1. Articles from Costel Flueraru

    1-24 of 31 1 2 »
    1. Binary dose level classification of tumour microvascular response to radiotherapy using artificial intelligence analysis of optical coherence tomography images

      Binary dose level classification of tumour microvascular response to radiotherapy using artificial intelligence analysis of optical coherence tomography images

      The dominant consequence of irradiating biological systems is cellular damage, yet microvascular damage begins to assume an increasingly important role as the radiation dose levels increase. This is currently becoming more relevant in radiation medicine with its pivot towards higher-dose-per-fraction/fewer fractions treatment paradigm (e.g., stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT)). We have thus developed a 3D preclinical imaging platform based on speckle-variance optical coherence tomography (svOCT) for longitudinal monitoring of tumour microvascular radiation responses in vivo. Here we present an artificial intelligence (AI) approach to analyze the resultant microvascular data. In this initial study, we show that AI can successfully ...

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    2. Longitudinal in-vivo quantification of tumour microvasculature heterogeneity via optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography in a pre-clinical model of radiation therapy

      Longitudinal in-vivo quantification of tumour microvasculature heterogeneity via optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography in a pre-clinical model of radiation therapy

      Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is an emerging cancer treatment due to its logistical and potential therapeutic benefits as compared to conventional radiotherapy. However, its mechanism of action is yet to be fully understood, likely involving the ablation of tumour microvasculature by higher doses per fraction used in SBRT. In this study, we hypothesized that longitudinal imaging and quantification of the vascular architecture may elucidate the relationship between the microvasculature and tumour response kinetics. Pancreatic human tumour xenografts were thus irradiated with single doses of 10 10 , 20 20 and 30 30 Gy to simulate the first fraction of a SBRT ...

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    3. Bridging the macro to micro resolution gap with angiographic optical coherence tomography and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI

      Bridging the macro to micro resolution gap with angiographic optical coherence tomography and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI

      Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is emerging as a valuable tool for non-invasive volumetric monitoring of the tumor vascular status and its therapeutic response. However, clinical utility of DCE-MRI is challenged by uncertainty in its ability to quantify the tumor microvasculature (

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    4. Volumetric tumor delineation and assessment of its early response to radiotherapy with optical coherence tomography

      Volumetric tumor delineation and assessment of its early response to radiotherapy with optical coherence tomography

      Texture analyses of optical coherence tomography (OCT) images have shown initial promise for differentiation of normal and tumor tissues. This work develops a fully automatic volumetric tumor delineation technique employing quantitative OCT image speckle analysis based on Gamma distribution fits. We test its performance in-vivo using immunodeficient mice with dorsal skin window chambers and subcutaneously grown tumor models. Tumor boundaries detection is confirmed using epi-fluorescence microscopy, combined photoacoustic-ultrasound imaging, and histology. Pilot animal study of tumor response to radiotherapy demonstrates high accuracy, objective nature, novelty of the proposed method in the volumetric separation of tumor and normal tissues, and the ...

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    5. Analysis of low-scattering regions in optical coherence tomography: applications to neurography and lymphangiography

      Analysis of low-scattering regions in optical coherence tomography: applications to neurography and lymphangiography

      Analysis of semi-transparent low scattering biological structures in optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been actively pursued in the context of lymphatic imaging, with most approaches relying on the relative absence of signal as a means of detection. Here we present an alternate methodology based on spatial speckle statistics, utilizing the similarity of a distribution of given voxel intensities to the power distribution function of pure noise, to visualize the low-scattering biological structures of interest. In a human tumor xenograft murine model, we show that these correspond to lymphatic vessels and nerves; extensive histopathologic validation studies are reported to unequivocally establish ...

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    6. Analysis of low-scattering regions in optical coherence tomography

      Analysis of low-scattering regions in optical coherence tomography

      Analysis of semi-transparent low scattering biological structures in optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been actively pursued in the context of lymphatic imaging, with most approaches relying on the relative absence of signal as a means of detection. Here we present an alternate methodology based on spatial speckle statistics, utilizing the similarity of a distribution of given voxel intensities to the power distribution function of pure noise, to visualize the low-scattering biological structures of interest. In a human tumor xenograft murine model, we show that these correspond to lymphatic vessels and nerves; extensive histopathologic validation studies are reported to unequivocally establish ...

