1. Articles from Brett E. Bouma

    1-24 of 139 1 2 3 4 5 6 »
    1. Artifact Rates for 2D Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Versus 3D Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Volume

      Artifact Rates for 2D Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Versus 3D Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Volume

      Purpose : To compare artifact rates in two-dimensional (2D) versus three-dimensional (3D) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) scans using Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT) Methods : Thirteen artifact types in 2D and 3D RNFL scans were identified in 106 glaucomatous eyes and 95 normal eyes. Artifact rates were calculated per B-scan and per eye. In 3D volume scans, artifacts were counted only for the 97 B-scans used to calculate RNFL parameters for the 2.5–3.5-mm annulus. 3D RNFL measurements were calculated twice, once before and again after deletion of B-scans with artifacts and subsequent automated interpolation. Results : For 2D scans ...

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    2. Stable multi-megahertz circular-ranging optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm

      Stable multi-megahertz circular-ranging optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm

      In Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), the finite bandwidth of the acquisition electronics constrains the depth range and speed of the system. Circular-ranging (CR) OCT methods use optical-domain compression to surpass this limit. However, the CR-OCT system architectures of prior reports were limited by poor stability and were confined to the 1.55 µm wavelength range. In this work, we describe a novel CR-OCT architecture that is free from these limitations. To ensure stable operation, temperature sensitive optical modules within the system were replaced; the kilometer-length fiber spools used in the stretched-pulse mode-locked (SPML) laser was eliminated in favor of ...

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    3. Intravascular Polarimetry in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

      Intravascular Polarimetry in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

      Objectives The aims of this first-in-human pilot study of intravascular polarimetry were to investigate polarization properties of coronary plaques in patients and to examine the relationship of these features with established structural characteristics available to conventional optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) and with clinical presentation. Background Polarization-sensitive OFDI measures birefringence and depolarization of tissue together with conventional cross-sectional optical frequency domain images of subsurface microstructure. Methods Thirty patients undergoing polarization-sensitive OFDI (acute coronary syndrome, n = 12; stable angina pectoris, n = 18) participated in this study. Three hundred forty-two cross-sectional images evenly distributed along all imaged coronary arteries were classified into ...

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    4. Intravascular Polarimetry for Tissue Characterization of Coronary Atherosclerosis

      Intravascular Polarimetry for Tissue Characterization of Coronary Atherosclerosis

      The microscopic tissue structure and organization influence the polarization of light. Intravascular polarimetry leverages this compelling intrinsic contrast mechanism by using polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging to measure the polarization properties of the coronary arterial wall. Tissues rich in collagen and smooth muscle cells appear birefringent, while the presence of lipid causes depolarization, offering quantitative metrics related to the presence of important components of coronary atherosclerosis. Here, we review the basic principles, the interpretation of polarization signatures, and first clinical investigations of intravascular polarimetry and discuss how this extension of contemporary intravascular imaging may advance our knowledge and improve clinical ...

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    5. Highly-stable, multi-megahertz circular-ranging optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm based on a chirped fiber Bragg grating

      Highly-stable, multi-megahertz circular-ranging optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm based on a chirped fiber Bragg grating

      In Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), the finite bandwidth of the acquisition electronics constrains the depth range and speed of the system. Circular-ranging (CR) OCT methods use optical-domain compression to surpass this limit. However, the CR-OCT system architectures of prior reports were limited by poor stability and were confined to the 1.55 µm wavelength range. In this work, we describe a novel CR-OCT architecture that is free from these limitations. To ensure stable operation, temperature sensitive optical modules within the system were replaced; the kilometer-length fiber spools used in the stretched-pulse mode-locked (SPML) laser was eliminated in favor of ...

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    6. Constrained polarization evolution simplifies depth-resolved retardation measurements with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Constrained polarization evolution simplifies depth-resolved retardation measurements with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      We observed that the polarization state of light after round-trip propagation through a birefringent medium frequently aligns with the employed input polarization state ‘mirrored’ by the horizontal plane of the Poincaré sphere. We explored the predisposition for this mirror state and evidence that it constrains the evolution of polarization states as a function of the round-trip depth into weakly scattering birefringent samples, as measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). Combined with spectral variations in the polarization state transmitted through system components, we demonstrate how this constraint enables measurement of depth-resolved birefringence using only a single input polarization state, which ...

