1. Articles from francesco prati

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    1. Definition of Optimal Optical Coherence Tomography–Based Stent Expansion Criteria: In-Stent Minimum Lumen Area Versus Residual Stent Underexpansion

      Definition of Optimal Optical Coherence Tomography–Based Stent Expansion Criteria: In-Stent Minimum Lumen Area Versus Residual Stent Underexpansion

      Background: The mismatch between in-stent minimum lumen area (sMLA) and reference vessel lumen area, defined as stent underexpansion (SU), could be an important determinant of stent failure. We tested the clinical predictive value of absolute sMLA in comparison to relative SU in the context of the CLI-OPCI (Centro Per La Lotta Contro L'Infarto-Optimisation of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) project registry. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed end procedural optical coherence tomography findings in 1211 patients (1422 lesions) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, assessing the prevalence and magnitude of residual SU and exploring correlation with outcome in comparison with sMLA. Results: In our series ...

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    2. Optical coherence tomography-derived lipid core burden index and clinical outcomes: results from the CLIMA registry

      Optical coherence tomography-derived lipid core burden index and clinical outcomes: results from the CLIMA registry

      Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the morphological characteristics and prognostic implications of the optical coherence tomography (OCT)-derived lipid core burden index (LCBI). Methods and results: OCT-LCBI was assessed in 1003 patients with 1-year follow-up from the CLIMA multicentre registry using a validated software able to automatically obtain a maximum OCT-LCBI in 4 mm (maxOCT-LCBI4mm). Primary composite clinical endpoint included cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target-vessel revascularization. A secondary analysis using clinical outcomes of CLIMA study was performed. Patients with a maxOCT-LCBI4mm ≥ 400 showed higher prevalence of fibrous cap thickness (FCT) <75 μm [odds ratio (OR ...

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    3. Optical coherence tomography in coronary atherosclerosis assessment and intervention

      Optical coherence tomography in coronary atherosclerosis assessment and intervention

      Since optical coherence tomography (OCT) was first performed in humans two decades ago, this imaging modality has been widely adopted in research on coronary atherosclerosis and adopted clinically for the optimization of percutaneous coronary intervention. In the past 10 years, substantial advances have been made in the understanding of in vivo vascular biology using OCT. Identification by OCT of culprit plaque pathology could potentially lead to a major shift in the management of patients with acute coronary syndromes. Detection by OCT of healed coronary plaque has been important in our understanding of the mechanisms involved in plaque destabilization and healing ...

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    4. Effect of Evolocumab on Coronary Plaque Phenotype and Burden in Statin-Treated Patients Following Myocardial Infarction

      Effect of Evolocumab on Coronary Plaque Phenotype and Burden in Statin-Treated Patients Following Myocardial Infarction

      Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of evolocumab on optical coherence tomography (OCT) measures of plaque composition. Background The proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type-9 inhibitor evolocumab produced coronary atheroma regression in statin-treated patients. Methods Patients with a non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were treated with monthly evolocumab 420 mg (n = 80) or placebo (n = 81) for 52 weeks. Patients underwent serial OCT and intravascular ultrasound imaging within a matched arterial segment of a nonculprit vessel. The primary analysis determined the change in the minimum fibrous cap thickness and maximum lipid arc throughout the imaged arterial ...

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    5. Scenarios of precision medicine: The use of intravascular optical coherence tomography

      Scenarios of precision medicine: The use of intravascular optical coherence tomography

      Since its introduction in the clinical arena, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been welcomed as a technological break-through in coronary imaging. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) paved the way over 30 years ago, providing a new angle of view of coronary anatomy and percutaneous coronary Guideline-endorsed indications for OCT The study by Haner et al [2] provides a picture of the current OCT use, exploring the main clinical indications for this imaging modality. It is a nice opportunity to frame out the clinical role of OCT. In 28% of cases of the present registry OCT was utilized to appraise the mechanisms of ...

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    6. The double injection technique to improve visualization of severe coronary lesions with optical coherence tomography

      The double injection technique to improve visualization of severe coronary lesions with optical coherence tomography

      Background: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution imaging modality that provides a precise evaluation of coronary anatomy. However, the presence of severe coronary lesions can prevent the required adequate distal contrast flushing resultting in inadequate blood clearance and poor image quality or complete blood shadowing of the underlying vessel wall. Objectives: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a novel "double injection technique" (DIT) to overcome the limitations of the conventional technique (CT) in patients with severely stenotic lesions. Methods: Twenty-three patients with severe angiographic lesions were sequentially imaged before intervention with ...

