1. Articles from Enrico Borrelli

    1-24 of 43 1 2 »
    1. Spontaneous resolution of optic pit maculopathy: an OCT report

      Spontaneous resolution of optic pit maculopathy: an OCT report

      The separation of the vitreous from the optic nerve head and the macula plays a primary role in the spontaneous resolution of optic disc pit (ODP) maculopathy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) helps in the non-invasive monitoring of this condition, when treated conservatively. The aim of this report was to describe a pediatric case of spontaneously resolved ODP maculopathy, managed conservatively and monitored by means of spectral domain (SD)-OCT. A 14-year-old girl presented with severe visual loss in the right eye (RE). Fundus examination demonstrated a temporal ODP with altered foveal reflex. The SD-OCT B-scans revealed severe intraretinal schisis-like changes ...

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    2. Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetes: focus on microaneurysms

      Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetes: focus on microaneurysms

      The introduction of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has remarkably expanded our knowledge of the ocular vascular alterations occurring in diabetes. In this article, a review of the prominent OCTA findings in diabetes is followed by a description of salient histological and anatomical features of microaneurysms, essential for the proper interpretation of in vivo imaging of these retinal vascular abnormalities. The recent employment of a three-dimensional (3D) visualization in OCTA imaging is also discussed. The latter imaging technique has granted a detailed characterization of microaneurysms in vivo.

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    3. Guidelines on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Imaging: 2020 Focused Update

      Guidelines on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Imaging: 2020 Focused Update

      Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has significantly expanded our knowledge of the ocular vasculature. In this review, we provide a discussion of the fundamental principles of OCTA and the application of this imaging modality to study the retinal and choroidal vessels. These guidelines are focused on 2020, and include updates since the 2019 publication. Importantly, we will comment on recent findings on OCTA technology with a special focus on the three-dimensional (3D) OCTA visualization.

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    4. Choroidal Rift: A New OCT Finding in Eyes with Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

      Choroidal Rift: A New OCT Finding in Eyes with Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

      Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is a complex and not entirely understood retinal disease. The aim of our research was to describe a novel optical coherence tomography (OCT) finding named “choroidal rift”, which may be identified in the choroid of eyes with CSC. We collected data from 357 patients (488 eyes) with CSC who had structural OCT and OCT angiography (OCTA) scans obtained. Choroidal rifts were identified as polygonal (and not round-shaped) hyporeflective lesions without hyperreflective margins. Choroidal rifts had to be characterized by a size superior to that of the largest choroidal vessel. Finally, hyporeflective lesions were graded as choroidal ...

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    5. Optical coherence tomography angiography findings of fellow eye of proliferative macular telangiectasia type 2: Long term study

      Optical coherence tomography angiography findings of fellow eye of proliferative macular telangiectasia type 2: Long term study

      Purpose: To report the characteristics of non-proliferative fellow eyes in patients with unilateral proliferative macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel). Methods: This was a multicenter, retrospective study and included fellow eyes of eyes with subretinal neovascular membrane (SRNVM). Multimodal imaging including fundus photography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and OCT angiography (OCTA) was performed. OCT and OCTA measurements included central macular thickness (CMT), subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT), foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area and qualitative parameters such as distortion or enlargement of FAZ, increased inter-vascular spacing, dilated, tortuous vessel at margin of FAZ, crowding of vessel, and loss of choriocapillaris (CC). Results: Thirteen ...

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    6. Quantification of diabetic macular ischemia using novel three‐dimensional optical coherence tomography angiography metrics

      Quantification of diabetic macular ischemia using novel three‐dimensional optical coherence tomography angiography metrics

      We applied three‐dimensional (3D) analysis to optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) to measure macular ischemia in eyes affected by non‐proliferative diabetic retinopathy (DR). A previously validated algorithm was applied to OCTA data in order to obtain 3D visualization of the retinal vasculature. Successively, a global thresholding algorithm was applied and two novel quantitative metrics were introduced: 3D vascular volume and 3D perfusion density. Two‐dimensional (2D) OCTA metrics were also obtained with different binarization thresholds for comparison. Of the 30 patients included, 15 were diagnosed with DR and 15 were controls. The 3D vascular volume and 3D perfusion ...

