1. Articles from francesco bandello

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    1. Prognostic role of optical coherence tomography after switch to dexamethasone in diabetic macular edema

      Prognostic role of optical coherence tomography after switch to dexamethasone in diabetic macular edema

      Aims To analyze the visual outcome after early switch to dexamethasone (DEX) in eyes with diabetic macular edema previously treated with ranibizumab (RNB), based on structural spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) features. Methods Retrospective study of data from 28 eyes which underwent a loading dose of three monthly RNB injections and were then shifted to DEX implant injection. SD-OCT analysis was performed before switch to DEX (week 12, 12W) according to the presence of integrity of ellipsoid zone (EZ) and external limiting membrane (ELM), disorganization of retinal inner layers (DRIL), and quantity of hyper-reflective spots (HRS). Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA ...

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    2. Correspondence: Impact of Binarization Thresholding and Brightness/Contrast Adjustment Methodology on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Image Quantification

      Correspondence: Impact of Binarization Thresholding and Brightness/Contrast Adjustment Methodology on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Image Quantification

      We read with interest the article by Mehta and colleagues titled “Impact of Binarization Thresholding and Brightness/Contrast Adjustment Methodology on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Image Quantification.” 1 The authors tested 5 methods to binarize optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) en face angiocubes at the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and choriocapillaris (CC) on a small cohort of healthy subjects. They found significant differences among the methods for the parameters studied, and the differences were more pronounced at the CC level.

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    3. Early response to the treatment of choroidal neovascularization complicating central serous chorioretinopathy: a OCT-angiography study

      Early response to the treatment of choroidal neovascularization complicating central serous chorioretinopathy: a OCT-angiography study

      Purpose To analyze the quantitative and qualitative early changes of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) associated with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) after treatment using optical coherence tomography-angiography (OCT-A). Methods Charts of consecutive patients with diagnosis of chronic CSC complicated by CNV were retrospectively reviewed. Included patients were divided in photodynamic therapy (PDT) or aflibercept group on the basis of the treatment received (half-fluence PDT or aflibercept 2.0 mg/0.05 ml intravitreal injection). Main outcome measures included the changes between baseline and 1-month follow-up in CNV vessel density (VD) and area on OCT-A images after thresholding and binarization. Results A ...

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    4. New imaging systems in diabetic retinopathy

      New imaging systems in diabetic retinopathy

      Various imaging modalities are of significant utility in the screening, grading, treatment, and follow-up of the different stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema. Color stereographic photography, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been the gold standard for DR imaging for years. Besides these tools, newer technologies are gaining validation and popularity, such as fundus autofluorescence and OCT angiography. Furthermore, widefield retinography and ultra-widefield retinography have been introduced for a more comprehensive evaluation of the medium-far and very-far retinal peripheries, which is crucial for the assessment of the diverse manifestations of the disease. The aim of ...

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    5. Vascular Alterations Revealed With Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography In Patients With Choroideremia

      Vascular Alterations Revealed With Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography In Patients With Choroideremia

      Purpose: Choroideremia is a rare degenerative retinal disease that causes incurable blindness. It occurs as a result of the deficiency of the X-linked CHM gene, which encodes the Rab escort protein 1 (REP1). Gene therapy has been developed to treat CHM using adeno-associated viral vectors and is currently undergoing clinical trials. Expression of the CHM gene is ubiquitous throughout the retina, and it is therefore important to identify which retinal layers are affected in the disease process. The purpose of this study was to assess in particular the choriocapillaris using optical coherence tomography angiography because this layer is difficult to ...

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    6. Subretinal pseudocyst: A novel optical coherence tomography finding in age-related macular degeneration

      Subretinal pseudocyst: A novel optical coherence tomography finding in age-related macular degeneration

      Purpose: To report the presence of a new structural optical coherence tomography finding, namely, subretinal pseudocysts, in a patient affected by age-related macular degeneration. Methods: Case report including multimodal imaging discussion. Case Report: We report a case of a 77-year-old woman affected by age-related macular degeneration from 7 years. Best corrected visual acuity was counting fingers and 20/40 in the right and left eye, respectively. The left eye was affected by type 1 macular neovascularization treated by 34 intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (22 ranibizumab and 12 aflibercept injections). Interestingly, structural optical coherence tomography showed the persistence ...