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    7. Clinical outcomes of suboptimal stent deployment as assessed by optical coherence tomography

      Clinical outcomes of suboptimal stent deployment as assessed by optical coherence tomography

      Background: Intraprocedural optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a valuable tool for guidance of percutaneous coronary intervention, but long-term follow-up data are lacking. Aims: The aim of this study was to address the long-term (7.5 years) clinical impact of quantitative OCT metrics of suboptimal stent implantation. Methods: This retrospective study includes 391 patients with long-term follow-up (mean 2,737 days; interquartile range 1,301-3,143 days) from the multicentre Centro per la Lotta contro l’Infarto – Optimisation of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (CLI-OPCI) registry. OCT-assessed suboptimal stent deployment required the presence of at least one of the following pre-defined OCT findings ...

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    8. Relationship between the amount and location of macrophages and clinical outcome: subanalysis of the clima-study

      Relationship between the amount and location of macrophages and clinical outcome: subanalysis of the clima-study

      Background The ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to recognize intraplaque macrophage infiltration is now well acknowledged. This post-hoc analysis of the CLIMA study aimed to address the clinical impact of the circumferential extension of OCT-defined macrophages and their location at one year follow-up. Methods The multicentre CLIMA study enrolled 1003 patients undergoing OCT evaluation of the untreated proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Measurements of circumferential extension of macrophages and measurements of the distance from intima-lumen contour to macrophages string were performed at the plaque cross-section judged as containing the greatest amount of macrophages. The main study endpoint ...

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    9. Optical coherence tomography, intravascular ultrasound or angiography guidance for distal left main coronary stenting. The ROCK cohort II study

      Optical coherence tomography, intravascular ultrasound or angiography guidance for distal left main coronary stenting. The ROCK cohort II study

      Objectives: to test the safety and efficacy of intravascular imaging and specifically optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a diagnostic tool for left main angioplasty and analyze the mid-term outcome accordingly. Background: Clinical data and international guidelines recommend the use of intravascular imaging ultrasound (IVUS) to guide left main (LM) angioplasty. Despite early experience using OCT in this setting is encouraging, the evidence supporting its use is still limited. Methods: ROCK II is a multicenter, investigator-driven, retrospective European study to compare the performance of IVUS and OCT versus angiography in patients undergoing distal-LM stenting. The primary study endpoint was target-lesion failure ...

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    10. Adoption of a new automated optical coherence tomography software to obtain a lipid plaque spread-out plot

      Adoption of a new automated optical coherence tomography software to obtain a lipid plaque spread-out plot

      Purpose: Near infrared spectroscopy-Intravascular ultrasound (NIRS-IVUS) provide a fully automated Lipid Core Burden Index (LCBI). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is potentially capable of measuring lipid longitudinal extension in a dedicated two-dimensional LCBI spread-out plot. The present study has been designed to validate an automated approach to assess OCT images, able of providing a dedicated LCBI spread-out plot. Methods: We compared results obtained with conventional (manual) OCT, with those obtained with a novel automated OCT algorithm and with NIRS-IVUS in consecutive 40 patients. Our goal was to calculate the lipid core longitudinal extension in a dedicated two-dimensional LCBI spread-out plot. Three ...

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    11. Assessing the impact of PCSK9 inhibition on coronary plaque phenotype with optical coherence tomography: rationale and design of the randomized, placebo-controlled HUYGENS study

      Assessing the impact of PCSK9 inhibition on coronary plaque phenotype with optical coherence tomography: rationale and design of the randomized, placebo-controlled HUYGENS study

      Background: Technological advances in arterial wall imaging permit the opportunity to visualize coronary atherosclerotic plaque with sufficient resolution to characterize both its burden and compositional phenotype. These modalities have been used extensively in clinical trials to evaluate the impact of lipid lowering therapies on serial changes in disease burden. While the findings have unequivocally established that these interventions have the capacity to either slow disease progression or promote plaque regression, depending on the degree of lipid lowering achieved, their impact on plaque phenotype is less certain. More recently optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been employed with a number of studies ...

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    12. OPtical Coherence Tomography Guided Coronary Stent IMplantation Compared to Angiography: A Multicenter Randomized TriaL in PCI

      OPtical Coherence Tomography Guided Coronary Stent IMplantation Compared to Angiography: A Multicenter Randomized TriaL in PCI

      AIMS: Randomized trials have demonstrated improvement in clinical outcomes with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared with angiography-guided PCI. The ILUMIEN III trial demonstrated non-inferiority of an optical coherence tomography (OCT)- versus IVUS-guided PCI strategy in achieving similar post-PCI lumen dimensions. ILUMIEN IV is a large-scale, multicenter, randomized trial designed to demonstrate the superiority of OCT- versus angiography-guided stent implantation in patients with high-risk clinical characteristics (diabetes) and/or complex angiographic lesions in achieving larger post-PCI lumen dimensions and improving clinical outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: ILUMIEN IV is a prospective, single-blind clinical investigation that will randomize between ...

