1. Articles from K. Bailey Freund

    1-24 of 91 1 2 3 4 »
    1. SUBRETINAL DRUSENOID DEPOSITS AND SOFT DRUSEN: Are They Markers for Distinct Retinal Diseases?

      SUBRETINAL DRUSENOID DEPOSITS AND SOFT DRUSEN: Are They Markers for Distinct Retinal Diseases?

      Purpose: Soft drusen and subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDDs) characterize two pathways to advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD), with distinct genetic risks, serum risks, and associated systemic diseases. Methods: One hundred and twenty-six subjects with AMD were classified as SDD (with or without soft drusen) or non-SDD (drusen only) by retinal imaging, with serum risks, genetic testing, and histories of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke. Results: There were 62 subjects with SDD and 64 non-SDD subjects, of whom 51 had CVD or stroke. SDD correlated significantly with lower mean serum high-density lipoprotein (61 ± 18 vs. 69 ± 22 mg/dL, P = 0 ...

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    2. A Pixel-Based Machine-Learning Model For Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Vitreous Anatomy

      A Pixel-Based Machine-Learning Model For Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Vitreous Anatomy

      Purpose : To develop a machine-learning image processing model for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of vitreous anatomy visualized with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods : Healthy subjects were imaged with SS-OCT. Scans of sufficient quality were transferred into the Fiji is just ImageJ image processing toolkit, and proportions of the resulting stacks were adjusted to form cubic voxels. Image-averaging and Trainable Weka Segmentation using Sobel and variance edge detection and directional membrane projections filters were used to enhance and interpret the signals from vitreous gel, liquid spaces within the vitreous, and interfaces between the former. Two classes were defined: “Septa” and “Other ...

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    3. Volume Rendering of Deep Retinal Age-Related Microvascular Anomalies

      Volume Rendering of Deep Retinal Age-Related Microvascular Anomalies

      Purpose To characterize and distinguish non-neovascular deep retinal age-related microvascular anomalies (DRAMA) from type 3 macular neovascularization (MNV) using volume rendering of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA). Design Retrospective, consecutive case series. Subjects Consecutive patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) exhibiting de novo non-neovascular abnormalities within the deep vascular plexus (DCP) on high-resolution (High-Res) spectral domain and swept-source OCT/OCTA. Patients with retinal vascular alterations attributable to other disease entities were excluded. Methods Complete ophthalmologic examination and multimodal imaging including confocal fundus photography (CFP), spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT), High-Res SD-OCT and OCTA, and volume-averaged swept-source OCTA (SS-OCTA ...

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    4. Macular Vascular Imaging and Connectivity Analysis Using High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

      Macular Vascular Imaging and Connectivity Analysis Using High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: To characterize macular blood flow connectivity in vivo using high-resolution optical coherence tomography (HighRes OCT). Methods: Cross-sectional, observational study. Dense (6-µm interscan distance) perifoveal HighRes OCT raster scans were performed on healthy participants. To mitigate the limitations of projection-resolved OCT-angiography, flow and structural data were used to observe the vascular structures of the superficial vascular complex (SVC) and the deep vascular complex. Vascular segmentation and rendering were performed using Imaris 9.5 software. Inflow and outflow patterns were classified according to vascular diameter and branching order from superficial arteries and veins, respectively. Results: Eight eyes from eight participants ...

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    5. Correlation of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Type 3 Macular Neovascularization With Corresponding Histology

      Correlation of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Type 3 Macular Neovascularization With Corresponding Histology

      Importance By validating optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in the analysis of type 3 macular neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration, the overall value of clinical OCTA for disease observation, diagnosis, and staging is increased. Objective To assess the association of in vivo OCTA of type 3 macular neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration with corresponding ex vivo histology. Design, Setting, and Participants This study included clinical imaging, laboratory microscopy, and eye-tracked clinicopathologic correlation of a single case from a community-based practice evaluated at a university-based research laboratory from 2014 to 2019. Exposures Infrared reflectance and eye-tracked spectral-domain OCTA clinical ...

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    6. Navigating the White Dot Syndromes with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and OCT Angiography (OCT-A)

      Navigating the White Dot Syndromes with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and OCT Angiography (OCT-A)

      Introduction: White dot syndromes are a heterogeneous group of diseases that affect different layers in the retina and choroid. Multimodal imaging is fundamental in the diagnosis, but also can be crucial in unveiling the pathogenesis of these entities. Material and methods: Literature review. Results: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides depth-resolved, histological grade images of the vitreous, retina, and choroid. This technology is very useful to localize the primary nature and level of pathology of the various white dot syndromes. En face OCT can provide additional information regarding the interrelationship of lesion types. Vascular involvement at the level of the retina ...