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    7. Progression of Diabetic Microaneurysms According to the Internal Reflectivity on Structural Optical Coherence Tomography and Visibility on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Progression of Diabetic Microaneurysms According to the Internal Reflectivity on Structural Optical Coherence Tomography and Visibility on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose To investigate the progression of diabetic microaneurysms (MAs) according to the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) characteristics and to evaluate their influence on the retinal extracellular fluid accumulation at 1 year follow-up in patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). Design Prospective, observational case series. Methods Fourteen patients with NPDR underwent SD-OCT and OCTA at the baseline and at 1 year follow-up. For all the selected MAs the visibility, the changes of internal reflectivity, graded as hyporeflective, moderate, or hyperreflective, and the extracellular fluid accumulation surrounding each MA on SD-OCT at 1 year were evaluated. The ...

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    8. Inner Retinal Layer and Outer Retinal Layer Findings after Macular Hole Surgery Assessed by means of Optical Coherence Tomography

      Inner Retinal Layer and Outer Retinal Layer Findings after Macular Hole Surgery Assessed by means of Optical Coherence Tomography

      Aim . To summarize the spectrum of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) features after full-thickness macular hole (MH) repair surgery. Methods . A PubMed engine search was carried out using the terms “Macular Hole,” “Optical Coherence Tomography,” and “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.” All reports published in English up to October 2018, irrespective of their publication status, were included. Tomographic signs analyzed were divided according to the involved portion of the retina in “inner retinal layers” and “external retinal layers.” Despite predominantly involving the inner retinal layers, cystoid macular edema (CME) has been treated as a separate entity. Finally, report ...

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    9. Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Assessment Of Fellow Eyes In Coats Disease

      Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Assessment Of Fellow Eyes In Coats Disease

      Purpose: To assess foveal and parafoveal vasculature at superficial capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus, and choriocapillaris using optical coherence tomography angiography in the fellow eyes of patients with Coats disease . Methods: Observational and prospective case series. Thirteen patients with unilateral Coats and 14 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were consecutively recruited at Manchester Royal Eye Hospital and the Department of Ophthalmology of San Raffaele Hospital. Both groups underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, including optical coherence tomography angiography (Topcon Corp) 3 mm × 3 mm scans. Images were imported into ImageJ software and binarized; foveal avascular zone area was manually outlined and ...

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    10. SWEPT-SOURCE AND SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY VERSUS DYE ANGIOGRAPHY IN THE MEASUREMENT OF TYPE 1 NEOVASCULARIZATION

      SWEPT-SOURCE AND SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY VERSUS DYE ANGIOGRAPHY IN THE MEASUREMENT OF TYPE 1 NEOVASCULARIZATION

      Purpose: To compare the area of Type 1 neovascularization in patients with age-related macular degeneration calculated on spectral domain optical coherence tomography angiography (SD-OCTA), swept-source OCTA, and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Methods: Cross-sectional study enrolling patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration with Type 1 neovascularization . During the same visit, ICGA (Spectralis HRA, Heidelberg, Germany), 3 × 3-mm or 6 × 6-mm SD-OCTA (CIRRUS AngioPlex model 5000; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc, Dublin, OH), and 3 × 3-mm or 6 × 6-mm swept-source OCTA (Plex Elite 9000; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc) were performed. Neovascularization areas were compared among the three instruments. The degree of consistency between ...

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    11. Choroidal Neovascularization in Torpedo Maculopathy Assessed on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Choroidal Neovascularization in Torpedo Maculopathy Assessed on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Torpedo maculopathy is characterized by a congenital, unilateral, and torpedo-shaped chorioretinal lesion with unclear pathogenesis and evolution. Although the optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) characteristics have already been defined in literature, the authors describe for the first time the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) on the temporal edge of this lesion in a 36-year-old woman with a history of altered visual field in her left eye. The authors' investigation supports the hypothesis of an aberrant choroidal circulation underlying the pathogenesis of this condition, and proves the advantage conferred by OCTA in CNV detection over the other angiographic techniques.

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    12. En Face Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Primary Vitreoretinal Lymphoma

      En Face Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Primary Vitreoretinal Lymphoma

      The authors report a case of a female patient affected by primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL) showing retinal involvement. In particular, multiple subretinal hyperreflective infiltrates were found on optical coherence tomography (OCT). These alterations appeared hyperautofluorescent on fundus autofluorescence images. Interestingly, they also appeared hyperreflective on OCT angiography images. This case report underlined the high utility of OCT-based methodologies in accurately detecting and describing PVRL features.

