1. Articles from andre j. witkin

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    1. Analyzing Relative Flow Speeds in Diabetic Retinopathy Using Variable Interscan Time Analysis Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Analyzing Relative Flow Speeds in Diabetic Retinopathy Using Variable Interscan Time Analysis Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Objective Further insight into the flow characteristics of the vascular features associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) may improve assessment and treatment of disease progression. The variable interscan time analysis (VISTA) algorithm is an extension of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) that detects relative blood flow speeds which can then be depicted on a color-coded map. This study utilized VISTA to analyze relative blood flow speeds in the microvascular changes associated with DR. Design and Participants: In this cross-sectional study at New England Eye Center, Boston, Massachusetts, thirteen patients of varying severities of DR were enrolled. Methods OCTA images centered at ...

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    2. Morphological changes in intraretinal microvascular abnormalities after anti-VEGF therapy visualized on optical coherence tomography angiography

      Morphological changes in intraretinal microvascular abnormalities after anti-VEGF therapy visualized on optical coherence tomography angiography

      Background To examine the baseline morphological characteristics and alterations in intraretinal microvascular abnormalities (IRMAs) in response to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment, documented by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in diabetic eyes. Methods In this retrospective study, IRMAs were evaluated with multimodal imaging (fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, OCTA) in treatment-naïve diabetic eyes before and after anti-VEGF treatment for diabetic macular edema (DME) and/or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and compared to diabetic control eyes with similar diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity that did not receive anti-VEGF therapy. The morphological characteristics of IRMAs on enface OCTA imaging were graded by ...

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    3. Repeatability and reproducibility of vessel density measurements on optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy

      Repeatability and reproducibility of vessel density measurements on optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy

      Purpose Understanding the precision of measurements on and across optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) devices is critical for tracking meaningful change in disease. The purpose of this study is to investigate the repeatability and reproducibility of vessel area density and vessel skeleton density measurements from various commercial OCTA devices in diabetic eyes. Methods Patients were imaged three consecutive times each on three different OCTA devices. En face OCTA images of the superficial capillary plexus, deep capillary plexus, and full retinal layer were exported for analysis. Vessel area density and vessel skeleton density were calculated. The coefficient of repeatability (CoR) was ...

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    4. Topographic analysis of macular choriocapillaris flow deficits in diabetic retinopathy using swept–source optical coherence tomography angiography

      Topographic analysis of macular choriocapillaris flow deficits in diabetic retinopathy using swept–source optical coherence tomography angiography

      Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity and macular choriocapillaris (CC) flow deficit percentage (FD %) in different macular regions using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA). Methods Diabetic patients with SS-OCTA images were graded by severity and retrospectively assessed. CC FD % was calculated in four different regions of the OCTA image: inner, middle, outer, and full-field region. The generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach for clustered eye data was used to determine effect size and significance of age and disease severity on FD % for each region. Results 160 eyes from 90 total ...

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    5. Global Analysis of Macular Choriocapillaris Perfusion in Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Global Analysis of Macular Choriocapillaris Perfusion in Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose : Swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) was used to investigate if the clinical stage of dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was correlated with global and regional macular choriocapillaris (CC) perfusion. Methods : In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, 6 × 6-mm SS-OCTA images from eyes with early, intermediate, and advanced dry AMD (56 eyes, 41 patients) were analyzed using algorithms described in the literature to assess regional flow deficit percentage (FD%) and average flow deficit size. Regions were defined by concentric areas centered on the fovea: a 1-mm-diameter area, 3-mm-diameter ring, 5-mm-diameter area, 5-mm-diameter ring, and 6 × 6-mm whole image. Data were ...

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    6. Retinal Nonperfusion Relationship to Arteries or Veins Observed on Widefield Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy

      Retinal Nonperfusion Relationship to Arteries or Veins Observed on Widefield Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy

      Purpose : To evaluate whether retinal capillary nonperfusion is found predominantly adjacent to arteries or veins in eyes with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods : Sixty-three eyes from 44 patients with proliferative DR (PDR) or non-PDR (NPDR) were included. Images (12 × 12-mm) foveal-centered optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography (OCTA) images were taken using the Zeiss Plex Elite 9000. In 37 eyes, widefield montages with five fixation points were also obtained. A semiautomatic algorithm that detects nonperfusion in full-retina OCT slabs was developed, and the percentages of capillary nonperfusion within the total image area were calculated. Retinal arteries and veins were manually traced. Based ...