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    7. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Neurodegenerative Disorders

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Neurodegenerative Disorders

      Retinal microcirculation shares similar features with cerebral small blood vessels. Thus, the retina may be considered an accessible ‘window’ to detect the microvascular damage occurring in the setting of neurodegenerative disorders. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) is a non-invasive imaging modality providing depth resolved images of blood flow in the retina, choroid, and optic nerve. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the application of OCT-A in glaucoma and central nervous system conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and multiple sclerosis. Future directions aiming at evaluating whether OCT-A can be an additional biomarker for the ...

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    8. Changes in Iris Perfusion Following Scleral Buckle Surgery for Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment: An Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (AS-OCTA) Study

      Changes in Iris Perfusion Following Scleral Buckle Surgery for Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment: An Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (AS-OCTA) Study

      Purpose: To investigate iris vasculature changes following scleral buckling (SB) surgery in eyes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) with anterior-segment (AS) optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: In this prospective study, enrolled subjects were imaged with an SS-OCTA system (PLEX Elite 9000, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, CA, USA). Image acquisition of the iris was obtained using an AS lens and a manual focusing adjustment in the iris using the retina imaging software. The quantitative analysis was performed in eight different iris regions: (i) superior, (ii) supero-temporal, (iii) supero-nasal, (iv) nasal, (v) temporal, (vi) inferior, (vii) infero-temporal, (viii) infero nasal ...

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    9. OCT-A characterisation of recurrent type 3 macular neovascularisation

      OCT-A characterisation of recurrent type 3 macular neovascularisation

      Purpose To investigate optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) findings in recurrent type 3 macular neovascularisation (MNV). Methods In this retrospective cohort study, consecutive patients with type 3 MNV secondary to age-related macular degeneration underwent OCT-A at three different time points: baseline, after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment with complete resolution of the exudative signs (ie, non-exudative stage) and at the recurrence of exudation (ie, recurrence stage). Demographics and clinical findings were analysed, including OCT-A features of type 3 MNV recurrence. Results Twelve eyes (12 patients, mean age 78±7 years) were included. Using OCT-A, at baseline all type 3 MNVs ...

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    10. Choroidal Vascularity Index: An In-Depth Analysis of This Novel Optical Coherence Tomography Parameter

      Choroidal Vascularity Index: An In-Depth Analysis of This Novel Optical Coherence Tomography Parameter

      Remarkable improvements in optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology have resulted in highly sophisticated, noninvasive machines allowing detailed and advanced morphological evaluation of all retinal and choroidal layers. Postproduction semiautomated imaging analysis with dedicated public-domain software allows precise quantitative analysis of binarized OCT images. In this regard, the choroidal vascularity index (CVI) is emerging as a new imaging tool for the measurement and analysis of the choroidal vascular system by quantifying both luminal and stromal choroidal components. Numerous reports have been published so far regarding CVI and its potential applications in healthy eyes as well as in the evaluation and management ...

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    11. Widefield topographical analysis of the retinal perfusion and neuroretinal thickness in healthy eyes: a pilot study

      Widefield topographical analysis of the retinal perfusion and neuroretinal thickness in healthy eyes: a pilot study

      Purpose In this pilot study we reported variation of superficial (SCP) and deep (DCP) capillary plexuses flow in macular and near/mid periphery regions in healthy subjects using widefield swept source-optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA). Methods In this prospective, cross-sectional study, enroled subjects were imaged with an SS-OCTA system (PLEX Elite 9000, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, CA, USA). OCTA scans were taken in primary and extremes of gaze and a montage was automatically created. Quantitative analysis was performed in the macular and peripheral regions. In addition, SCP and DCP variables were further investigated in distinct fields within these three ...

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    12. Appearance of cysts and capillary non perfusion areas in diabetic macular edema using two different OCTA devices

      Appearance of cysts and capillary non perfusion areas in diabetic macular edema using two different OCTA devices

      The aim of this paper was to distinguish the appearance of cysts and non-perfusion areas (NPAs) in diabetic macular edema (DME) using two different Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) devices. In this study, patients underwent OCTA using the AngioVue XR Avanti Spectral Domain (SD) OCTA and the PLEX Elite 9000 Swept-Source (SS) OCTA. Foveal and extrafoveal regions of interest (ROI), defined as any area with an altered flow signal comparing to the surrounding retina, were selected in superficial and deep capillary plexus (SCP and DCP). ROI reflectivity were classified as hypo-reflective or hyper-reflective. Foveal ROI were analyzed to detect suspended ...