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      Mentions: UCLA
    7. Recommendations for OCTA reporting in retinal vascular disease: A Delphi approach by International Experts

      Recommendations for OCTA reporting in retinal vascular disease: A Delphi approach by International Experts

      Purpose: To develop a consensus nomenclature for reporting optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) findings in retinal vascular disease (e.g., diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion) by international experts. Design: Delphi-based survey SUBJECTS, PARTICIPANTS AND/OR CONTROLS: Twenty-five retinal vascular disease and OCTA imaging experts METHODS, INTERVENTION, OR TESTING: A Delphi method of consensus development was used, comprising two rounds of online questionnaires, followed by a face-to-face meeting conducted virtually. Twenty-five experts in retinal vascular disease and retinal OCTA imaging were selected to constitute the OCTA Nomenclature in Delphi Study Group for retinal vascular disease. The four main areas of consensus ...

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    8. Advanced retinal imaging and applications for clinical practice: A consensus review

      Advanced retinal imaging and applications for clinical practice: A consensus review

      Imaging is an integral part of the evaluation and management of retinal disorders. Each imaging modality has its own unique capabilities and can show a different aspect or perspective of disease. Multimodal retinal imaging provides a wealth of substantive and insightful information; however, the integration of all this complex data can be overwhelming. We discuss the applications and the strengths and limitations of the many different retinal imaging tools that are approved for clinical use. These modalities include color fundus photography, widefield imaging, fundus autofluorescence, near infrared reflectance, optical coherence tomography angiography, and en face optical coherence tomography. We also ...

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    9. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY EVALUATION OF PERIPAPILLARY MICROVASCULAR CHANGES AFTER RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT REPAIR

      OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY EVALUATION OF PERIPAPILLARY MICROVASCULAR CHANGES AFTER RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT REPAIR

      Purpose: To evaluate the radial peripapillary capillary plexus (RPCP) vessel density (VD) and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in eyes successfully treated with pars plana vitrectomy for primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Methods: In this cross-sectional multicenter clinical study, eyes with a minimum 12-month follow-up were reexamined. The RPCP VD and RNFL thickness in the rhegmatogenous retinal detachment subfields of the affected eye (study group) were compared with the corresponding areas of the healthy fellow eyes (control group). Results: Fifty-three eyes were included in the study. A significantly lower RPCP VD and RNFL thickness were observed in those subfields ...

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    10. ADVANCED OCT ANALYSIS OF BIOPSY PROVEN VITREORETINAL LYMPHOMA: OCT findings in vitreo-retinal lymphoma

      ADVANCED OCT ANALYSIS OF BIOPSY PROVEN VITREORETINAL LYMPHOMA: OCT findings in vitreo-retinal lymphoma

      Importance: Although the diagnosis of vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL) can be challenging, early detection is critical for visual prognosis. Objective: To analyze the spectrum of optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings in patients with biopsy-proven VRL and correlate these features with clinical parameters. Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study SETTING: Multicenter chart review from 13 retina, uveitis and ocular oncology clinics worldwide over an 11-year period (2008-2019). Participants: Patients with a diagnosis of biopsy-proven VRL imaged with OCT at presentation EXPOSURE: The ocular information, systemic information and multimodal retinal imaging findings were collected and studied. Main outcome measure: Characteristics of VRL on OCT RESULTS ...

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    11. Hyperreflective Foci, Optical Coherence Tomography Progression Indicators in Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Include Transdifferentiated Retinal Pigment Epithelium

      Hyperreflective Foci, Optical Coherence Tomography Progression Indicators in Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Include Transdifferentiated Retinal Pigment Epithelium

      Purpose: By optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, hyperreflective foci (HRF) indicate progression risk for advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and are in part attributable to ectopic retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We hypothesized that ectopic RPE are molecularly distinct from in-layer cells and that their cross-retinal course follows Müller glia. Methods: In clinical OCT (61 eyes, 44 patients with AMD, 79.4 ± 7.7 years; 29 female; follow-up = 4.7 ± 0.9 years), one HRF type, RPE plume (n = 129 in 4 morphologies), was reviewed. Twenty eyes of 20 donors characterized by ex vivo OCT were analyzed by histology (normal ...

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    12. En Face Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of Foveal Dots in Eyes With Posterior Vitreous Detachment or Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling

      En Face Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of Foveal Dots in Eyes With Posterior Vitreous Detachment or Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling

      Purpose: To analyze the morphology of foveal hyperreflective dots (HRD) identified with en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) and evaluate the effects of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) on the number of these lesions. Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with OCT angiography and en face OCT. Using en face OCT, superficial HRD lying on the foveal floor were measured and quantitated in eyes with ILM peel and in the fellow nonsurgical eyes. Eyes with foveal PVD were also compared to fellow eyes without foveal PVD. High-magnification en face OCT was also performed to better ...

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      Mentions: UCLA
    13. Three-dimensional segmentation and depth-encoded visualization of choroidal vasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Three-dimensional segmentation and depth-encoded visualization of choroidal vasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography

      The choroid provides nutritional support for the retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptors. Choroidal dysfunction plays a major role in several of the most important causes of vision loss including age-related macular degeneration, myopic degeneration, and pachychoroid diseases such as central serous chorioretinopathy and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. We describe an imaging technique using depth-resolved swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) that provides full-thickness three-dimensional (3D) visualization of choroidal anatomy including topographical features of individual vessels. Enrolled subjects with different clinical manifestations within the pachychoroid disease spectrum underwent 15 mm × 9 mm volume scans centered on the fovea. A fully automated method segmented ...