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    7. Controlling for Artifacts in Widefield Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Measurements of Non-Perfusion Area

      Controlling for Artifacts in Widefield Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Measurements of Non-Perfusion Area

      The recent clinical adoption of optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography (OCTA) has enabled non-invasive, volumetric visualization of ocular vasculature at micron-scale resolutions. Initially limited to 3 mm × 3 mm and 6 mm × 6 mm fields-of-view (FOV), commercial OCTA systems now offer 12 mm × 12 mm, or larger, imaging fields. While larger FOVs promise a more complete visualization of retinal disease, they also introduce new challenges to the accurate and reliable interpretation of OCTA data. In particular, because of vignetting, wide-field imaging increases occurrence of low-OCT-signal artifacts, which leads to thresholding and/or segmentation artifacts, complicating OCTA analysis. This study presents ...

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    8. QUANTIFICATION OF RETINAL CAPILLARY NONPERFUSION IN DIABETICS USING WIDE-FIELD OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY

      QUANTIFICATION OF RETINAL CAPILLARY NONPERFUSION IN DIABETICS USING WIDE-FIELD OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY

      Purpose: To combine advances in high-speed, wide-field optical coherence tomography angiography ( OCTA ) with image processing methods for semiautomatic quantitative analysis of capillary nonperfusion in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: Sixty-eight diabetic patients (73 eyes), either without retinopathy or with different degrees of retinopathy, were prospectively recruited for volumetric swept-source OCTA imaging using 12 mm × 12 mm fields centered at the fovea. A custom, semiautomatic software algorithm was used to quantify areas of capillary nonperfusion . Results: The mean percentage of nonperfused area was 0.1% (95% confidence interval: 0.0–0.4) in the eyes without DR; 2.1% (95 ...

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    9. VISUALIZATION OF CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION USING TWO COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY DEVICES

      VISUALIZATION OF CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION USING TWO COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY DEVICES

      Purpose: To compare the sensitivity of detection and the measured size of choroidal neovascularization ( CNV ) on two commercially available spectral domain optical coherence tomography angiography ( OCTA ) devices, the Optovue RTVue XR Avanti with AngioVue and the Zeiss Cirrus HD-OCT with AngioPlex. Methods: Patients with CNV lesions were imaged consecutively on both OCTA devices on the same day of their visit. 3 × 3 mm and 6 × 6 mm scans centered at the fovea were obtained. Two independent masked readers evaluated the OCTA images for CNV identification and its area measurements. Results: No significant differences were observed between the 2 OCTA devices ...

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    10. Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography: a Review

      Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography: a Review

      Purpose of Review In this review, we shall attempt to explain the physics behind swept source-optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), the advantages and disadvantages of SS-OCT when compared with spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and the current clinical applications of SS-OCT. Recent Findings SS-OCT offers improvements in visualizing the vitreous, retina, choroid, and sclera. The increased scan speeds, decreased signal attenuation, and deeper tissue penetration make SS-OCT ideal for capturing wide fields of view and for studying structures below the RPE, especially the choroid. Summary SS-OCT is an exciting new technology offering enhanced visualization of ocular structures. However, its everyday clinical ...

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      Mentions: Andre J. Witkin
    11. Visualization of changes in the foveal avascular zone in both observed and treated diabetic macular edema using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Visualization of changes in the foveal avascular zone in both observed and treated diabetic macular edema using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Background Central vision loss in diabetic retinopathy is commonly related to diabetic macular edema (DME). The objective of this study was to describe changes between consecutive visits on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in eyes with DME. Methods 20 eyes from 14 patients with DME were imaged on 2 successive clinic visits separated by at least 1 month. The mean interval between visits was 3.2 months. The only intervention used was intravitreal anti-VEGF in 11 eyes; the others were observed over time without treatment. Two different readers measured FAZ area using a pseudo-automated ...

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    12. Optical coherence tomography angiography artifacts in retinal pigment epithelial detachment

      Optical coherence tomography angiography artifacts in retinal pigment epithelial detachment

      Objective To describe optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) reflectance artifacts secondary to retinal pigment epithelial detachment (RPED). Design Retrospective review. Methods Four eyes from 4 subjects were included. Three presented with RPED and 1 eye was a normal control. Two eyes diagnosed with RPED and the normal eye were evaluated using en face OCTA centred at the fovea acquired using the RTVue XR Avanti (Optovue Inc). In the third eye with RPED, OCTA imaging was performed using a CIRRUS 5000 prototype modified to do OCTA imaging on a spectral domain OCT platform provided by Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc. The segmented ...

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    13. Visualizing the Choriocapillaris Under Drusen: Comparing 1050-nm Swept-Source Versus 840-nm Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Visualizing the Choriocapillaris Under Drusen: Comparing 1050-nm Swept-Source Versus 840-nm Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose : To investigate the appearance of choriocapillaris (CC) flow under drusen by comparing long-wavelength (1050 nm) swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) angiography with shorter-wavelength (840 nm) spectral-domain (SD) OCT angiography. Methods : Patients with drusen imaged on both devices on the same day were selected and graded. Ambiguous OCT angiography (OCTA) signal loss was defined as low OCTA signal on the en face OCTA CC image that also had low OCT signal in the corresponding area on the en face OCT CC image and OCT B-scans. Unambiguous OCTA signal loss was defined as low OCTA signal on the en face OCTA ...