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    7. Full Range Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography with Ultra Small Fiber Probes for Biomedical Imaging (Book Chapter)

      Full Range Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography with Ultra Small Fiber Probes for Biomedical Imaging (Book Chapter)

      Biomedical imaging is becoming an indispensable branch within bioengineering. This research field has recently expanded due to the requirement of high-level medical diagnostics and rapid development of interdisciplinary modern technologies. This book is designed to present the most recent advances in instrumentation, methods, and image processing as well as clinical applications in important areas of biomedical imaging. It provides broad coverage of the field of biomedical imaging, with particular attention to an engineering viewpoint. The goal of the book is to provide a wide-ranging forum in the biomedical imaging field that integrates interdisciplinary research and development of interest to scientists ...

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    8. Preclinical quantitative in-vivo assessment of skin tissue vascularity in radiation-induced fibrosis with optical coherence tomography

      Preclinical quantitative in-vivo assessment of skin tissue vascularity in radiation-induced fibrosis with optical coherence tomography

      Radiation therapy (RT) is widely and effectively used for cancer treatment but can also cause deleterious side effects, such as a late-toxicity complication called radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF). Accurate diagnosis of RIF requires analysis of histological sections to assess extracellular matrix infiltration. This is invasive, prone to sampling limitations, and thus rarely used; instead, current practice relies on subjective clinical surrogates, including visual observation, palpation, and patient symptomatology questionnaires. This preclinical study demonstrates that functional optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a useful tool for objective noninvasive in-vivo assessment and quantification of fibrosis-associated microvascular changes in tissue. Data were collected from murine ...

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    9. Preclinical longitudinal imaging of tumor microvascular radiobiological response with functional optical coherence tomography

      Preclinical longitudinal imaging of tumor microvascular radiobiological response with functional optical coherence tomography

      Radiation therapy (RT) is widely used for cancer treatment, alone or in combination with other therapies. Recent RT advances have revived interest in delivering higher dose in fewer fractions, which may invoke both cellular and microvascular damage mechanisms. Microvasculature may thus be a potentially sensitive functional biomarker of RT early response, especially for such emerging RT treatments. However it is difficult to measure directly and non-invasively, and its time course, dose dependencies, and overall importance in tumor control are unclear. We use functional optical coherence tomography for quantitative longitudinal in vivo imaging in preclinical models of human tumor xenografts subjected ...

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    10. Feature Of The Week 4/21/13: University of Toronto Investigates Analysis of OCT Speckle to Differentiate Tissue Disease State

      Feature Of The Week 4/21/13: University of Toronto Investigates Analysis of OCT Speckle to Differentiate Tissue Disease State

      Optical coherence tomography is playing an increasingly important role in the differentiation between normal and diseased tissue states in situ. While OCT’s resolution is typically on the micrometer scale and is generally insufficient for direct visualization of cellular organelles and cellular level changes, as these are submicrometer in size. Recently researchers at the University of Toronto, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University Health Network, and National Research Council Canada published some interesting results investigating speckle which is highly correlated with the underlying scatterers’ average properties, such as size, shape, and distribution. Such an approach may give important information on sub-micrometer ...

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    11. Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography speckle for characterizing biological tissues in vivo

      Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography speckle for characterizing biological tissues in vivo

      We demonstrate a method for differentiating tissue disease states using the intrinsic texture properties of speckle in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of normal and tumor tissues obtained in vivo . This approach fits a gamma distribution function to the nonlog-compressed OCT image intensities, thus allowing differentiation of normal and tumor tissues in an ME-180 human cervical cancer mouse xenograft model. Quantitative speckle intensity distribution analysis thus shows promise for identifying tissue pathologies, with potential for early cancer detection in vivo .

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    12. Optical catheter with rotary optical cap

      Optical catheter with rotary optical cap

      A scanning optical head for a catheter is locally controlled by a motor at an insertion end of the catheter uses a hollow motor through which a longitudinal optical path of the catheter passes. This permits the motor to be positioned between a control base of the catheter and avoids rotating the whole fiber, and therefore makes the beam scanning stable and accurate. In addition, because there is no coupling component, it also eliminates the light reflection between additional surfaces as well as varying fiber birefringence, which becomes a cause of noise when imaging the deep structure.

