1. Articles from peter a. calabresi

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    1. The APOSTEL 2.0 Recommendations for Reporting Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Studies

      The APOSTEL 2.0 Recommendations for Reporting Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Studies

      Objective: To update the consensus recommendations for reporting of quantitative optical coherence tomography (OCT) study results, thus revising the previously published Advised Protocol for OCT Study Terminology and Elements (APOSTEL) recommendations. Methods: To identify studies reporting quantitative OCT results, we performed a PubMed search for the terms "quantitative" and "optical coherence tomography" from 2015 to 2017. Corresponding authors of the identified publications were invited to provide feedback on the initial APOSTEL recommendations via online surveys following the principle of a modified Delphi method. The results were evaluated and discussed by a panel of experts, and changes to the initial recommendations ...

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    2. Association of Spectral-Domain OCT With Long-term Disability Worsening in Multiple Sclerosis

      Association of Spectral-Domain OCT With Long-term Disability Worsening in Multiple Sclerosis

      Objective: To evaluate whether a retinal spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) assessment at baseline is associated with long-term disability worsening in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), we performed SD-OCT and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) assessments among 132 PwMS at baseline and at a median of 10 years later. Methods: In this prospective, longitudinal study, participants underwent SD-OCT, EDSS, and visual acuity (VA) assessments at baseline and at follow-up. Statistical analyses were performed using generalized linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, race, MS subtype, and baseline disability. We defined clinically meaningful EDSS worsening as an increase of ≥2.0 ...

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    3. AQP4-IgG and MOG-IgG Related Optic Neuritis-Prevalence, Optical Coherence Tomography Findings, and Visual Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

      AQP4-IgG and MOG-IgG Related Optic Neuritis-Prevalence, Optical Coherence Tomography Findings, and Visual Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

      Background: Optic neuritis (ON) is a cardinal manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS), aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-IgG-, and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-IgG-associated disease. However, the prevalence of AQP4-IgG seropositivity and MOG-IgG seropositivity in isolated ON is unclear, and studies comparing visual outcomes and optical coherence tomography (OCT)-derived structural retinal measures between MS-ON, AQP4-ON, and MOG-ON eyes are limited by small sample sizes. Objectives: (1) To assess the prevalence of AQP4-IgG and MOG-IgG seropositivity among patients presenting with isolated ON; (2) to compare visual outcomes and OCT measures between AQP4-ON, MOG-ON, and MS-ON eyes. Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis ...

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    4. Macular Ganglion Cell and Inner Plexiform Layer Thickness Is More Strongly Associated With Visual Function in Multiple Sclerosis Than Bruch Membrane Opening–Minimum Rim Width or Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thicknesses

      Macular Ganglion Cell and Inner Plexiform Layer Thickness Is More Strongly Associated With Visual Function in Multiple Sclerosis Than Bruch Membrane Opening–Minimum Rim Width or Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thicknesses

      Background: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements of ganglion cell + inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thicknesses are associated with visual function (VF) and disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the value of measuring Bruch membrane opening–minimum rim width (BMO-MRW) thickness in MS remains unclear. Methods: Sixty-eight patients with MS and 22 healthy controls (HCs) underwent spectral domain OCT, 100%-contrast visual acuity (VA), 2.5%- and 1.25%-contrast letter acuity (LA), and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) testing. Mixed-effects linear regression models, accounting for within-subject, intereye correlations, were used to assess relationships. Results ...

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    5. Optimal intereye difference thresholds by optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: An international study

      Optimal intereye difference thresholds by optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: An international study

      Objective To determine the optimal thresholds for intereye differences in retinal nerve fiber and ganglion cell + inner plexiform layer thicknesses for identifying unilateral optic nerve lesions in multiple sclerosis. Current international diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis do not include the optic nerve as a lesion site despite frequent involvement. Optical coherence tomography detects retinal thinning associated with optic nerve lesions. Methods In this multicenter international study at 11 sites, optical coherence tomography was measured for patients and healthy controls as part of the International Multiple Sclerosis Visual System Consortium. High‐ and low‐contrast acuity were also collected in a subset ...

