1. Articles from Benjamin J. Vakoc

    1-24 of 70 1 2 3 »
    1. Using the dynamic forward scattering signal for optical coherence tomography based blood flow quantification

      Using the dynamic forward scattering signal for optical coherence tomography based blood flow quantification

      To our knowledge, all existing optical coherence tomography approaches for quantifying blood flow, whether Doppler-based or decorrelation-based, analyze light that is back-scattered by moving red blood cells (RBCs). This work investigates the potential advantages of basing these measurements on light that is forward-scattered by RBCs, i.e., by looking at the signals back-scattered from below the vessel. We show experimentally that flowmetry based on forward-scattering is insensitive to vessel orientation for vessels that are approximately orthogonal to the imaging beam. We further provide proof-of-principle demonstrations of dynamic forward-scattering (DFS) flowmetry in human retinal and choroidal vessels.

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    2. RF properties of circular-ranging OCT signals

      RF properties of circular-ranging OCT signals

      Circular-ranging optical coherence tomography (CR–OCT) systems that use a time–stepped frequency comb source generate interference fringe signals that are more complex than those of a conventional swept–source OCT system. Here, we define a common terminology for describing these signals, and we develop a mathematical framework that relates the radio-frequency (RF) properties of these fringe signals to the parameters of the frequency comb source. With this framework, we highlight non-intuitive mechanisms whereby the design of the frequency comb source can affect imaging performance. We show, for example, that amplitude–pulsed time–stepped frequency comb sources have a sensitivity ...

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    3. Relationship between axial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio in optical coherence tomography

      Relationship between axial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio in optical coherence tomography

      In optical coherence tomography (OCT), axial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are typically viewed as uncoupled parameters. We show that this is true only for mirror-like surfaces and that in diffuse scattering samples such as biological tissues there is an inherent coupling between axial resolution and measurement SNR. We explain the origin of this coupling and demonstrate that it can be used to achieve increased imaging penetration depth at the expense of resolution. Finally, we argue that this coupling should be considered during OCT system design processes that seek to balance the competing needs of resolution, sensitivity, and system/source ...

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    4. Using the Dynamic Forward Scattering Signal for Optical Coherence Tomography based Blood Flow Quantification

      Using the Dynamic Forward Scattering Signal for Optical Coherence Tomography based Blood Flow Quantification

      To our knowledge, all existing optical coherence tomography approaches for quantifying blood flow, whether Doppler-based or decorrelation-based, analyze the light that is back-scattered by moving red blood cells (RBCs). This work investigates the potential advantages of basing these measurements of the light that is forward-scattered by RBCs, i.e., by looking at the signals back-scattered from below the vessel. We show experimentally that this results in a flowmetry measure that is insensitive to vessel orientation for vessels that are approximately orthogonal to the imaging beam. We further provide proof-of-principle demonstrations that DFS can be used to measure flow in human ...

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    5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AXIAL RESOLUTION AND SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO IN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AXIAL RESOLUTION AND SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO IN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      In optical coherence tomography (OCT), axial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are typically viewed as uncoupled parameters. We show that this is only true for mirror-like surfaces, and that in diffuse scattering samples such as tissue there is an inherent coupling between axial resolution and measurement SNR. We explain the origin of this coupling and demonstrate that it can be used to achieve increased imaging penetration depth at the expense of resolution. Finally, we argue that this coupling should be considered during OCT system design processes that seek to balance competing needs of resolution, sensitivity, and system/source complexity.

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    6. Robust and easy-to-operate stretched-pulse mode-locked wavelength-swept laser with an all-polarization-maintaining fiber cavity for 10 MHz A-line rate optical coherence tomography

      Robust and easy-to-operate stretched-pulse mode-locked wavelength-swept laser with an all-polarization-maintaining fiber cavity for 10 MHz A-line rate optical coherence tomography

      We demonstrate robust and easy-to-operate stretched-pulse mode-locked laser (SPML) architectures using all-polarization-maintaining fiber laser cavities. Because of the polarization-maintaining construction, the laser performance is unaffected by mechanical perturbation on the cavity fibers. The lasers automatically initiate linear-in-wavenumber sweeps across 100 nm centered at 1290 nm with a 10 MHz repetition rate. OCT imaging with a sensitivity of 98 dB and a single-sided 6 dB coherence length of 2.5 mm is demonstrated. OCT angiography of a mouse brain that visualized three-dimensional cerebral microvasculature over a field of 1.5 m m × 1.5 m m 1.5mm×1.5mm (398 ...

