1. Articles from david d. sampson

    1-24 of 104 1 2 3 4 5 »
    1. Jones matrix‐based speckle‐decorrelation angiography using polarization‐sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Jones matrix‐based speckle‐decorrelation angiography using polarization‐sensitive optical coherence tomography

      We show that polarization‐sensitive optical coherence tomography angiography (PS‐OCTA) based on full Jones matrix assessment of speckle decorrelation offers improved contrast and depth of vessel imaging over conventional OCTA. We determine how best to combine the individual Jones matrix elements and compare the resulting image quality to that of a conventional OCT scanner by co‐locating and imaging the same skin locations with closely matched scanning setups. Vessel projection images from finger and forearm skin demonstrate the benefits of Jones matrix‐based PS‐OCTA. Our study provides a promising starting point and a useful reference for future pre ...

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    2. Parametric imaging of attenuation by optical coherence tomography: review of models, methods, and clinical translation

      Parametric imaging of attenuation by optical coherence tomography: review of models, methods, and clinical translation

      Significance: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides cross-sectional and volumetric images of backscattering from biological tissue that reveal the tissue morphology. The strength of the scattering, characterized by an attenuation coefficient, represents an alternative and complementary tissue optical property, which can be characterized by parametric imaging of the OCT attenuation coefficient. Over the last 15 years, a multitude of studies have been reported seeking to advance methods to determine the OCT attenuation coefficient and developing them toward clinical applications. Aim: Our review provides an overview of the main models and methods, their assumptions and applicability, together with a survey of preclinical ...

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    3. Vectorial birefringence imaging by optical coherence microscopy for assessing fibrillar microstructures in the cornea and limbus

      Vectorial birefringence imaging by optical coherence microscopy for assessing fibrillar microstructures in the cornea and limbus

      The organization of fibrillar tissue on the micrometer scale carries direct implications for health and disease but remains difficult to assess in vivo . Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography measures birefringence, which relates to the microscopic arrangement of fibrillar tissue components. Here, we demonstrate a critical improvement in leveraging this contrast mechanism by employing the improved spatial resolution of focus-extended optical coherence microscopy (1.4 µm axially in air and 1.6 µm laterally, over more than 70 µm depth of field). Vectorial birefringence imaging of sheep cornea ex vivo reveals its lamellar organization into thin sections with distinct local optic axis ...

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    4. Recent progress in optical probing and manipulation of tissue: introduction

      Recent progress in optical probing and manipulation of tissue: introduction

      This feature issue of Biomedical Optics Express represents a cross-section of the most recent work in tissue optics, including exciting developments in tissue optical clearing, deep tissue imaging, optical elastography, nanophotonics in tissue, and therapeutic applications of light, amongst others. A collection of 33 papers provides a comprehensive overview of current research in tissue optics, much of it inspired and informed by the pioneering work of Prof. Valery Tuchin. The issue contains three invited manuscripts and several mini-reviews that we hope will benefit researchers in this exciting area.

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    5. Depth-resolved birefringence imaging of collagen fiber organization in the human oral mucosa in vivo

      Depth-resolved birefringence imaging of collagen fiber organization in the human oral mucosa in vivo

      Stromal collagen organization has been identified as a potential prognostic indicator in a variety of cancers and other diseases accompanied by fibrosis. Changes in the connective tissue are increasingly considered for grading dysplasia and progress of oral squamous cell carcinoma, investigated mainly ex vivo by histopathology. In this study, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) with local phase retardation imaging is used for the first time to visualize depth-resolved (i.e., local) birefringence of healthy human oral mucosa in vivo . Depth-resolved birefringence is shown to reveal the expected local collagen organization. To demonstrate proof-of-principle, 3D image stacks were acquired at labial ...

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    6. Short-time series optical coherence tomography angiography and its application to cutaneous microvasculature

      Short-time series optical coherence tomography angiography and its application to cutaneous microvasculature

      We present a new optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography method for imaging tissue microvasculature in vivo based on the characteristic frequency-domain flow signature in a short time series of a single voxel. The angiography signal is generated by Fourier transforming the OCT signal time series from a given voxel in multiple acquisitions and computing the average magnitude of non-zero (high-pass) frequency components. Larger temporal variations of the OCT signal caused by blood flow result in higher values of the average magnitude in the frequency domain compared to those from static tissue. Weighting of the signal by the inverse of the ...