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    6. Optimal Inter‐Eye Difference Thresholds by OCT in MS: An International Study

      Optimal Inter‐Eye Difference Thresholds by OCT in MS: An International Study

      Objective To determine the optimal thresholds for inter‐eye differences in retinal nerve fiber and ganglion cell+inner plexiform layer thicknesses for identifying unilateral optic nerve lesions in multiple sclerosis. Background Current international diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis do not include the optic nerve as a lesion site despite frequent involvement. Optical coherence tomography detects retinal thinning associated with optic nerve lesions. Methods In this multi‐center international study at 11 sites, optical coherence tomography was measured for patients and healthy controls as part of the International Multiple Sclerosis Visual System Consortium. High‐ and low‐contrast acuity were also collected ...

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    7. Image Artifacts In Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Among Patients With Multiple Sclerosis

      Image Artifacts In Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Among Patients With Multiple Sclerosis

      Purpose : To evaluate artifacts in OCT-A images of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy controls. Materials and Methods : This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted at the Department of Neurology and the Wilmer Eye Institute at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Subjects included patients with an established diagnosis of MS and healthy volunteers. OCT-A was performed using Spectralis® OCT-A prototype, OCT2 (Heidelberg, Germany). The type and frequency of artifacts, the clinical factors associated with them, and their impact on vessel density measurements were assessed. Results : Overall, 385 images from 102 participants were analyzed. The majority of images (97.1%) had some degree ...

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    8. Retinal layer parcellation of optical coherence tomography images: Data resource for Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Controls

      Retinal layer parcellation of optical coherence tomography images: Data resource for Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Controls

      This paper presents optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the human retina and manual delineations of eight retinal layers. The data includes 35 human retina scans acquired on a Spectralis OCT system (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), 14 of which are healthy controls (HC) and 21 have a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). The provided data includes manually delineation of eight retina layers, which were independently reviewed and edited. The data presented in this article was used to validate automatic segmentation algorithms [1].

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    9. Spinal cord and infratentorial lesions in radiologically isolated syndrome are associated with decreased retinal ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer thickness

      Spinal cord and infratentorial lesions in radiologically isolated syndrome are associated with decreased retinal ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer thickness

      Background: The role of retinal imaging with optical coherence tomography (OCT) in assessing individuals with radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS) remains largely unexplored. Objective: To assess retinal layer thicknesses in RIS and examine their associations with clinical features suggestive of increased risk for conversion to multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: A total of 30 RIS subjects and 60 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) underwent retinal imaging with spectral-domain OCT, followed by automated segmentation of retinal layers. Results: Overall, retinal layer thicknesses did not differ between RIS and HC. However, RIS subjects with spinal cord (SC) lesions had lower ganglion cell + inner ...

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    10. The International Multiple Sclerosis Visual System Consortium: Advancing Visual System Research in Multiple Sclerosis

      The International Multiple Sclerosis Visual System Consortium: Advancing Visual System Research in Multiple Sclerosis

      Background: The International Multiple Sclerosis Visual System Consortium (IMSVISUAL) was formed in November 2014 with the primary goal of improving research, care, and education regarding the role of the visual system in multiple sclerosis (MS) and related disorders. Methods: In this review, we describe the formation, goals, activities, and structure of IMSVISUAL, as well as the relationship of IMSVISUAL with the Americas Committee for Treatment and Research in MS (ACTRIMS). Finally, we provide an overview of the work IMSVISUAL has completed to date, as well as an outline of research projects ongoing under the auspices of IMSVISUAL. Results: IMSVISUAL has ...

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    11. Emerging Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) in neurological research

      Emerging Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) in neurological research

      Purpose To review the clinical and research value of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in the field of neurology. Methods Current literature involving OCTA were reviewed through PubMed using the search terms “optical coherence tomography angiography”, with “multiple sclerosis”, “Alzheimer’s disease”, “optic neuropathy”, or other closely-related terms. Results OCTA has been applied in research to advance our understanding of the pathobiology of neurological disorders. OCTA-derived blood flow and vessel density measures are altered in multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and various optic neuropathies (ON) in varying regions of the posterior segment vasculature of the eye. These emerging ...