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    13. Stationary-fiber rotary probe with unobstructed 360° view for optical coherence tomography

      Stationary-fiber rotary probe with unobstructed 360° view for optical coherence tomography
      A side-scanning fiber probe is a critical component for optical coherence tomography in medical imaging and diagnosis. We propose and fabricate an on-axis rotating probe that performs in situ, circumferential scanning that is shadow-free (not susceptible to shadow effects caused by the motor’s wires). A miniature motor that incorporates a bored-out shaft for the optical fiber is located at the distal end of the probe, which results in a more stable and uniform circumferential scan, free from wire-shadow interference effects. More importantly, this design, novel to our knowledge, compared to other probes avoids the insertion losses introduced by optical ...
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    14. Dual-Source Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Reconstructed on Integrated Spectrum

      Dual-Source Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Reconstructed on Integrated Spectrum
      Dual-source swept-source optical coherence tomography (DS-SSOCT) has two individual sources with different central wavelengths, linewidth, and bandwidths. Because of the difference between the two sources, the individually reconstructed tomograms from each source have different aspect ratio, which makes the comparison and integration difficult. We report a method to merge two sets of DS-SSOCT raw data in a common spectrum, on which both data have the same spectrum density and a correct separation. The reconstructed tomographic image can seamlessly integrate the two bands of OCT data together. The final image has higher axial resolution and richer spectroscopic information than any of ...
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    15. Optical coherence tomography: fundamental principles, instrumental designs and biomedical applications

      Optical coherence tomography: fundamental principles, instrumental designs and biomedical applications
      The advances made in the last two decades in interference technologies, optical instrumentation, catheter technology, optical detectors, speed of data acquisition and processing as well as light sources have facilitated the transformation of optical coherence tomography from an optical method used mainly in research laboratories into a valuable tool applied in various areas of medicine and health sciences. This review paper highlights the place occupied by optical coherence tomography in relation to other imaging methods that are used in medical and life science areas such as ophthalmology, cardiology, dentistry and gastrointestinal endoscopy. Together with the basic principles that lay behind ...
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    16. Simultaneous dual-wavelength-band common-path swept-source optical coherence tomography with single polygon mirror scanner

      Simultaneous dual-wavelength-band common-path swept-source optical coherence tomography with single polygon mirror scanner
      We report a novel (to the best of our knowledge) simultaneous 1310/1550 two-wavelength band swept laser source and dual-band common-path swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Synchronized dual-wavelength tuning is performed by using two laser cavities and narrowband wavelength filters with a single dual-window polygonal scanner. Measured average output powers of 60 and 27 mW have been achieved for the 1310 and 1550 nm bands, respectively, while the two wavelengths were swept simultaneously from 1227 to 1387 nm for the 1310 nm band and from 1519 to 1581 nm for the 1550 nm band at an A-scan rate of 65 ...
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    17. Performance analysis of a swept-source optical coherence tomography system with a quadrature interferometer and optical amplification

      Performance analysis of a swept-source optical coherence tomography system with a quadrature interferometer and optical amplification
      A performance analysis of signal to noise ratio for an optical coherence tomography system with quadrature detection and a semiconductor optical amplifier in the sample arm is discussed. The results are compared and discussed in relation to a conventional OCT system (without optical amplification). An increase of the signal to noise ratio up to 14 dB at a depth of 0.5 mm is obtained compared to the system without the optical amplifier. Overall, an improvement was demonstrated for signal coming from deeper regions within the samples. Arterial plaque from a myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHLMI) rabbit is visualized ...
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    18. Optical coherence tomography used for jade industry

      Optical coherence tomography used for jade industry
      As an expensive natural stone, jade has a worldwide market. In the jade industry, the inspection and analysis basically rely on the human eye and/or experience, which cause unavoidable waste and damage of these expensive materials. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a fundamentally new type of optical sensing technology, which can perform high resolution, cross-sectional sensing of the internal structure of materials. As jade is almost translucent to infra red light, OCT becomes an ideal tool to change the traditional procedure to volume data based machine vision system. OCT can also be used for anti-counterfeit of the expensive jade ...
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    19. Signal attenuation and box-counting
fractal analysis of optical coherence
tomography images of arterial tissue