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    7. Robust reconstruction of local optic axis orientation with fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Robust reconstruction of local optic axis orientation with fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      It is challenging to recover local optic axis orientation from samples probed with fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). In addition to the effect of preceding tissue layers, the transmission through fiber and system elements, and imperfect system alignment, need to be compensated. Here, we present a method to retrieve the required correction factors from measurements with depth-multiplexed PS-OCT, which accurately measures the full Jones matrix. The correction considers both retardation and diattenuation and is applied in the wavenumber domain, preserving the axial resolution of the system. The robustness of the method is validated by measuring a birefringence phantom with ...

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    8. Two-photon polymerisation 3D printed freeform micro-optics for optical coherence tomography fibre probes

      Two-photon polymerisation 3D printed freeform micro-optics for optical coherence tomography fibre probes

      Miniaturised optical coherence tomography (OCT) fibre-optic probes have enabled high-resolution cross-sectional imaging deep within the body. However, existing OCT fibre-optic probe fabrication methods cannot generate miniaturised freeform optics, which limits our ability to fabricate probes with both complex optical function and dimensions comparable to the optical fibre diameter. Recently, major advances in two-photon direct laser writing have enabled 3D printing of arbitrary three-dimensional micro/nanostructures with a surface roughness acceptable for optical applications. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of 3D printing of OCT probes. We evaluate the capability of this method based on a series of characterisation experiments. We report ...

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    9. Label‐free volumetric imaging of conjunctival collecting lymphatics ex vivo by optical coherence tomography lymphangiography

      Label‐free volumetric imaging of conjunctival collecting lymphatics ex vivo by optical coherence tomography lymphangiography

      We employ optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) to study conjunctival lymphatics in porcine eyes ex vivo . This study is a precursor to the development of in vivo imaging of the collecting lymphatics for potentially guiding and monitoring glaucoma filtration surgery. OCT scans at 1300 nm and higher‐resolution OCM scans at 785 nm reveal the lymphatic vessels via their optical transparency. Equivalent signal characteristics are also observed from blood vessels largely free of blood (and devoid of flow) in the ex vivo conjunctiva. In our lymphangiography, vessel networks were segmented by compensating the depth attenuation in ...

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    10. Realistic simulation and experiment reveals the importance of scatterer microstructure in optical coherence tomography image formation

      Realistic simulation and experiment reveals the importance of scatterer microstructure in optical coherence tomography image formation

      Realistic simulation of image formation in optical coherence tomography, based on Maxwell’s equations, has recently been demonstrated for sample volumes of practical significance. Yet, there remains a limitation whereby reducing the size of cells used to construct a computational grid, thus allowing for a more realistic representation of scatterer microstructure, necessarily reduces the overall sample size that can be modelled. This is a significant problem since, as is well known, the microstructure of a scatterer significantly influences its scattering properties. Here we demonstrate that an optimized scatterer design can overcome this problem resulting in good agreement between simulated and ...

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    11. A study of the effects of supine position and fluid intake on normal airway geometry using anatomical optical coherence tomography

      A study of the effects of supine position and fluid intake on normal airway geometry using anatomical optical coherence tomography

      Airway inhalation injuries are present in up to a third of all major burns patients and are the leading cause of mortality among this population. Understanding the mechanism of injury could minimise oedema (swelling) and airway damage. In this study, we present an anatomical OCT (aOCT) imaging system, based on a 1300-nm wavelength, high-speed, long-range MEMS-VCSEL swept laser source, for real-time volumetric imaging and assessment of inhalation injuries in airways up to 3 cm in diameter. A custom fibre-optic probe with GRIN lens and micro prism is inserted though the nasal passage. Airway cross-sectional images acquired are used to assess ...

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    12. Special Section Guest Editorial: Commemorating 25 Years of Optical Coherence Tomography: a Perspective on Biomedical Applications

      Special Section Guest Editorial: Commemorating 25 Years of Optical Coherence Tomography: a Perspective on Biomedical Applications

      ptical coherence tomography (OCT) has become a major medical imaging technology in the time since its inception now more than 25 years ago. During this time, OCT has become very well established in ophthalmology, and this application area largely dominates the field. Next in importance and stage of development is cardiovascular medicine, also a strongly commercial technology, but at an earlier stage and a slower pace of uptake than ophthalmology. Other application areas are generally less well developed, but continue to grow, and new opportunities continue to emerge across a wide range of topics, including beyond medicine and biology. In ...