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    7. Multi-beam OCT imaging based on an integrated, free-space interferometer

      Multi-beam OCT imaging based on an integrated, free-space interferometer

      While it is a common practice to increase the speed of swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems by using a high-speed source, this approach may not always be optimal. Parallelization in the form of multiple imaging beams is an alternative approach, but scalable and low-loss multi-beam OCT architectures are needed to capitalize on its advantages. In this study, we demonstrate an eight-beam OCT system using an interferometer architecture comprising planar lightwave circuits (PLC) splitters, V-groove assemblies (VGA), and optical ribbon fibers. We achieved an excess loss and heterodyne efficiency on each channel that was close to that of single-beam systems ...

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    8. Artifact Rates for 2D Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Versus 3D Neuroretinal Rim Thickness Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Artifact Rates for 2D Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Versus 3D Neuroretinal Rim Thickness Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : To compare the rates of clinically significant artifacts for two-dimensional peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness versus three-dimensional (3D) neuroretinal rim thickness using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods : Only one eye per patient was used for analysis of 120 glaucoma patients and 114 normal patients. For RNFL scans and optic nerve scans, 15 artifact types were calculated per B-scan and per eye. Neuroretinal rim tissue was quantified by the minimum distance band (MDB). Global MDB neuroretinal rim thicknesses were calculated before and after manual deletion of B-scans with artifacts and subsequent automated interpolation. A clinically significant artifact ...

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    9. A Neural Network Approach to Quantify Blood Flow from Retinal OCT Intensity Time-Series Measurements

      A Neural Network Approach to Quantify Blood Flow from Retinal OCT Intensity Time-Series Measurements

      Many diseases of the eye are associated with alterations in the retinal vasculature that are possibly preceded by undetected changes in blood flow. In this work, a robust blood flow quantification framework is presented based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography imaging and deep learning. The analysis used a forward signal model to simulate OCT blood flow data for training of a neural network (NN). The NN was combined with pre- and post-processing steps to create an analysis framework for measuring flow rates from individual blood vessels. The framework’s accuracy was validated using both blood flow phantoms and human ...

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    10. Stepped frequency comb generation based on electro-optic phase-code mode-locking for moderate-speed circular-ranging OCT

      Stepped frequency comb generation based on electro-optic phase-code mode-locking for moderate-speed circular-ranging OCT

      Circular-ranging (CR) optical coherence tomography (OCT) uses frequency comb sources to improve long-range imaging. While the initial development of CR-OCT focused on extremely high-speed imaging (i.e., operation at A-line rates of several to tens of MHz), there are many applications and imaging strategies for which more moderate speeds are preferred. However, we lack suitable frequency comb sources to enable moderate speed CR-OCT imaging. Here, we describe a novel phase-code mode-locking (PCML) laser architecture that can be operated from the kilohertz to megahertz range, while also offering novel features such as dynamic re-configurability and simplified linear-in-time frequency stepping. We demonstrate ...

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    11. 9.4 MHz A-line rate optical coherence tomography at 1300 nm using a wavelength-swept laser based on stretched-pulse active mode-locking

      9.4 MHz A-line rate optical coherence tomography at 1300 nm using a wavelength-swept laser based on stretched-pulse active mode-locking

      In optical coherence tomography (OCT), high-speed systems based at 1300 nm are among the most broadly used. Here, we present 9.4 MHz A-line rate OCT system at 1300 nm. A wavelength-swept laser based on stretched-pulse active mode locking (SPML) provides a continuous and linear-in-wavenumber sweep from 1240 nm to 1340 nm, and the OCT system using this light source provides a sensitivity of 98 dB and a single-sided 6-dB roll-off depth of 2.5 mm. We present new capabilities of the 9.4 MHz SPML-OCT system in three microscopy applications. First, we demonstrate high quality OCTA imaging at a ...

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    12. Artifact Rates for 2D Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Versus 3D Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Volume

      Artifact Rates for 2D Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Versus 3D Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Volume

      Purpose : To compare artifact rates in two-dimensional (2D) versus three-dimensional (3D) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) scans using Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT) Methods : Thirteen artifact types in 2D and 3D RNFL scans were identified in 106 glaucomatous eyes and 95 normal eyes. Artifact rates were calculated per B-scan and per eye. In 3D volume scans, artifacts were counted only for the 97 B-scans used to calculate RNFL parameters for the 2.5–3.5-mm annulus. 3D RNFL measurements were calculated twice, once before and again after deletion of B-scans with artifacts and subsequent automated interpolation. Results : For 2D scans ...