      Signal attenuation and box-counting
fractal analysis of optical coherence
tomography images of arterial tissue
      The sensitivity of optical coherence tomography images to sample morphology is tested by two methods. The first method estimates the attenuation of the OCT signal from various regions of the probed tissue. The second method uses a box-counting algorithm to calculate the fractal dimensions in the regions of interest identified in the images. Although both the attenuation coefficient as well as the fractal dimension correlate very well with the anatomical features of the probed samples; the attenuation method provides a better sensitivity. Two types of samples are used in this study: segments of arteries collected from atherosclerosis–prone Watanabe rabbits ...
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    20. Jade detection and analysis based on optical coherence tomography images

      Jade detection and analysis based on optical coherence tomography images
      Optical coherence tomography is a fundamentally new type of optical sensing technology that can perform high-resolution, cross sectional sensing of the internal structure of materials and biological samples. This work briefly describes its capability of exploring and analyzing the internal structures and textures of various jades. With a depth resolution of 4 µm in jade and penetration range of 5 mm in jade, swept-source OCT could be used as a new powerful instrument to generate 3-D volume data of jade, which is important for applications in jade industry and artwork, particularly for jade detection and classification, counterfeit recognition, and guided ...
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    21. Extracting information from optical coherence tomography images of tissues: signal attenuation and fractal analysis of speckle pattern

      Extracting information from optical coherence tomography images of tissues: signal attenuation and fractal analysis of speckle pattern
      Two methods for analyzing OCT images of arterial tissues are tested. These methods are applied toward two types of samples: segments of arteries collected from atherosclerosis-prone Watanabe heritable hyper-lipidemic rabbits and pieces of porcine left descending coronary arteries without atherosclerosis. The first method is based on finding the attenuation coefficients for the OCT signal that propagates through various regions of the tissue. The second method involves calculating the fractal dimensions of the OCT signal textures in the regions of interest identified within the acquired images. A box-counting algorithm is used for calculating the fractal dimensions. Both parameters, the attenuation coefficient ...
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    22. New optical instruments for coherence tomography

      We present the following novel technologies for optical coherence tomography developed in Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council Canada. We first demonstrate a high power mode-lock wavelength swept laser using a polygon-based narrowband optical scanning filter first. Peak and average output powers of 98 mW and 71 mW have been achieved, respectively, without an external amplifier, while the wavelength was swept continuously from 1247 nm to 1360 nm. Then, we present a design, construction and characterization of ultra-small OCT probes using fiber lenses. Those fiber lens modules are made of a single mode fiber and a GRIN or ball ...
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    23. Complex swept source optical coherence tomography with ultra-small fiber probe for biomedical imaging

      We demonstrate a catheter-based complex swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system using a 3x3 Mach-Zehnder quadrature interferometer and an ultra-small optic probe. Design and fabrication of fiber lens for ultrasmall optic probes are presented first. We compare in detail measured performance with expected theoretical performance. Then, we present a 3x3 Mach-Zehnder quadrature interferometer to acquire a complex interferometric signal for SS-OCT. We introduce an unbalanced differential detection method to improve the overall utilization of optical power and provide simultaneous access to the complementary phase components of the complex interferometric signal. No calculations by trigonometric relationships are needed. We compare the ...
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    1-24 of 31 1 2 »
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    1. (29 articles) National Research Council Canada
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    Jade detection and analysis based on optical coherence tomography images Signal attenuation and box-counting
fractal analysis of optical coherence
tomography images of arterial tissue Optical coherence tomography used for jade industry Optical coherence tomography: fundamental principles, instrumental designs and biomedical applications Massachusetts General Hosptial Receives NIH Grant for Screening for Barrett's Esophagus Progressors with Multimodality Tethered Capsule Image-Guided Biopsy Duke University Receives NIH Grant for Robotic Point-of-Care OCT University or Rochester Receives NIH Grant for Investigation of Brain Elasticity in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease Enabled by Optical Coherence Elastography Duke University Receives NIH Grant for $504,051 for Secondary Data Analysis for Neonates with Retinal OCT Imaging University of Illinois at Chicago Receives NIH Grant for Differential artery-vein analysis in OCT angiography for objective classification of diabetic retinopathy In situ volumetric imaging and analysis of FRESH 3D bioprinted constructs using optical coherence tomography Leica Microsystems's EnFocus Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography Development Team Wins Optica’s 2022 Paul F. Forman Team Engineering Excellence Award Vitreous Retina Macula Consultants of New York's Richard F. Spaide, MD Has Received the Honorary Hermann Wacker Prize