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    12. Retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography and risk of disability worsening in multiple sclerosis: a cohort study

      Retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography and risk of disability worsening in multiple sclerosis: a cohort study

      Background Most patients with multiple sclerosis without previous optic neuritis have thinner retinal layers than healthy controls. We assessed the role of peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) thickness and macular volume in eyes with no history of optic neuritis as a biomarker of disability worsening in a cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis who had at least one eye without optic neuritis available. Methods In this multicentre, cohort study, we collected data about patients (age ≥16 years old) with clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and progressive multiple sclerosis. Patients were recruited from centres in Spain, Italy, France, Germany ...

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    13. Optical coherence tomography: A quantitative tool to measure neurodegeneration and facilitate testing of novel treatments for tissue protection in multiple sclerosis

      Optical coherence tomography: A quantitative tool to measure neurodegeneration and facilitate testing of novel treatments for tissue protection in multiple sclerosis

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a relatively new imaging technology that has been introduced as a powerful biomarker in neurological disease, including multiple sclerosis. In this review, OCT as an imaging technique, its reproducibility and validation in multiple sclerosis, application to other neurodegenerative diseases and future technological directions are discussed.

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    14. Voxel based morphometry in optical coherence tomography: validation and core findings

      Voxel based morphometry in optical coherence tomography: validation and core findings

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the human retina is now becoming established as an important modality for the detection and tracking of various ocular diseases. Voxel based morphometry (VBM) is a long standing neuroimaging analysis technique that allows for the exploration of the regional differences in the brain. There has been limited work done in developing registration based methods for OCT, which has hampered the advancement of VBM analyses in OCT based population studies. Following on from our recent development of an OCT registration method, we explore the potential benefits of VBM analysis in cohorts of healthy controls (HCs) and ...

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    15. Simultaneous segmentation of retinal surfaces and microcystic macular edema in SDOCT volumes

      Simultaneous segmentation of retinal surfaces and microcystic macular edema in SDOCT volumes

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging modality that has begun to find widespread use in retinal imaging for the detection of a variety of ocular diseases. In addition to structural changes in the form of altered retinal layer thicknesses, pathological conditions may also cause the formation of edema within the retina. In multiple sclerosis, for instance, the nerve fiber and ganglion cell layers are known to thin. Additionally, the formation of pseudocysts called microcystic macular edema (MME) have also been observed in the eyes of about 5% of MS patients, and its presence has been shown to be ...

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    16. Combined registration and motion correction of longitudinal retinal OCT data

      Combined registration and motion correction of longitudinal retinal OCT data

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become an important modality for examination of the eye. To measure layer thicknesses in the retina, automated segmentation algorithms are often used, producing accurate and reliable measurements. However, subtle changes over time are difficult to detect since the magnitude of the change can be very small. Thus, tracking disease progression over short periods of time is difficult. Additionally, unstable eye position and motion alter the consistency of these measurements, even in healthy eyes. Thus, both registration and motion correction are important for processing longitudinal data of a specific patient. In this work, we propose a ...

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    17. Optical Coherence Tomography in Neurologic Disease (Textbook)

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Neurologic Disease (Textbook)

      Shortly after the invention of the first two-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans by James Fujimoto and colleagues at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1991, ophthalmologists recognized the extraordinary potential for OCT to facilitate quantitative assessment of the neuroretina. OCT rapidly became a commonplace tool in ophthalmologic practice to identify both inflammatory and degenerative conditions affecting the optic nerve and retina. The utility of OCT to detect and quantify sequelae of optic neuropathies, including glaucoma and those associated with primary neurological diseases , was soon brought to the forefront. Rapid advances in the technology have followed and have included faster ...

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    18. Retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography and risk of disability worsening in multiple sclerosis: a cohort study

      Retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography and risk of disability worsening in multiple sclerosis: a cohort study

      Background Most patients with multiple sclerosis without previous optic neuritis have thinner retinal layers than healthy controls. We assessed the role of peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) thickness and macular volume in eyes with no history of optic neuritis as a biomarker of disability worsening in a cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis who had at least one eye without optic neuritis available. Methods In this multicentre, cohort study, we collected data about patients (age ≥16 years old) with clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and progressive multiple sclerosis. Patients were recruited from centres in Spain, Italy, France, Germany ...