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    13. Resolving absolute depth in circular-ranging optical coherence tomography by using a degenerate frequency comb

      Resolving absolute depth in circular-ranging optical coherence tomography by using a degenerate frequency comb

      In Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography, an interference signal is generated that spans an RF bandwidth proportional to the product of three parameters: the imaging range, the imaging speed, and the inverse of the axial resolution. Circular-ranging optical coherence tomography (CR-OCT) architectures were introduced to ease long-range imaging by decoupling the imaging range from the signal RF bandwidth. As a consequence, present CR-OCT systems resolve the relative, but not the absolute, depth location of the scatterers. We introduce here a modified implementation of CR-OCT that uses a degenerate frequency comb source that allows recovery of absolute depth information while only minimally ...

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    14. Stable multi-megahertz circular-ranging optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm

      Stable multi-megahertz circular-ranging optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm

      In Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), the finite bandwidth of the acquisition electronics constrains the depth range and speed of the system. Circular-ranging (CR) OCT methods use optical-domain compression to surpass this limit. However, the CR-OCT system architectures of prior reports were limited by poor stability and were confined to the 1.55 µm wavelength range. In this work, we describe a novel CR-OCT architecture that is free from these limitations. To ensure stable operation, temperature sensitive optical modules within the system were replaced; the kilometer-length fiber spools used in the stretched-pulse mode-locked (SPML) laser was eliminated in favor of ...

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    15. Highly-stable, multi-megahertz circular-ranging optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm based on a chirped fiber Bragg grating

      Highly-stable, multi-megahertz circular-ranging optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm based on a chirped fiber Bragg grating

      In Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), the finite bandwidth of the acquisition electronics constrains the depth range and speed of the system. Circular-ranging (CR) OCT methods use optical-domain compression to surpass this limit. However, the CR-OCT system architectures of prior reports were limited by poor stability and were confined to the 1.55 µm wavelength range. In this work, we describe a novel CR-OCT architecture that is free from these limitations. To ensure stable operation, temperature sensitive optical modules within the system were replaced; the kilometer-length fiber spools used in the stretched-pulse mode-locked (SPML) laser was eliminated in favor of ...

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    16. Diagnostic Capability of 3D Peripapillary Retinal Volume for Glaucoma Using Optical Coherence Tomography Customized Software

      Diagnostic Capability of 3D Peripapillary Retinal Volume for Glaucoma Using Optical Coherence Tomography Customized Software

      Précis: The diagnostic capability of peripapillary retinal volume is similar to peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness for diagnosing glaucoma, but with fewer artifacts. Purpose: To compare the diagnostic capability of three-dimensional (3D) peripapillary retinal volume (RV) versus two-dimensional (2D) peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness for open-angle glaucoma . Patients and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was conducted. A total of 180 subjects [113 open-angle glaucomas (OAG), 67 normal participants] had spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) volume scans and RNFL thickness measurements. Peripapillary RV values were calculated using a custom-designed program with 4 circumpapillary annuli (CA): CA1 ...

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    17. Retinal Blood Vessel Caliber Estimation for Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Images Based on 3D Superellipsoid Modeling

      Retinal Blood Vessel Caliber Estimation for Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Images Based on 3D Superellipsoid Modeling

      Changes of retinal blood vessel calibers may reflect various retinal diseases and even several non-retinal diseases. We propose a new method to estimate retinal vessel calibers from 3D optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images based on 3D modeling using superellipsoids. Taking advantage of 3D visualization of the retinal tissue microstructures in vivo provided by OCTA, our method can detect retinal blood vessels precisely, estimate their calibers reliably, and show the relative flow speed visually.

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    18. Balloon catheter-based radiofrequency ablation monitoring in porcine esophagus using optical coherence tomography

      Balloon catheter-based radiofrequency ablation monitoring in porcine esophagus using optical coherence tomography

      We present a microscopic image guidance platform for radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using a clinical balloon-catheter-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) system, currently used in the surveillance of Barrett’s esophagus patients. Our integrated thermal therapy delivery and monitoring platform consists of a flexible, customized bipolar RFA electrode array designed for use with a clinical balloon OCT catheter and a processing algorithm to accurately map the thermal coagulation process. Non-uniform rotation distortion was corrected using a feature tracking-based technique, which enables robust, frame-to-frame analysis of the temporal fluctuation of the complex OCT signal. With proper noise calibration, precise delineation of the thermal ...