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    13. OCTA characterisation of microvascular retinal alterations in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy

      OCTA characterisation of microvascular retinal alterations in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy

      Purpose This study aimed to describe the characteristics of microvascular retinal alterations in eyes with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) employing optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) analysis. Methods We collected data from 472 eyes with chronic CSC from 336 patients who had OCTA obtained. Each OCTA image was graded by two readers to assess the presence of microvascular retinal alterations, including regions of vascular rarefaction/retinal hypoperfusion, enlargement of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and presence of telangiectasias or microaneurysms. Volume spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans were obtained through the macula and the OCT was correlated with the ...

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    14. Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetes: A review

      Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetes: A review

      Diabetic retinopathy is a common diabetes complication representing a heavy burden in terms of visual impairment and heath expenditure. Optical coherence tomography angiography is a relatively new imaging method and has proven to be a powerful tool in the analysis of diabetic retinopathy common features, including microaneurysms, intraretinal microvascular abnormalities, or neovascularization, as well as in research field, challenging the gold standard of fluorescein angiography. Many studies underlined the vascular impairment observed through optical coherence tomography angiography and its typical parameters such as vessel length density, foveal avascular zone, and fractal dimension. Choriocapillaris involvement in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy ...

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    15. In Vivo Mapping of the Choriocapillaris in High myopia: a Widefield Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      In Vivo Mapping of the Choriocapillaris in High myopia: a Widefield Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      To report variation of choriocapillaris (CC) flow in widefield in high in myopic subjects compared with an age-matched normal control group using ultra widefield optical coherence tomography angiography (UW-OCTA). This is a Prospective, cross-sectional study. Thirty high myopia subjects and fifty healthy subjects were enrolled. Healthy and high myopia subjects were imaged with the SS-OCTA system (PLEX Elite 9000, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, CA, USA). For each eye, five 12 × 12-mm OCTA volume scans were acquired. The en face CC images were then exported to imageJ and a semi-automated algorithm was used for subsequent quantitative analysis. The main outcome ...

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    16. Choroidal thickness and the retinal ganglion cell complex in chronic Leberʼs hereditary optic neuropathy: a prospective study using swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Choroidal thickness and the retinal ganglion cell complex in chronic Leberʼs hereditary optic neuropathy: a prospective study using swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Background/Objectives Choroidal thinning has been suggested in Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). No study has been conducted of the choroid in relation to the retinal ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (RGC-IPL). We sought to measure choroidal thickness in chronic LHON and to correlate thickness changes with the RGC-IPL. Subjects/Methods Chronic LHON, 11778 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation, patients (26 eyes; mean age: 35.1 ± 16.1 years) were prospectively recruited at Doheny Eye Center, University of California Los Angeles from March 2016 to July 2017. Age-matched healthy controls (27 eyes; mean age: 32.4 ± 11.1 years) were enroled ...

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    17. Early retinal flow changes after vitreoretinal surgery in idiopathic epiretinal membrane using swept source optical coherence tomography angiography

      Early retinal flow changes after vitreoretinal surgery in idiopathic epiretinal membrane using swept source optical coherence tomography angiography

      (1) Background: The aim of this observational cross-sectional work was to investigate early retinal vascular changes in patients undergoing idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM) surgery using swept source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA); (2) Methods: 24 eyes of 24 patients who underwent vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling were evaluated pre- and postoperatively using SS-OCTA system (PLEX Elite 9000, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, CA, USA). For each eye, five 6x6-mm OCTA volume scans were acquired by two observers independently. The en face images of superficial capillary plexus (SCP) were then exported to imageJ and a semi-automated algorithm was used ...

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    18. Eyelashes Artifact in Ultra-Widefield Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Eyelashes Artifact in Ultra-Widefield Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To describe the presence of eyelashes artifact in ultra-widefield swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) images. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective, cross-sectional study, 52 healthy, young subjects were imaged with the SS-OCTA system. OCTA scans were taken in primary and extremes of gaze, and a montage was automatically created. The en face choriocapillaris images were then exported, and a semi-automated algorithm was used for subsequent quantitative analysis. RESULTS: The authors noted the presence of some linear regions of reduced brightness, which were assumed to represent a shadow effect due to patient eyelashes. In order to quantify ...