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    7. Distinguishing Tumor from Associated Fibrosis to Increase Diagnostic Biopsy Yield with Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography

      Distinguishing Tumor from Associated Fibrosis to Increase Diagnostic Biopsy Yield with Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: With recent advancements in personalized medicine, biopsies must contain sufficient tumor for histologic diagnosis and molecular testing. However, inadvertent biopsy of tumor-associated fibrosis compromises tumor yield, resulting in delayed diagnoses and/or repeat procedures when additional tumor is needed. The ability to differentiate tumor from fibrosis intraprocedurally during biopsy could significantly increase tumor yield. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is an imaging modality that is endoscope- and/or needle-compatible, and provides large volumetric views of tissue microstructure with high resolution (∼10 μm) while simultaneously measuring birefringence of organized tissues such as collagen. We aim to determine whether PS-OCT can ...

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    8. Motorized capsule for shadow-free OCT imaging and synchronous beam control

      Motorized capsule for shadow-free OCT imaging and synchronous beam control

      We demonstrate a tethered motorized capsule for unobstructed optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the esophagus. By using a distal reflector design, we avoided the common shadow artifact induced by the motor wires. A synchronous driving technique features three types of beam-scanning modes of the capsule, i.e., circumferential beam scanning, localized beam scanning, and accurate beam positioning. We characterized these three modes and carried out ex vivo imaging experiments using the capsule. The results show that the capsule can potentially be a useful tool for diagnostic OCT imaging and OCT-guided biopsy and therapy of the esophagus.

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    9. Balloon catheter-based radiofrequency ablation monitoring in porcine esophagus using optical coherence tomography

      Balloon catheter-based radiofrequency ablation monitoring in porcine esophagus using optical coherence tomography

      We present a microscopic image guidance platform for radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using a clinical balloon-catheter-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) system, currently used in the surveillance of Barrett’s esophagus patients. Our integrated thermal therapy delivery and monitoring platform consists of a flexible, customized bipolar RFA electrode array designed for use with a clinical balloon OCT catheter and a processing algorithm to accurately map the thermal coagulation process. Non-uniform rotation distortion was corrected using a feature tracking-based technique, which enables robust, frame-to-frame analysis of the temporal fluctuation of the complex OCT signal. With proper noise calibration, precise delineation of the thermal ...

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    10. Extended Coherence Length and Depth Ranging Using a Fourier-Domain Mode-Locked Frequency Comb and Circular Interferometric Ranging

      Extended Coherence Length and Depth Ranging Using a Fourier-Domain Mode-Locked Frequency Comb and Circular Interferometric Ranging

      Fourier-domain mode locking has been a popular laser design for high-speed optical-frequency-domain imaging (OFDI), but achieving long coherence lengths, and therefore imaging range, has been challenging. The narrow linewidth of a Fourier-domain mode-locked (FDML) frequency-comb (FC) laser could provide an attractive platform for high-speed as well as long-range OFDI. Unfortunately, aliasing artifacts arising from signals beyond the principal measurement depth of the free spectral range have prohibited the use of an FDML FC laser for imaging so far. To make the increased coherence length of an FDML FC laser available, methods to manage such artifacts are required. Recently, coherent circular ...

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    11. Demonstration of Triband Multi-Focal Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Demonstration of Triband Multi-Focal Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography

      We demonstrate an extended depth of focus optical coherence tomography (OCT) system based on the use of chromatic aberration to create displaced focal planes in the sample. The system uses a wavelength-swept source tuning over three spectral bands and three separate interferometers, each of which interfaces to a single illumination/collection fiber. The resulting three imaged volumes are merged in post-processing to generate an image with a larger depth of focus than is obtained from each band individually. The improvements are demonstrated in structural imaging of a porous phantom and a lipid-cleared murine brain, and by angiographic imaging of human ...

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    12. Optic axis mapping with catheter-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Optic axis mapping with catheter-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Birefringence offers an intrinsic contrast mechanism related to the microstructure and arrangement of fibrillary tissue components. Here we present a reconstruction strategy to recover not only the scalar amount of birefringence, but also its optic axis orientation as a function of depth in tissue from measurements with catheter-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. A polarization symmetry constraint, intrinsic to imaging in the backscatter direction, facilitates the required compensation for wavelength-dependent transmission through the system elements, the rotating catheter, and overlying tissue layers. Applied to the intravascular imaging of coronary atherosclerosis in human patients, the optic axis affords refined interpretation of plaque ...

