1. Articles from Andrew G. Lee

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    1. Diagnosis and Grading Of Papilledema Using Optical Coherence Tomography Compared To Clinical Staging By Frise´n Scale

      Diagnosis and Grading Of Papilledema Using Optical Coherence Tomography Compared To Clinical Staging By Frise´n Scale

      Objectives To compare and contrast 2 methods of quantitating papilledema, namely, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Modified Frisén Scale (MFS). Methods Digital optic disc photographs and OCT fast retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, fast RNFL map, total retinal thickness, and fast disc images were obtained in 36 patients with papilledema. Digital optic disc photographs were randomized and graded by 4 masked expert reviewers using the MFS. We performed Spearman rank correlations of OCT RNFL thickness, OCT total retinal thickness, and MFS grade from photographs. Results OCT RNFL thickness and MFS grade from photographs correlated well ( R = 0.85 ...

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    2. Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in the Junctional Scotoma of Traquair

      Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in the Junctional Scotoma of Traquair

      A 43-year-old woman presented with a right-sided visual field defect in the right eye. The visual acuity was normal and there was a right relative afferent pupillary defect. Formal visual field testing revealed a junctional scotoma of Traquair. The fundus examination showed optic atrophy in the right eye and optical coherence tomography demonstrated unilateral band atrophy. Neuroimaging revealed a sellar and suprasellar cystic pituitary adenoma for which she underwent a transsphenoidal drainage. We demonstrate the clinical and radiographic features of the junctional scotoma of Traquair and describe the differentiating features vs the junctional scotoma.

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    3. Spaceflight associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) and the neuro-ophthalmologic effects of microgravity: a review and an update

      Spaceflight associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) and the neuro-ophthalmologic effects of microgravity: a review and an update

      Prolonged microgravity exposure during long-duration spaceflight (LDSF) produces unusual physiologic and pathologic neuro-ophthalmic findings in astronauts. These microgravity associated findings collectively define the “Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome” (SANS). We compare and contrast prior published work on SANS by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Space Medicine Operations Division with retrospective and prospective studies from other research groups. In this manuscript, we update and review the clinical manifestations of SANS including: unilateral and bilateral optic disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal and retinal folds, hyperopic refractive error shifts, and focal areas of ischemic retina (i.e., cotton wool spots). We ...

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    4. Space flight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS)

      Space flight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS)

      Interesting novel and somewhat perplexing physiologic and pathologic neuro-ocular findings have been documented in astronauts during and after long duration space flight (LDSF). These findings collectively have been termed the “space flight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome” (SANS). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the United States has meticulously and prospectively documented the clinical, ultrasound, optical coherence tomography imaging, and radiographic findings of SANS including unilateral and bilateral optic disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal and retinal folds, hyperopic refractive error shifts, and nerve fiber layer infarcts (i.e., cotton wool spots). NASA and collaborating researchers continue to study SANS in preparation ...

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    5. Space Flight–Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome

      Space Flight–Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome

      New and unique physiologic and pathologic systemic and neuro-ocular responses have been documented in astronauts during and after long-duration space flight. Although the precise cause remains unknown, space flight–associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) has been adopted as an appropriate descriptive term. The Space Medicine Operations Division of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has documented the variable occurrence of SANS in astronauts returning from long-duration space flight on the International Space Station. These clinical findings have included unilateral and bilateral optic disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal and retinal folds, hyperopic refractive error shifts, and nerve fiber layer infarcts ...

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    6. Optic Disc Edema, Globe Flattening, Choroidal Folds, and Hyperopic Shifts Observed in Astronauts after Long-duration Space Flight

      Optic Disc Edema, Globe Flattening, Choroidal Folds, and Hyperopic Shifts Observed in Astronauts after Long-duration Space Flight
      Purpose To describe the history, clinical findings, and possible etiologies of ophthalmic findings discovered in 7 astronauts after long-duration space flight, and document vision changes in approximately 300 additional astronauts. Design Retrospective, observational examination of ophthalmic findings in 7 astronauts and analysis of postflight questionnaires regarding in-flight vision changes in approximately 300 additional astronauts. Participants Seven astronauts with ophthalmic anomalies upon return from long-duration space missions to the International Space Station and 300 additional astronauts who completed postflight questionnaires regarding in-flight vision changes. Methods Before and after long-duration space flight, all 7 subjects underwent complete eye examinations, including cycloplegic and ...
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    7. Diagnosis and Grading of Papilledema in Patients With Raised Intracranial Pressure Using Optical Coherence Tomography vs Clinical Expert Assessment Using a Clinical Staging Scale]

      Diagnosis and Grading of Papilledema in Patients With Raised Intracranial Pressure Using Optical Coherence Tomography vs Clinical Expert Assessment Using a Clinical Staging Scale]
      Objectives  To compare and contrast 2 methods of quantitating papilledema, namely, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Modified Frisén Scale (MFS). Methods  Digital optic disc photographs and OCT fast retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, fast RNFL map, total retinal thickness, and fast disc images were obtained in 36 patients with papilledema. Digital optic disc photographs were randomized and graded by 4 masked expert reviewers using the MFS. We performed Spearman rank correlations of OCT RNFL thickness, OCT total retinal thickness, and MFS grade from photographs. Results  OCT RNFL thickness and MFS grade from photographs correlated well (R = 0.85). OCT ...
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    8. Bilateral Optic Neuritis in Acute Hepatitis C.

      A 34-year-old woman developed bilateral optic neuritis 2 weeks after the onset of acute hepatitis C. The strong temporal relationship between the initial clinical manifestations of hepatitis C and the development of optic neuritis provides a basis for thinking that the hepatitis caused the optic neuritis After corticosteroid treatment, the optic neuropathy markedly improved but left behind retinal nerve fiber thinning, as measured by optical coherence tomography, and optic disc pallor. Optic neuritis has been reported in conjunction with hepatitis A and B but not with hepatitis C.
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    1-8 of 8
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    Diagnosis and Grading of Papilledema in Patients With Raised Intracranial Pressure Using Optical Coherence Tomography vs Clinical Expert Assessment Using a Clinical Staging Scale] Optic Disc Edema, Globe Flattening, Choroidal Folds, and Hyperopic Shifts Observed in Astronauts after Long-duration Space Flight Space Flight–Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome Space flight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) Spaceflight associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) and the neuro-ophthalmologic effects of microgravity: a review and an update Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in the Junctional Scotoma of Traquair Diagnosis and Grading Of Papilledema Using Optical Coherence Tomography Compared To Clinical Staging By Frise´n Scale Influence of scan direction on subfoveal choroidal vascularity index using optical coherence tomography Subthreshold Nanosecond Laser for Non-resolving Central Serous Chorioretinopathy: A Double-masked Sham-controlled Randomised Trial Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) to Assess Cardiac Output and Cerebral Perfusion at the Time of Children's Cardiac Surgery Recent advances in optical coherence tomography for anterior segment imaging in small animals and their clinical implications Intraoperative optical coherence tomography-guided donor corneal tissue assessment and preparation