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    19. Optical coherence tomography reflects brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis: A four-year study

      Optical coherence tomography reflects brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis: A four-year study

      Objective The aim of this work was to determine whether atrophy of specific retinal layers and brain substructures are associated over time, in order to further validate the utility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an indicator of neuronal tissue damage in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods Cirrus high-definition OCT (including automated macular segmentation) was performed in 107 MS patients biannually (median follow-up: 46 months). Three-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging brain scans (including brain-substructure volumetrics) were performed annually. Individual-specific rates of change in retinal and brain measures (estimated with linear regression) were correlated, adjusting for age, sex, disease duration, and ...

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    20. Optical coherence tomography reflects brain atrophy in MS: A four year study

      Optical coherence tomography reflects brain atrophy in MS: A four year study

      Objective : To determine whether atrophy of specific retinal layers and brain substructures are associated over time, in order to further validate the utility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an indicator of neuronal tissue damage in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods : Cirrus high definition OCT (including automated macular segmentation) was performed in 107 MS patients biannually (median follow-up: 46-months). Three-tesla magnetic resonance imaging brain scans (including brain-substructure volumetrics) were performed annually. Individual-specific rates of change in retinal and brain measures (estimated with linear regression) were correlated, adjusting for age, sex, disease duration, and optic neuritis (ON) history. Results : Rates ...

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    21. Segmentation of microcystic macular edema in Cirrus OCT scans with an exploratory longitudinal study

      Segmentation of microcystic macular edema in Cirrus OCT scans with an exploratory longitudinal study

      Microcystic macular edema (MME) is a term used to describe pseudocystic spaces in the inner nuclear layer (INL) of the human retina. It has been noted in multiple sclerosis (MS) as well as a variety of other diseases. The processes that lead to MME formation and their change over time have yet to be explained sufficiently. The low rate at which MME occurs within such diverse patient groups makes the identification and consistent quantification of this pathology important for developing patient-specific prognoses. MME is observed in optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans of the retina as changes in light reflectivity in ...

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    22. Applying an Open-Source Segmentation Algorithm to Different OCT Devices in Multiple Sclerosis Patients and Healthy Controls: Implications for Clinical Trials

      Applying an Open-Source Segmentation Algorithm to Different OCT Devices in Multiple Sclerosis Patients and Healthy Controls: Implications for Clinical Trials

      Background . The lack of segmentation algorithms operative across optical coherence tomography (OCT) platforms hinders utility of retinal layer measures in MS trials. Objective . To determine cross-sectional and longitudinal agreement of retinal layer thicknesses derived from an open-source, fully-automated, segmentation algorithm, applied to two spectral-domain OCT devices. Methods . Cirrus HD-OCT and Spectralis OCT macular scans from 68 MS patients and 22 healthy controls were segmented. A longitudinal cohort comprising 51 subjects (mean follow-up: 1.4 ± 0.9 years) was also examined. Bland-Altman analyses and interscanner agreement indices were utilized to assess agreement between scanners. Results . Low mean differences (−2.16 to ...

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    23. Optical Coherence Tomography in Neurologic Diseases (Textbook)

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Neurologic Diseases (Textbook)

      Optical coherence tomography [OCT] provides tissue morphology imagery at much higher resolution than other imaging modalities such as MRI or ultrasound, and the machines are comparatively cheaper. It is an easy technique to perform; is non-ionizing, and therefore safe. These benefits are driving a rapid transformation of OCT, from its principal application as a research tool, into an extension of the 'neurological examination' in routine office practice. Originally used in assessing the severity of tissue damage and prognosis of multiple sclerosis and various neuro-ophthalmic conditions, OCT is increasingly used in other neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, ALS, and ...

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    24. Longitudinal graph-based segmentation of macular OCT using fundus alignment

      Longitudinal graph-based segmentation of macular OCT using fundus alignment

      Segmentation of retinal layers in optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become an important diagnostic tool for a variety of ocular and neurological diseases. Currently all OCT segmentation algorithms analyze data independently, ignoring previous scans, which can lead to spurious measurements due to algorithm variability and failure to identify subtle changes in retinal layers. In this paper, we present a graph-based segmentation framework to provide consistent longitudinal segmentation results. Regularization over time is accomplished by adding weighted edges between corresponding voxels at each visit. We align the scans to a common subject space before connecting the graphs by registering the data ...

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