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    13. Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Elastography Images Cellular-Scale Stiffness of Mouse Aorta

      Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Elastography Images Cellular-Scale Stiffness of Mouse Aorta

      Cellular-scale imaging of the mechanical properties of tissue has helped to reveal the origins of disease; however, cellular-scale resolution is not readily achievable in intact tissue volumes. Here, we demonstrate volumetric imaging of Young’s modulus using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence elastography, and apply it to characterizing the stiffness of mouse aortas. We achieve isotropic resolution of better than 15 μ m over a 1-mm lateral field of view through the entire depth of an intact aortic wall. We employ a method of quasi-static compression elastography that measures volumetric axial strain and uses a compliant, transparent layer to measure surface axial stress ...

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    14. Flexible needle with integrated optical coherence tomography probe for imaging during transbronchial tissue aspiration

      Flexible needle with integrated optical coherence tomography probe for imaging during transbronchial tissue aspiration

      Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) of small lesions or lymph nodes in the lung may result in nondiagnostic tissue samples. We demonstrate the integration of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) probe into a 19-gauge flexible needle for lung tissue aspiration. This probe allows simultaneous visualization and aspiration of the tissue. By eliminating the need for insertion and withdrawal of a separate imaging probe, this integrated design minimizes the risk of dislodging the needle from the lesion prior to aspiration and may facilitate more accurate placement of the needle. Results from in situ imaging in a sheep lung show clear distinction between ...

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    15. Axial Length Variation Impacts on Superficial Retinal Vessel Density and Foveal Avascular Zone Area Measurements Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Axial Length Variation Impacts on Superficial Retinal Vessel Density and Foveal Avascular Zone Area Measurements Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose : To evaluate the impact of image magnification correction on superficial retinal vessel density (SRVD) and foveal avascular zone area (FAZA) measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods : Participants with healthy retinas were recruited for ocular biometry, refraction, and RTVue XR Avanti OCTA imaging with the 3 × 3-mm protocol. The foveal and parafoveal SRVD and FAZA were quantified with custom software before and after correction for magnification error using the Littman and the modified Bennett formulae. Relative changes between corrected and uncorrected SRVD and FAZA were calculated. Results : Forty subjects were enrolled and the median (range) age of the ...

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    16. The emergence of optical elastography in biomedicine

      The emergence of optical elastography in biomedicine

      Optical elastography, the use of optics to characterize and map the mechanical properties of biological tissue, involves measuring the deformation of tissue in response to a load. Such measurements may be used to form an image of a mechanical property, often elastic modulus, with the resulting mechanical contrast complementary to the more familiar optical contrast. Optical elastography is experiencing new impetus in response to developments in the closely related fields of cell mechanics and medical imaging, aided by advances in photonics technology, and through probing the microscale between that of cells and whole tissues. Two techniques — optical coherence elastography and ...

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    17. Depth-encoded optical coherence elastography for simultaneous volumetric imaging of two tissue faces

      Depth-encoded optical coherence elastography for simultaneous volumetric imaging of two tissue faces

      Depth-encoded optical coherence elastography (OCE) enables simultaneous acquisition of two three-dimensional (3D) elastograms from opposite sides of a sample. By the choice of suitable path-length differences in each of two interferometers, the detected carrier frequencies are separated, allowing depth-ranging from each interferometer to be performed simultaneously using a single spectrometer. We demonstrate depth-encoded OCE on a silicone phantom and a freshly excised sample of mouse liver. This technique minimizes the required spectral detection hardware and halves the total scan time. Depth-encoded OCE may expedite clinical translation in time-sensitive applications requiring rapid 3D imaging of multiple tissue surfaces, such as tumor ...

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    18. Optical coherence elastography – OCT at work in tissue biomechanics [Invited]

      Optical coherence elastography – OCT at work in tissue biomechanics [Invited]

      Optical coherence elastography (OCE), as the use of OCT to perform elastography has come to be known, began in 1998, around ten years after the rest of the field of elastography – the use of imaging to deduce mechanical properties of tissues. After a slow start, the maturation of OCT technology in the early to mid 2000s has underpinned a recent acceleration in the field. With more than 20 papers published in 2015, and more than 25 in 2016, OCE is growing fast, but still small compared to the companion fields of cell mechanics research methods, and medical elastography. In this ...