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    19. Toward optical coherence tomography angiography-based biomarkers to assess the safety of peripheral nerve electrostimulation

      Toward optical coherence tomography angiography-based biomarkers to assess the safety of peripheral nerve electrostimulation

      Objective: Peripheral nerves serve as a link between the central nervous system and its targets. Altering peripheral nerve activity through targeted electrical stimulation is being investigated as a therapy for modulating end organ function. To support rapid advancement in the field, novel approaches to predict and prevent nerve injury resulting from the electrical stimulation must be developed to overcome the limitations of traditional histological methods. The present study aims to develop an optical imaging-based approach for real-time assessment of peripheral nerve injury associated with electrical stimulation.
 
 Approach: We developed an optical coherence tomography angiography system and a 3-D ...

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    20. Extended Coherence Length and Depth Ranging Using a Fourier-Domain Mode-Locked Frequency Comb and Circular Interferometric Ranging

      Extended Coherence Length and Depth Ranging Using a Fourier-Domain Mode-Locked Frequency Comb and Circular Interferometric Ranging

      Fourier-domain mode locking has been a popular laser design for high-speed optical-frequency-domain imaging (OFDI), but achieving long coherence lengths, and therefore imaging range, has been challenging. The narrow linewidth of a Fourier-domain mode-locked (FDML) frequency-comb (FC) laser could provide an attractive platform for high-speed as well as long-range OFDI. Unfortunately, aliasing artifacts arising from signals beyond the principal measurement depth of the free spectral range have prohibited the use of an FDML FC laser for imaging so far. To make the increased coherence length of an FDML FC laser available, methods to manage such artifacts are required. Recently, coherent circular ...

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    21. Demonstration of Triband Multi-Focal Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Demonstration of Triband Multi-Focal Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography

      We demonstrate an extended depth of focus optical coherence tomography (OCT) system based on the use of chromatic aberration to create displaced focal planes in the sample. The system uses a wavelength-swept source tuning over three spectral bands and three separate interferometers, each of which interfaces to a single illumination/collection fiber. The resulting three imaged volumes are merged in post-processing to generate an image with a larger depth of focus than is obtained from each band individually. The improvements are demonstrated in structural imaging of a porous phantom and a lipid-cleared murine brain, and by angiographic imaging of human ...

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    22. Diagnostic Capability of Three-Dimensional Macular Parameters for Glaucoma Using Optical Coherence Tomography Volume Scans

      Diagnostic Capability of Three-Dimensional Macular Parameters for Glaucoma Using Optical Coherence Tomography Volume Scans

      Purpose : To compare the diagnostic capability of three-dimensional (3D) macular parameters against traditional two-dimensional (2D) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. To determine if manual correction and interpolation of B-scans improve the ability of 3D macular parameters to diagnose glaucoma. Methods : A total of 101 open angle glaucoma patients (29 with early glaucoma) and 57 healthy subjects had peripapillary 2D RNFL thickness and 3D macular volume scans. Four parameters were calculated for six different-sized annuli: total macular thickness (M-thickness), total macular volume (M-volume), ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness, and GCC volume of the innermost ...

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    23. Extended coherence length and depth ranging using a Fourier domain mode-locked frequency comb and circular interferometric ranging

      Extended coherence length and depth ranging using a Fourier domain mode-locked frequency comb and circular interferometric ranging

      Fourier domain mode-locking (FDML) has been a popular laser design for high speed optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) but achieving long coherence lengths, and therefore imaging range, has been challenging. The narrow instantaneous linewidth of a frequency comb (FC) FDML laser could provide an attractive platform for high speed as well as long range OFDI. Unfortunately, aliasing artifacts arising from signals beyond the principle measurement depth of the free spectral range have prohibited the use of a FC FDML for imaging so far. To make the enhanced coherence length of FC FDML laser available, methods to manage such artifacts are ...

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    24. Quantitative depolarization measurements for fiber‐based polarization‐sensitive optical frequency domain imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium

      Quantitative depolarization measurements for fiber‐based polarization‐sensitive optical frequency domain imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium

      A full quantitative evaluation of the depolarization of light may serve to assess concentrations of depolarizing particles in the retinal pigment epithelium and to investigate their role in retinal diseases in the human eye. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) use spatial incoherent averaging to compute depolarization. Depolarization depends on accurate measurements of the polarization states at the receiver but also on the polarization state incident upon and within the tissue. Neglecting this dependence can result in artifacts and renders depolarization measurements vulnerable to birefringence in the system and in the sample. In this work, we ...

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    1-24 of 70 1 2 3 »
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