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    13. Clinical outcomes of calcified nodules detected by optical coherence tomography

      Clinical outcomes of calcified nodules detected by optical coherence tomography

      Aims: The goal of the present post hoc analysis of the CLIMA registry was to establish the relationship between calcified nodules (CNs) with (CND) or without (CNWD) disruption of the superficial intimal fibrous layer and one-year occurrence of target lesion myocardial infarction (MI) and/or cardiac death. Methods and results: CND and CNWD were identified based on the presence or absence of superficial irregularities indicative of disruption of the intimal fibrous layer, with possible overlying local thrombus. In total, 222 CNs were found in the 1,776 non-culprit LAD plaques. CND had larger maximum calcific arc and smaller lumen area ...

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    14. Prevalence and quantitative assessment of macrophages in coronary plaques

      Prevalence and quantitative assessment of macrophages in coronary plaques

      Although optical coherence tomography (OCT) proved to be able to identify macrophage clusters, there are no available data on the possibility to obtain reproducible measurements of their circumferential extension and location. The purpose of the present post-hoc analysis of the CLIMA study was to revise the clinical and demographic variables of patients having coronary plaques with macrophages and to investigate the reproducibility of their quantitative assessment. A total of 577 patients out of 1003 undergoing OCT showed macrophage accumulation. Three groups were identified; group 1 (426 patients) without macrophages, group 2 (296) patients with low macrophage content (less than median ...

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    15. Comparison between different approaches to evaluate fibrous cap thickness in sequential OCT studies

      Comparison between different approaches to evaluate fibrous cap thickness in sequential OCT studies

      BACKGROUND: In this in vivo human study we tested the reproducibility for optical coherence tomography (OCT) assessment of lumen area (LA) and plaque components measurements, such as lipid arc extension and fibrous cap thickness (FCt). METHODS: We tested the variability of LA, lipid arc and FCt assessments in two repeated OCT pullbacks from the same diseased coronary segment matched using fiduciary anatomical landmarks. In particular, for the reliability of minimal FCt measurement we compared four different approaches based on continuous (longitudinal) or segmental (spot) individuation of smaller thickness: 1) comparison of single minimal FCt individuated alongside all plaque extension in ...

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    16. Optical coherence tomography assessment of macrophages accumulation in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes

      Optical coherence tomography assessment of macrophages accumulation in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes

      Aims To investigate in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) the prevalence and the features of optical coherence tomography (OCT)-detected macrophages accumulation in culprit plaques as compared with nonculprit plaques (NCP). Methods The study is a post-hoc analysis of a prospective study aimed at evaluating the relationship between aortic inflammation as assessed by 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET and features of coronary plaque vulnerability as assessed by OCT. We enrolled 32 patients with first NSTE-ACS who successfully underwent three-vessel OCT. Results The median age was 65 (54–72) years and 27 patients (84%) were men. Culprit plaques were clinically defined ...

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    17. Effects of stent postdilatation during primary PCI for STEMI: Insights from coronary physiology and optical coherence tomography

      Effects of stent postdilatation during primary PCI for STEMI: Insights from coronary physiology and optical coherence tomography

      Objectives This study aimed to assess the impact of stent optimization by NC‐balloon postdilatation (PD) during primary‐PCI for STEMI with the use of coronary physiology and intracoronary imaging. Methods This was a prospective observational study ( ClinicalTrials.gov :NCT02788396). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and physiological measurements were performed immediately before and after PD with the operators blinded to all measurements. The index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR), coronary flow reserve (CFR) and fractional flow reserve (FFR) were measured. OCT analysis was performed for assessment of stent expansion, malapposition, in‐stent plaque‐thrombus prolapse (PTP) and stent‐edge dissections (SED). The ...

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    18. Role of optical coherence tomography for distal left main stem angioplasty

      Role of optical coherence tomography for distal left main stem angioplasty

      Objective The objective is to analyze the acute and midterm angiographic outcome of percutaneous treatment of left main coronary stem (LM‐PCI) guided by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Background LM‐PCI is a complex procedure, and several anatomical factors may impair its outcome. Intravascular imaging is emerging as a useful tool to guide the procedure. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients undergoing LM‐PCI at three European centers between 2014 and 2017 with a control angiography at 6–12 months. Patients were divided into two groups: OCT‐guidance (pre‐ and post‐PCI) and control group (standard angiographic guidance ...

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    19. Clinical use of intracoronary imaging. Part 2: acute coronary syndromes, ambiguous coronary angiography findings, and guiding interventional decision-making: an expert consensus document of the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Intervent

      Clinical use of intracoronary imaging. Part 2: acute coronary syndromes, ambiguous coronary angiography findings, and guiding interventional decision-making: an expert consensus document of the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Intervent

      This consensus document is the second of two reports summarizing the views of an expert panel organized by the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) on the clinical use of intracoronary imaging including intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-IVUS. Beyond guidance of stent selection and optimization of deployment, invasive imaging facilitates angiographic interpretation and may guide treatment in acute coronary syndrome. Intravascular imaging can provide additional important diagnostic information when confronted with angiographically ambiguous lesions and allows assessment of plaque morphology enabling identification of vulnerability characteristics. This second document focuses on useful ...

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