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    14. Choroidal Neovascularization Analyzed on Ultrahigh-Speed Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Compared to Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Choroidal Neovascularization Analyzed on Ultrahigh-Speed Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Compared to Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose To compare visualization of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using an ultrahigh-speed swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) prototype vs a spectral-domain (SD) OCTA device. Design Comparative analysis of diagnostic instruments. Methods Patients were prospectively recruited to be imaged on SD OCT and SS OCT devices on the same day. The SD OCT device employed is the RTVue Avanti (Optovue, Inc, Fremont, California, USA), which operates at ∼840 nm wavelength and 70 000 A-scans/second. The SS OCT device used is an ultrahigh-speed long-wavelength prototype that operates at ∼1050 nm wavelength and 400 000 ...

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    15. Retinal Capillary Network and Foveal Avascular Zone in Eyes with Vein Occlusion and Fellow Eyes Analyzed With Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Retinal Capillary Network and Foveal Avascular Zone in Eyes with Vein Occlusion and Fellow Eyes Analyzed With Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose : To evaluate the perifoveolar retinal capillary network at different depths and to quantify the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in eyes with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) compared with their fellow eyes and healthy controls using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography (SD-OCTA). Methods : We prospectively recruited 23 patients with RVO including 15 eyes with central RVO (CRVO) and 8 eyes with branch RVO (BRVO), their fellow eyes, and 8 age-matched healthy controls (8 eyes) for imaging on prototype OCTA software within RTVue-XR Avanti. The 3 × 3 mm and 6 × 6 mm en face angiograms of superficial and deep retinal capillary plexuses ...

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    16. Visualization of Changes in the Choriocapillaris, Choroidal Vessels, and Retinal Morphology After Focal Laser Photocoagulation Using OCT Angiography

      Visualization of Changes in the Choriocapillaris, Choroidal Vessels, and Retinal Morphology After Focal Laser Photocoagulation Using OCT Angiography

      Purpose : To utilize optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) to describe alterations in the retinal and choriocapillaris vasculature following remote laser photocoagulation. Lesions are classified on the basis of choriocapillaris alteration as evaluated on en face OCTA. Methods : This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study analyzing 28 laser photocoagulation scars from 8 patients treated for diabetic macular edema. All eyes were analyzed using a combination of OCTA, en face and cross-sectional OCT, and fundus photography. Two masked readers scored images for alterations at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), choroid, and choriocapillaris. Laser photocoagulation lesions were classified ...

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    17. CORRELATION OF SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY AND CLINICAL ACTIVITY IN NEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

      CORRELATION OF SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY AND CLINICAL ACTIVITY IN NEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

      Purpose: To characterize the features of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in neovascular age-related macular degeneration with spectral domain optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and to determine whether OCTA can be used to determine clinical activity of CNV. Methods: Observational, retrospective, consecutive case series. Results: Optical coherence tomography angiography revealed CNV in 28 eyes (62.2%) while 17 eyes (37.8%) did not demonstrate CNV vessels. Choroidal neovascularization was classified as well circumscribed in 12 eyes (42.8%) and poorly circumscribed in 16 eyes (57.2%). Twenty-two eyes with a CNV on OCTA were clinically active, whereas six eyes with visible CNV ...

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    18. Select Features of Diabetic Retinopathy on Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomographic Angiography Compared With Fluorescein Angiography and Normal Eyes

      Select Features of Diabetic Retinopathy on Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomographic Angiography Compared With Fluorescein Angiography and Normal Eyes

      Importance Optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCTA) is a recently developed noninvasive imaging technique that can visualize the retinal and choroidal microvasculature without the injection of exogenous dyes. Objective To evaluate the potential clinical utility of OCTA using a prototype swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) device and compare it with fluorescein angiography (FA) for analysis of the retinal microvasculature in diabetic retinopathy. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective, observational cross-sectional study conducted at a tertiary care academic retina practice from November 2013 through November 2014. A cohort of diabetic and normal control eyes were imaged with a prototype SS-OCT system. The stage of diabetic ...

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    19. Distinguishing Diabetic Macular Edema From Capillary Nonperfusion Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Distinguishing Diabetic Macular Edema From Capillary Nonperfusion Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To describe the appearance of diabetic macular edema (DME) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and distinguish it from capillary nonperfusion. .. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with DME were recruited for OCTA imaging. Eyes with confounding retinal diseases were excluded. Using 3 mm × 3 mm OCT angiograms segmented into the superficial and deep inner retinal vascular plexuses, two graders described the appearance of DME and confirmed the diagnosis with structural OCT and fluorescein angiography. RESULTS: DME was evaluated in 17 eyes of 12 patients. The cystoid spaces in DME appeared completely devoid of flow on the OCT angiograms ...