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    19. Analysis of Hyperreflective Dots Within the Central Fovea in Healthy Eyes Using En Face Optical Coherence Tomography

      Analysis of Hyperreflective Dots Within the Central Fovea in Healthy Eyes Using En Face Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe and quantify superficial hyperreflective dots within the central fovea and correlate them with age, using en face and cross-sectional B-scan optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods : Healthy eyes, evaluated with a spectral domain instrument (primary cohort) at the Stein Eye Institute (UCLA) and with a swept source instrument (secondary cohort) at the Vitreous Retina Macula Consultants of New York, were included in this study. En face OCT images (3 × 3 mm) segmented at the level of the superior vascular plexus were acquired, and hyperreflective dots in the foveal avascular zone were ...

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    20. Impact of slab selection on quantification of choriocapillaris flow deficits by optical coherence tomography angiography

      Impact of slab selection on quantification of choriocapillaris flow deficits by optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose To assess the impact of slab selection on quantitative measurements of choriocapillaris (CC) flow deficits (FDs) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Design Cross-sectional study Methods Using a swept-source OCTA device, en face slabs to isolate the CC were first generated using the manufacturer’s default setting: a 20 μm-thick slab starting 29 μm posterior to the centerline of the automatically segmented retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) band. The inner and or outer borders were then adjusted by 2 μm increments to generate CC slabs with a range of offsets relative to the center of the RPE band. FDs of ...

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    21. Widefield optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy

      Widefield optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy

      Aims To evaluate superficial capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP) and choriocapillaris (CC) perfusion in macular and near/mid periphery regions in diabetic patients using widefield swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (WSS-OCTA). Methods Ninety-four diabetic patients (94 eyes) classified as diabetics without diabetic retinopathy (no DR) (25 eyes), mild DR (23 eyes), moderate/severe DR (26 eyes), proliferative DR (20 eyes) and a control group of 25 healthy subjects (25 eyes) were imaged with the WSS-OCTA system (PLEX Elite 9000, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, CA, USA). Quantitative analysis was performed in the macular and peripheral regions. The main ...

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    22. Optical Coherence Tomography Parameters as Predictors of Treatment Response to Eplerenone in Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

      Optical Coherence Tomography Parameters as Predictors of Treatment Response to Eplerenone in Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

      Purpose : To present data on clinical response to eplerenone over a 1-year period in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), and to evaluate optical coherence tomography (OCT) variables as predictors of treatment response at 3- and 12-month follow-up visits. Methods : Patients with acute or chronic CSC treated with eplerenone were retrospectively included. Clinical and imaging characteristics were recorded at baseline and at the 3-month and 12-month follow-up visits. Changes from baseline in quantitative measurements were calculated at each follow-up. Logistic regression analysis was computed to correlate clinical and OCT parameters at baseline with response to treatment at 3 and 12 ...

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    23. In Vivo Mapping of the Choriocapillaris in Healthy Eyes: a Widefield Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      In Vivo Mapping of the Choriocapillaris in Healthy Eyes: a Widefield Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Purpose To report variation of choriocapillaris (CC) flow in peripapillary, macular and near/mid periphery regions in healthy subjects using widefield swept source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA). Design Prospective, cross-sectional study. Subjects Fifty healthy subjects. Methods Healthy young subjects were imaged with the SS-OCTA system (PLEX Elite 9000, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, CA, USA). OCTA scans were taken in primary and extremes of gaze and a montage was automatically created. The en face CC images were then exported to imageJ and a semi-automated algorithm was used for subsequent quantitative analysis. Main outcome measures Quantitative analysis of the CC ...

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    24. Scleral and conjunctival features in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment undergoing scleral buckling: an anterior segment optical coherence tomography and in vivo confocal microscopy study

      Scleral and conjunctival features in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment undergoing scleral buckling: an anterior segment optical coherence tomography and in vivo confocal microscopy study

      Purpose To investigate the scleral and conjunctival features in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) undergoing scleral buckling (SB), using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS‐OCT) and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Methods Twenty RRD eyes were consecutively enrolled. AS‐OCT was performed at RRD diagnosis (RRD‐D) and day 1, week 1, month 1 and month 6 after SB to evaluate the sclera, in the affected and unaffected quadrants (AQ, UQ). IVCM was performed at RRD‐D, and at month 1 and month 6, to evaluate the conjunctiva in AQ and UQ. The main outcomes were as follows ...

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