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    13. Diagnostic Capability of Three-Dimensional Macular Parameters for Glaucoma Using Optical Coherence Tomography Volume Scans

      Diagnostic Capability of Three-Dimensional Macular Parameters for Glaucoma Using Optical Coherence Tomography Volume Scans

      Purpose : To compare the diagnostic capability of three-dimensional (3D) macular parameters against traditional two-dimensional (2D) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. To determine if manual correction and interpolation of B-scans improve the ability of 3D macular parameters to diagnose glaucoma. Methods : A total of 101 open angle glaucoma patients (29 with early glaucoma) and 57 healthy subjects had peripapillary 2D RNFL thickness and 3D macular volume scans. Four parameters were calculated for six different-sized annuli: total macular thickness (M-thickness), total macular volume (M-volume), ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness, and GCC volume of the innermost ...

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    14. Extended coherence length and depth ranging using a Fourier domain mode-locked frequency comb and circular interferometric ranging

      Extended coherence length and depth ranging using a Fourier domain mode-locked frequency comb and circular interferometric ranging

      Fourier domain mode-locking (FDML) has been a popular laser design for high speed optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) but achieving long coherence lengths, and therefore imaging range, has been challenging. The narrow instantaneous linewidth of a frequency comb (FC) FDML laser could provide an attractive platform for high speed as well as long range OFDI. Unfortunately, aliasing artifacts arising from signals beyond the principle measurement depth of the free spectral range have prohibited the use of a FC FDML for imaging so far. To make the enhanced coherence length of FC FDML laser available, methods to manage such artifacts are ...

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    15. Quantitative depolarization measurements for fiber‐based polarization‐sensitive optical frequency domain imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium

      Quantitative depolarization measurements for fiber‐based polarization‐sensitive optical frequency domain imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium

      A full quantitative evaluation of the depolarization of light may serve to assess concentrations of depolarizing particles in the retinal pigment epithelium and to investigate their role in retinal diseases in the human eye. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) use spatial incoherent averaging to compute depolarization. Depolarization depends on accurate measurements of the polarization states at the receiver but also on the polarization state incident upon and within the tissue. Neglecting this dependence can result in artifacts and renders depolarization measurements vulnerable to birefringence in the system and in the sample. In this work, we ...

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    16. Volumetric non-local-means based speckle reduction for optical coherence tomography

      Volumetric non-local-means based speckle reduction for optical coherence tomography

      We present a novel tomographic non-local-means based despeckling technique, TNode, for optical coherence tomography. TNode is built upon a weighting similarity criterion derived for speckle in a three-dimensional similarity window. We present an implementation using a two-dimensional search window, enabling the despeckling of volumes in the presence of motion artifacts, and an implementation using a three-dimensional window with improved performance in motion-free volumes. We show that our technique provides effective speckle reduction, comparable with B-scan compounding or out-of-plane averaging, while preserving isotropic resolution, even to the level of speckle-sized structures. We demonstrate its superior despeckling performance in a phantom data ...

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    17. Robust wavenumber and dispersion calibration for Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

      Robust wavenumber and dispersion calibration for Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

      Many Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) systems sample the interference fringes with a non-uniform wavenumber ( k ) interval, introducing a chirp to the signal that depends on the path length difference underlying each fringe. A dispersion imbalance between sample and reference arms also generates a chirp in the fringe signal which, in contrast, is independent of depth. Fringe interpolation to obtain a signal linear in k and compensate dispersion imbalance is critical to achieving bandwidth-limited axial resolution. In this work, we propose an optimization-based algorithm to perform robust and automated calibration of FD-OCT systems, recovering both the interpolation function and the ...

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    18. Radiometric model for coaxial single- and multimode optical emission from double-clad fiber

      Radiometric model for coaxial single- and multimode optical emission from double-clad fiber

      Double-clad fibers (DCFs) are versatile waveguides supporting a single-mode core surrounded by a multimode inner cladding. DCFs are increasingly used for multimodal biomedical applications, such as imaging or therapy, for which the core is typically used for coherent illumination and the inner cladding, to support a concurrent modality. Proper optimization is, however, critical to ensure high optical performance and requires accurate modeling of coaxial single- and multimode output beams. In this paper, we present an approach based on geometrical optics and radiometry, which provides a simple and efficient modeling tool for designing and optimizing DCF-based systems. A radiometric definition of ...