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    20. Evaluation of Preretinal Neovascularization in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Evaluation of Preretinal Neovascularization in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To describe a method for visualizing preretinal neovascularization in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and report the findings in the surrounding vasculature. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with PDR diagnosed on clinical examination who received OCTA scans using the RTVue XR Avanti (Optovue, Fremont, CA) were evaluated. To visualize preretinal neovascularization, OCT angiograms were segmented to project vasculature above the internal limiting membrane (ILM). OCT angiograms were segmented between the ILM and Bruch's membrane to show adjacent retinal vasculature. RESULTS: Thirteen eyes were determined to have preretinal neovascularization in the posterior pole ...

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    21. Choroidal neovascularization analyzed on ultra-high speed swept source optical coherence tomography angiography compared to spectral domain optical coherence tomography angiography

      Choroidal neovascularization analyzed on ultra-high speed swept source optical coherence tomography angiography compared to spectral domain optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose To compare visualization of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using an ultra-high speed swept-source (SS)-optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) prototype versus a spectral-domain (SD)-OCTA device. Design Comparative analysis of diagnostic instruments. Methods Patients were prospectively recruited to be imaged on SD-OCT and SS-OCT devices on the same day. The SD-OCT device employed is the RTVue Avanti that operates at ∼840nm wavelength and 70,000 A-scans/second. The SS-OCT device used is an ultra-high speed long-wavelength prototype that operates at ∼1050nm wavelength and 400,000 A-scans/second. Two observers independently measured the CNV area ...

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    22. Three Dimensional Enhanced Imaging of Vitreoretinal Interface in Diabetic Retinopathy Using Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Three Dimensional Enhanced Imaging of Vitreoretinal Interface in Diabetic Retinopathy Using Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose To analyze the vitreoretinal interface in diabetic eyes using three-dimensional wide-field volumes acquired using high-speed, long-wavelength swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Design Prospective cross-sectional study. Methods Fifty-six diabetic patients (88 eyes) and 11 healthy non-diabetic controls (22 eyes) were recruited. Up to eight SS-OCT volumes were acquired for each eye. A registration algorithm removed motion artifacts and merged multiple SS-OCT volumes to improve signal. Vitreous visualization was enhanced using vitreous windowing method. Results Of 88 diabetic eyes, 20 eyes had no retinopathy, 21 eyes had non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) without macular edema, 20 eyes had proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR ...

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    23. DETECTION OF MICROVASCULAR CHANGES IN EYES OF PATIENTS WITH DIABETES BUT NOT CLINICAL DIABETIC RETINOPATHY USING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY

      DETECTION OF MICROVASCULAR CHANGES IN EYES OF PATIENTS WITH DIABETES BUT NOT CLINICAL DIABETIC RETINOPATHY USING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY

      Purpose: To evaluate the ability of optical coherence tomography angiography to detect early microvascular changes in eyes of diabetic individuals without clinical retinopathy. Methods: Prospective observational study of 61 eyes of 39 patients with diabetes mellitus and 28 control eyes of 22 age-matched healthy subjects that received imaging using optical coherence tomography angiography between August 2014 and March 2015. Eyes with concomitant retinal, optic nerve, and vitreoretinal interface diseases and/or poor-quality images were excluded. Foveal avascular zone size and irregularity, vessel beading and tortuosity, capillary nonperfusion, and microaneurysm were evaluated. Results: Foveal avascular zone size measured 0.348 mm2 ...

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    24. CHARACTERIZING THE EFFECT OF ANTI-VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR THERAPY ON TREATMENT-NAIVE CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION USING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY

      CHARACTERIZING THE EFFECT OF ANTI-VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR THERAPY ON TREATMENT-NAIVE CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION USING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY

      Purpose: To use optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) to characterize the effects of anti-VEGF injections on treatment-naive choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Methods: From August 2014 to May 2015, treatment-naive eyes with CNV were scanned using a prototype OCTA system on a commercially available SD-OCT device (Optovue Inc, Fremont, CA). Optical coherence tomography angiography scans were obtained before anti-VEGF injection and at follow-up visits. The CNV area and greatest linear dimension (GLD) were measured along with the maximum retinal pigment epithelial detachment (RPED) height. Changes in subretinal and/or intraretinal fluid were also assessed. Results: Six eyes of six patients with treatment-naive ...

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    1. (41 articles) Andre J. Witkin
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