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    13. Comparison of methods to quantify macular and peripapillary vessel density in optical coherence tomography angiography

      Comparison of methods to quantify macular and peripapillary vessel density in optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose To compare macular and peripapillary vessel density values calculated on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) images with different algorithms, elaborate conversion formula, and compare the ability to discriminate healthy from affected eyes. Methods Cross-sectional study of healthy subjects, patients with diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma patients (44 eyes in each group). Vessel density in the macular superficial capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP), and the peripapillary radial capillary plexus (RCP) were calculated with seven previously published algorithms. Systemic differences, diagnostic properties, reliability, and agreement of the methods were investigated. Results Healthy eyes exhibited higher vessel density values in all ...

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    14. Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy Imaged With Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy Imaged With Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      The authors present a case of a 29-year-old man who presented to the Department of Ophthalmology at their institution to complete a peripheral laser treatment in his left eye for familial exudative vitreoretinopathy complicated by tractional macular edema.

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    15. Advanced optical coherence tomography angiography analysis of age-related macular degeneration complicated by onset of unilateral choroidal neovascularization.

      Advanced optical coherence tomography angiography analysis of age-related macular degeneration complicated by onset of unilateral choroidal neovascularization.

      Purpose To analyze optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) quantitative features in patients affected by new-onset choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in one eye and early/intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the fellow eye. Design Case-control study. Settings Clinical Practice. Study Population Thirty patients and thirty age-matched controls. Observation Procedures Both cohorts underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement, biomicroscopy, fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) examination (Spectralis HRA; Heidelberg Engineering, Germany), OCT and OCTA scans (DRI OCT Triton; Topcon Corporation, Japan). The one-way ANOVA test with Bonferroni correction was used to assess statistical significance and ...

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    16. Fluorescein Leakage and Optical Coherence Tomography Features of Choroidal Neovascularization Secondary to Pathologic Myopia

      Fluorescein Leakage and Optical Coherence Tomography Features of Choroidal Neovascularization Secondary to Pathologic Myopia

      Purpose : We compare the fluorescein angiography (FA) patterns with morphologic alterations detectable on spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) in myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV) and evaluate whether they influence the effects of intravitreal ranibizumab (IVRI) in an as-needed (PRN) regimen. Methods : The 49 patients enrolled in this prospective case series underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), FA, and SD-OCT assessment. The main outcome measure was correlation between FA patterns and SD-OCT features. Secondary outcomes were changes in BCVA and central macular thickness (CMT), and characterization of subretinal hyperreflective exudation (SHE). Results : Three main patterns were identified on the FA ...

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    17. CAPILLARY NETWORK ALTERATIONS IN X-LINKED RETINOSCHISIS IMAGED ON OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY

      CAPILLARY NETWORK ALTERATIONS IN X-LINKED RETINOSCHISIS IMAGED ON OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY

      Purpose: To assess foveal and parafoveal vasculature at the superficial capillary plexus, deep capillary plexus, and choriocapillaris of patients with X-linked retinoschisis by means of optical coherence tomography angiography. Methods: Six patients with X-linked retinoschisis (12 eyes) and seven healthy controls (14 eyes) were recruited and underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, including best-corrected visual acuity, dilated fundoscopy, and 3 × 3-mm optical coherence tomography angiography macular scans (DRI OCT Triton; Topcon Corp). After segmentation and quality review, optical coherence tomography angiography slabs were imported into ImageJ 1.50 (NIH; Bethesda) and digitally binarized. Quantification of vessel density was performed after foveal avascular ...

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    18. Acute macular neuroretinopathy: pathogenetic insights from optical coherence tomography angiography

      Acute macular neuroretinopathy: pathogenetic insights from optical coherence tomography angiography

      Aim To describe the optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) features of patients affected by acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN). Methods This is a prospective, observational, cross-sectional study. Multimodal imaging, including spectral domain OCT (Spectralis HRA+OCT; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) and 6×6 mm swept source OCT-A (ZEISS PLEX Elite 9000; ZEISS, Dublin, California), was performed on all patients. The primary outcome measure was assessment of the vascular alterations of the superficial (SCP) and deep (DCP) capillary plexuses and choriocapillaris (CC). A segmentation of the AMN lesions using enface OCT images of photoreceptors-retinal pigment epithelium complex was used to discriminate intralesional ...

