1. Articles from John N. Ratchford

    1-10 of 10
    1. Optical coherence tomography reflects brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis: A four-year study

      Optical coherence tomography reflects brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis: A four-year study

      Objective The aim of this work was to determine whether atrophy of specific retinal layers and brain substructures are associated over time, in order to further validate the utility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an indicator of neuronal tissue damage in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods Cirrus high-definition OCT (including automated macular segmentation) was performed in 107 MS patients biannually (median follow-up: 46 months). Three-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging brain scans (including brain-substructure volumetrics) were performed annually. Individual-specific rates of change in retinal and brain measures (estimated with linear regression) were correlated, adjusting for age, sex, disease duration, and ...

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    2. Optical coherence tomography reflects brain atrophy in MS: A four year study

      Optical coherence tomography reflects brain atrophy in MS: A four year study

      Objective : To determine whether atrophy of specific retinal layers and brain substructures are associated over time, in order to further validate the utility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an indicator of neuronal tissue damage in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods : Cirrus high definition OCT (including automated macular segmentation) was performed in 107 MS patients biannually (median follow-up: 46-months). Three-tesla magnetic resonance imaging brain scans (including brain-substructure volumetrics) were performed annually. Individual-specific rates of change in retinal and brain measures (estimated with linear regression) were correlated, adjusting for age, sex, disease duration, and optic neuritis (ON) history. Results : Rates ...

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    3. Active MS is associated with accelerated retinal ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer thinning

      Active MS is associated with accelerated retinal ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer thinning

      Objective: To determine the effect of clinical and radiologic disease activity on the rate of thinning of the ganglion cell/inner plexiform (GCIP) layer and the retinal nerve fiber layer in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: One hundred sixty-four patients with MS and 59 healthy controls underwent spectral-domain OCT scans every 6 months for a mean follow-up period of 21.1 months. Baseline and annual contrast-enhanced brain MRIs were performed. Patients who developed optic neuritis during follow-up were excluded from analysis. Results: Patients with the following features of disease activity during follow-up had faster ...

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    4. In vivo assessment of retinal neuronal layers in multiple sclerosis with manual and automated optical coherence tomography segmentation techniques

      In vivo assessment of retinal neuronal layers in multiple sclerosis with manual and automated optical coherence tomography segmentation techniques

      Macular optical coherence tomography (OCT) segmentation, enabling quantification of retinal axonal and neuronal subpopulations, may help elucidate the neuroretinal pathobiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aimed to determine the agreement, reproducibility, and visual correlations of retinal layer thicknesses measured by different OCT segmentation techniques, on two spectral-domain OCT devices. Macular scans of 52 MS patients and 30 healthy controls from Spectralis OCT and Cirrus HD-OCT were segmented using fully manual (Spectralis), computer-aided manual (Spectralis and Cirrus), and fully automated (Cirrus) segmentation techniques. Letter acuity was recorded. Bland-Altman analyses revealed low mean differences across OCT segmentation techniques on both devices ...

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    5. Optical coherence tomography segmentation reveals ganglion cell layer pathology after optic neuritis

      Optical coherence tomography segmentation reveals ganglion cell layer pathology after optic neuritis

      Post-mortem ganglion cell dropout has been observed in multiple sclerosis; however, longitudinal in vivo assessment of retinal neuronal layers following acute optic neuritis remains largely unexplored. Peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness, measured by optical coherence tomography, has been proposed as an outcome measure in studies of neuroprotective agents in multiple sclerosis, yet potential swelling during the acute stages of optic neuritis may confound baseline measurements. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether patients with multiple sclerosis or neuromyelitis optica develop retinal neuronal layer pathology following acute optic neuritis, and to systematically characterize such changes in vivo over ...

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    6. Visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis correlates better with optical coherence tomography derived estimates of macular ganglion cell layer thickness than peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness

      Visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis correlates better with optical coherence tomography derived estimates of macular ganglion cell layer thickness than peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness

      Background: Post-mortem analyses of multiple sclerosis (MS) eyes demonstrate prominent retinal neuronal ganglion cell layer (GCL) loss, in addition to related axonal retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) loss. Despite this, clinical correlations of retinal neuronal layers remain largely unexplored in MS. Objectives: To determine if MS patients exhibit in vivo retinal neuronal GCL loss, deeper retinal neuronal loss, and investigate correlations between retinal layer thicknesses, MS clinical subtype and validated clinical measures. Methods: Cirrus HD-optical coherence tomography (OCT), utilizing automated intra-retinal layer segmentation, was performed in 132 MS patients and 78 healthy controls. MS classification, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS ...