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    19. Investigation of optical coherence micro-elastography as a method to visualize micro-architecture in human axillary lymph nodes

      Investigation of optical coherence micro-elastography as a method to visualize micro-architecture in human axillary lymph nodes

      Background Evaluation of lymph node involvement is an important factor in detecting metastasis and deciding whether to perform axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in breast cancer surgery. As ALND is associated with potentially severe long term morbidity, the accuracy of lymph node assessment is imperative in avoiding unnecessary ALND. The mechanical properties of malignant lymph nodes are often distinct from those of normal nodes. A method to image the micro-scale mechanical properties of lymph nodes could, thus, provide diagnostic information to aid in the assessment of lymph node involvement in metastatic cancer. In this study, we scan axillary lymph nodes ...

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    20. In vivo label-free lymphangiography of cutaneous lymphatic vessels in human burn scars using optical coherence tomography

      In vivo label-free lymphangiography of cutaneous lymphatic vessels in human burn scars using optical coherence tomography

      We present an automated, label-free method for lymphangiography of cutaneous lymphatic vessels in humans in vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT). This method corrects for the variation in OCT signal due to the confocal function and sensitivity fall-off of a spectral-domain OCT system and utilizes a single-scattering model to compensate for A-scan signal attenuation to enable reliable thresholding of lymphatic vessels. A segment-joining algorithm is then incorporated into the method to mitigate partial-volume effects with small vessels. The lymphatic vessel images are augmented with images of the blood vessel network, acquired from the speckle decorrelation with additional weighting to differentiate ...

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    21. Wide-field optical coherence micro-elastography for intraoperative assessment of human breast cancer margins

      Wide-field optical coherence micro-elastography for intraoperative assessment of human breast cancer margins

      Incomplete excision of malignant tissue is a major issue in breast-conserving surgery, with typically 20 - 30% of cases requiring a second surgical procedure arising from postoperative detection of an involved margin. We report advances in the development of a new intraoperative tool, optical coherence micro-elastography, for the assessment of tumor margins on the micro-scale. We demonstrate an important step by conducting whole specimen imaging in intraoperative time frames with a wide-field scanning system acquiring mosaicked elastograms with overall dimensions of ~50 × 50 mm, large enough to image an entire face of most lumpectomy specimens. This capability is enabled by a ...

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    22. Optical coherence tomography in the assessment of acute changes in cutaneous vascular diameter induced by heat stress

      Optical coherence tomography in the assessment of acute changes in cutaneous vascular diameter induced by heat stress

      There are limited imaging technologies available that can accurately assess or provide surrogate markers of the in vivo cutaneous microvessel network in humans. In this study, we establish the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a novel imaging technique to assess acute changes in cutaneous microvessel area density and diameter in humans. OCT speckle decorrelation images of the skin on the ventral side of the forearm up to a depth of 500 μm were obtained prior to and following 20-25 mins of lower limb heating in eight healthy males (30.3±7.6 yrs). Skin red blood cell flux ...

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    23. Simplifying the assessment of human breast cancer by mapping a micro-scale heterogeneity index in optical coherence elastography

      Simplifying the assessment of human breast cancer by mapping a micro-scale heterogeneity index in optical coherence elastography

      Surgical treatment of breast cancer aims to identify and remove all malignant tissue. Intraoperative assessment of tumor margins is, however, not exact; thus, re-excision is frequently needed, or excess normal tissue is removed. Imaging methods applicable intraoperatively could help to reduce re-excision rates whilst minimizing removal of excess healthy tissue. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) has been proposed for use in breast-conserving surgery; however, intraoperative interpretation of complex OCE images may prove challenging. Observations of breast cancer on multiple length scales, by OCE, ultrasound elastography, and atomic force microscopy, have shown an increase in the mechanical heterogeneity of malignant breast tumors ...

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    24. Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour

      Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour

      Identifying tumour margins during breast-conserving surgeries is a persistent challenge. We have previously developed miniature needle probes that could enable intraoperative volume imaging with optical coherence tomography. In many situations, however, scattering contrast alone is insufficient to clearly identify and delineate malignant regions. Additional polarization-sensitive measurements provide the means to assess birefringence, which is elevated in oriented collagen fibres and may offer an intrinsic biomarker to differentiate tumour from benign tissue. Here, we performed polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography through miniature imaging needles and developed an algorithm to efficiently reconstruct images of the depth-resolved tissue birefringence free of artefacts. First ex ...

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