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    19. Case Report: Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Morning Glory Disc Anomaly

      Case Report: Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Morning Glory Disc Anomaly

      SIGNIFICANCE Morning glory disc anomaly is a congenital abnormality of the optic disc. Optical coherence tomography angiography shows vascular rarefaction of the superficial and deep capillary plexuses and increased vascularity of the radial peripapillary capillary plexus. We hypothesize that this congestion represents a compensatory mechanism to an abnormal vasculogenesis. PURPOSE The aim of this study was to describe the optic disc vascular alterations occurring at choriocapillaris and retinal vascular plexuses in a patient affected by bilateral morning glory disc anomaly with optical coherence tomography angiography. CASE REPORT A 24-year-old white man presented for clinical evaluation to our Department of Ophthalmology ...

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    20. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Pigmented Paravenous Retinochoroidal Atrophy

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Pigmented Paravenous Retinochoroidal Atrophy

      A 58-year-old man with bilateral pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy (PPRCA) associated with macular coloboma in the right eye underwent color fundus photography and fundus autofluorescence with the California ultra-widefield retinal imaging system (Optos, Dunfermline, UK), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) (Heidelberg Spectralis HRA + OCT; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), and en face OCT angiography (OCTA) (AngioPlex, Cirrus HD-OCT 5000; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA). The patient presented with a visual acuity of counting fingers in the right eye and 20/32 in the left eye. Fundus examination and SD-OCT showed typical PPRCA alterations in both eyes and a macular coloboma in ...

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    21. Choroidal Caverns: A Previously Unreported Optical Coherence Tomography Finding in Best Vitelliform Dystrophy

      Choroidal Caverns: A Previously Unreported Optical Coherence Tomography Finding in Best Vitelliform Dystrophy

      Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (VMD) is an autosomal dominant inherited dystrophy, most frequently caused by mutations in the BEST1 gene. The authors describe “choroidal caverns,” a previously unreported optical coherence tomography finding in the choriocapillary and choroid of Best VMD. Histopathologic examination in eyes with Best VDM shows extensive deposition of lipofuscin in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) throughout the retina and accumulation of fibrillar material under the RPE and in the choroid. This supports the hypothesis that choroidal caverns could be a sign of the degenerative process involving the choroid in eyes with Best VMD.

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    22. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography versus Dye Angiography in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Sensitivity and Specificity Analysis

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography versus Dye Angiography in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Sensitivity and Specificity Analysis

      Introduction . Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) could be a valid tool to detect choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), allowing the analysis of the type, the morphology, and the extension of CNV in most of the cases. Purpose . To determine the sensitivity and specificity of OCTA in detecting CNV secondary to nAMD, compared to fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Methods . Prospective observational study. Patients with suspected nAMD were recruited between May and December 2016. Patients underwent FA, ICGA, spectral domain OCT, and OCTA (AngioVue, Optovue, Inc.). Sensitivity and specificity of FA, with or without ...

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    23. Optical coherence tomography angiography in pseudophakic cystoid macular oedema compared to diabetic macular oedema: qualitative and quantitative evaluation of retinal vasculature

      Optical coherence tomography angiography in pseudophakic cystoid macular oedema compared to diabetic macular oedema: qualitative and quantitative evaluation of retinal vasculature

      Aims To describe optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) abnormalities of patients with pseudophakic cystoid macular oedema (PCMO) before and after pharmacological resolution, compared with diabetic macular oedema (DMO) and normal eyes. Methods In this retrospective, observational study, 44 eyes (30 patients) were included: 15 eyes (15 patients) affected by PCMO; 14 healthy fellow eyes used as negative control group; 15 eyes (15 age-matched and sex-matched patients) with DMO used as positive control group. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination at baseline, including OCT-A scans of the macula through AngioPlex CIRRUS-5000 (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, USA). Patients with PCMO and ...

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    24. Retinal vascular alterations in reticular pseudodrusen with and without outer retinal atrophy assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography

      Retinal vascular alterations in reticular pseudodrusen with and without outer retinal atrophy assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose To investigate the intraretinal structural and vascular alterations in patients featuring reticular pseudodrusen (RPD), RPD with outer retinal atrophy (ORA), and drusen. Design Observational cross-sectional study. Methods Clinical practice study including 68 eyes of 57 patients (22 eyes of 17 patients with RPD; 24 eyes of 21 patients with RPD+ORA; 22 eyes of 19 patients with drusen). Each patient underwent spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCT-A). Measurement of retinal layers’ thickness was obtained by the automated segmentation protocol of the Spectralis OCT (Heidelberg Eye Explorer V.1.9.10.0). The superficial capillary plexus (SCP ...

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    1. (74 articles) Francesco Bandello
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