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    7. Primary retinal pathology in multiple sclerosis as detected by optical coherence tomography

      Primary retinal pathology in multiple sclerosis as detected by optical coherence tomography

      Optical coherence tomography studies in multiple sclerosis have primarily focused on evaluation of the retinal nerve fibre layer. The aetiology of retinal changes in multiple sclerosis is thought to be secondary to optic nerve demyelination. The objective of this study was to use optical coherence tomography to determine if a subset of patients with multiple sclerosis exhibit primary retinal neuronopathy, in the absence of retrograde degeneration of the retinal nerve fibre layer and to ascertain if such patients may have any distinguishing clinical characteristics. We identified 50 patients with multiple sclerosis with predominantly macular thinning (normal retinal nerve fibre-layer thickness ...

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    8. Reproducibility of high-resolution optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis

      Reproducibility of high-resolution optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive method to quantify neurodegeneration as an outcome in multiple sclerosis clinical trials; however, no data exist on Cirrus spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) reproducibility in patients with multiple sclerosis. The objective of this study was to determine the protocol for achieving optimal inter-visit, inter-rater, and intra-rater reproducibility for studies performed on healthy controls and multiple sclerosis patients utilizing novel high-definition SD-OCT. This is a prospective study of inter-visit, inter-rater, and intra-rater reproducibility in multiple sclerosis patients (n = 58) and healthy controls (n = 32) on Cirrus-HD SD-OCT. Excellent reproducibility of average and quadrantic ...

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    9. Longitudinal study of vision and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis

      Longitudinal study of vision and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis

      Objective Cross-sectional studies of optical coherence tomography (OCT) show that retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness is reduced in multiple sclerosis (MS) and correlates with visual function. We determined how longitudinal changes in RNFL thickness relate to visual loss. We also examined patterns of RNFL thinning over time in MS eyes with and without a prior history of acute optic neuritis (ON). Methods Patients underwent OCT measurement of RNFL thickness at baseline and at 6-month intervals during a mean follow-up of 18 months at 3 centers. Low-contrast letter acuity (2.5%, 1.25% contrast) and visual acuity (VA) were assessed ...

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    10. Macular Volume Determined by Optical Coherence Tomography as a Measure of Neuronal Loss in Multiple Sclerosis

      Macular Volume Determined by Optical Coherence Tomography as a Measure of Neuronal Loss in Multiple Sclerosis

      Background  Inner (area adjacent to the fovea) and outer regions of the macula differ with respect to relative thicknesses of the ganglion cell layer (neurons) vs retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL; axons).Objective  To determine how inner vs outer macular volumes relate to peripapillary RNFL thickness and visual function in multiple sclerosis (MS) and to examine how these patterns differ among eyes with vs without a history of acute optic neuritis (ON).Design  Study using cross-sectional optical coherence tomography.Setting  Three academic tertiary care MS centers.Participants  Patients with MS, diagnosed by standard criteria, and disease-free control participants.Main Outcome ...

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    1-10 of 10
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    Macular Volume Determined by Optical Coherence Tomography as a Measure of Neuronal Loss in Multiple Sclerosis Longitudinal study of vision and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis Reproducibility of high-resolution optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis Primary retinal pathology in multiple sclerosis as detected by optical coherence tomography Visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis correlates better with optical coherence tomography derived estimates of macular ganglion cell layer thickness than peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness Optical coherence tomography segmentation reveals ganglion cell layer pathology after optic neuritis In vivo assessment of retinal neuronal layers in multiple sclerosis with manual and automated optical coherence tomography segmentation techniques Active MS is associated with accelerated retinal ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer thinning Optical coherence tomography reflects brain atrophy in MS: A four year study Optical coherence tomography reflects brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis: A four-year study Vascular and Structural Alterations of the Choroid Evaluated by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Enhanced-Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography in Eyes with Reticular Pseudodrusen and Soft Drusen Total venous nature of retinal deep capillary plexus inferred by continuity of prominent middle limiting membrane sign in optical coherence tomography