 18 months at 3 centers. Low-contrast letter acuity (2.5%, 1.25% contrast) and visual acuity (VA) were assessed ...

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    1-5 of 5
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    1. (5 articles) University of Pennsylvania
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