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    19. Complex differential variance angiography with noise-bias correction for optical coherence tomography of the retina

      Complex differential variance angiography with noise-bias correction for optical coherence tomography of the retina

      Complex differential variance (CDV) provides phase-sensitive angiographic imaging for optical coherence tomography (OCT) with immunity to phase-instabilities of the imaging system and small-scale axial bulk motion. However, like all angiographic methods, measurement noise can result in erroneous indications of blood flow that confuse the interpretation of angiographic images. In this paper, a modified CDV algorithm that corrects for this noise-bias is presented. This is achieved by normalizing the CDV signal by analytically derived upper and lower limits. The noise-bias corrected CDV algorithm was implemented into an experimental 1 μm wavelength OCT system for retinal imaging that used an eye tracking ...

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    20. Depolarization signatures map gold nanorods within biological tissue

      Depolarization signatures map gold nanorods within biological tissue

      Owing to their electromagnetic properties, tunability and biocompatibility, gold nanorods are being investigated as multifunctional probes for a range of biomedical applications. However, detection beyond the reach of traditional fluorescence and two-photon approaches and quantitation of their concentration in biological tissue remain challenging tasks in microscopy. Here, we show how the size and aspect ratio that impart gold nanorods with their plasmonic properties also make them a source of entropy. We report on how depolarization can be exploited as a strategy to visualize gold nanorod diffusion and distribution in biologically relevant scenarios ex vivo, in vitro and in vivo. We ...

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    21. Diagnostic Capability of Peripapillary 3D Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Volume for Glaucoma Using Optical Coherence Tomography Volume Scans

      Diagnostic Capability of Peripapillary 3D Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Volume for Glaucoma Using Optical Coherence Tomography Volume Scans

      Purpose To determine the diagnostic capability of peripapillary 3-dimensional (3D) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) volume measurements from spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) volume scans for open angle glaucoma (OAG). Design Assessment of diagnostic accuracy. Methods Setting: Academic clinical setting. Study population : 180 patients (113 OAG and 67 normal subjects). Observation procedures : One eye per subject was included. Peripapillary 3D RNFL volumes were calculated for global, quadrant, and sector regions, using four different sized annuli. Peripapillary 2D RNFL thickness circle scans were also obtained. Main outcome measures : Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values, sensitivity, specificity, positive ...

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    22. Intravascular imaging for characterization of coronary atherosclerosis

      Intravascular imaging for characterization of coronary atherosclerosis

      This short review surveys recent developments in coronary intravascular imaging technologies. We present an outline of the applications of intravascular imaging for guidance of percutaneous coronary interventions and imaging of atherosclerosis, along with emerging clinical evidence for use. Imaging of tissue composition is important for understanding the relation between the presence of a lesion and clinical sequelae. We describe the recent innovations to enable imaging of unstable atherosclerotic plaques, focusing on the emergence of experimental multimodal imaging technology.

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    23. Intravascular optical coherence tomography [Invited]

      Intravascular optical coherence tomography [Invited]

      Shortly after the first demonstration of optical coherence tomography for imaging the microstructure of the human eye, work began on developing systems and catheters suitable for intravascular imaging in order to diagnose and investigate atherosclerosis and potentially to monitor therapy. This review covers the driving considerations of the clinical application and its constraints, the major engineering milestones that enabled the current, high-performance commercial imaging systems, the key studies that laid the groundwork for image interpretation, and the clinical research that traces intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) from early human pilot studies to current clinical trials.

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    24. Extended bandwidth wavelength swept laser source for high resolution optical frequency domain imaging

      Extended bandwidth wavelength swept laser source for high resolution optical frequency domain imaging

      Improving the axial resolution by providing wider bandwidth wavelength swept lasers remains an important issue for optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI). Here, we demonstrate a wide tuning range, all-fiber wavelength swept laser at a center wavelength of 1250 nm by combining two ring cavities that share a single Fabry-Perot tunable filter. The two cavities contain semiconductor optical amplifiers with central wavelengths of 1190 nm and 1292 nm, respectively. To avoid disturbing interference effects in the overlapping spectral region, we modulated the amplifiers in order to obtain consecutive wavelength sweeps in the two spectral regions. The two sweeps were fused together ...

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