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    14. MULTIMODAL IMAGING AND HISTOLOGIC EVIDENCE OF A NOVEL OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY TERMINOLOGY

      MULTIMODAL IMAGING AND HISTOLOGIC EVIDENCE OF A NOVEL OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY TERMINOLOGY

      Purpose: To clarify the histologic basis of bacillary layer detachment (BALAD) through a review of current literature and an analysis of retinal imaging. Methods: We reviewed the literature for previous reports of BALAD. An analysis of retinal images was performed to support anatomic conclusions. Results: A total of 164 unique patients with BALAD on optical coherence tomography (OCT) were identified from the published literature. Twenty-two underlying etiologies, all associated with subretinal exudation, were identified. Forty-one different OCT terminologies were found. The defining OCT feature of BALAD was a split at the level of the photoreceptor inner segment myoid creating a ...

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    15. Deliberations of an International Panel of Experts on OCTA Nomenclature of nAMD

      Deliberations of an International Panel of Experts on OCTA Nomenclature of nAMD

      A panel of imaging experts was assembled to review neovascular age-related macular degeneration optical coherence tomography angiography descriptors published to date, and test agreement on use of these terms, which was found to be low. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has been used to identify and characterize macular neovascularization (MNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). 1-4 Many studies have explored OCTA morphological features of MNV that might serve as biomarkers to assess disease activity and response to treatment. 1-6 The proliferation of studies however has resulted in an OCTA terminology that has been variable and inconsistent. To address inconsistency ...

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    16. Clinical utility of morphofunctional correlation of microperimetry and optical coherence tomography

      Clinical utility of morphofunctional correlation of microperimetry and optical coherence tomography

      Purpose: To demonstrate the clinical and research value of a simplified technique enabling alignment of functional microperimetry data with retinal structure imaged by eye-tracked optical coherence tomography (OCT) in eyes with macular disease. Methods: Normal and diseased eyes underwent sequential Spectralis OCT macular raster scans and Macular Integrity Assessment (MAIA) microperimetry using both standard central 10° analysis and custom scan patterns. The microperimetry data were imported into Spectralis research software which was automatically registered to the scanning laser ophthalmoscopy near-infrared reflectance image obtained during OCT acquisition. The OCT B-scans were directly correlated to the microperimetry data so that retina sensitivity ...

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    17. Volume Rendering of Dense B-Scan Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography to Evaluate the Connectivity of Macular Blood Flow

      Volume Rendering of Dense B-Scan Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography to Evaluate the Connectivity of Macular Blood Flow

      Purpose : To characterize macular blood flow connectivity using volume rendering of dense B-scan (DB) optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) data. Methods : This was a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study. DB OCTA perifoveal scans were performed on healthy subjects using the Spectralis HRA+OCT2. A volumetric projection artifact removal algorithm and customized filters were applied to raw OCTA voxel data. Volume rendering was performed using a workflow on Imaris 9.5 software. Vascular graphs were obtained from angiographic data using the algorithm threshold-loops. Superficial arteries and veins were identified from color fundus photographs and connections between adjacent arteries and veins displayed using ...

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    18. Optical coherence tomography characteristics of taxane-induced macular edema and other multimodal imaging findings

      Optical coherence tomography characteristics of taxane-induced macular edema and other multimodal imaging findings

      Purpose To identify common optical coherence tomography (OCT) characteristics of taxane-related CME (T-CME) to differentiate it from CME associated with other causes (O-CME) and to present multimodal imaging findings of T-CME. Methods To differentiate T-CME from O-CME, pooled SD-OCT images from 14 previous publications and images obtained from our multicenter case series of 3 patients with multimodal imaging of T-CME were compared with 16 consecutive cases of O-CME. Images were graded by 2 masked retinal specialists based on the presence of pre-specified OCT characteristics such as CME centered around fovea, outer retinal cysts more prominent compared with inner retinal cysts ...

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    19. Linear and planar reflection artifacts on swept-source and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography due to hyperreflective crystalline deposits

      Linear and planar reflection artifacts on swept-source and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography due to hyperreflective crystalline deposits

      Purpose To describe novel spectral-domain (SD) and swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) linear and planar reflection artifacts produced by hyperreflective crystalline deposits (HCD). Methods Imaging from 10 eyes with HCD producing linear and planar artifacts on OCT was retrospectively analyzed. All eyes had SD-OCT (Spectralis HRA + OCT, Heidelberg Engineering, Germany) and SS-OCT angiography (PLEX Elite 9000, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, CA) acquired on the same day. The horizontal extent of planar artifacts and the corresponding HCD on B-scans was measured using a digital caliper. Artifact features from HCD in eyes with non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were analyzed ...

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    20. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in a Patient With Diabetes and Preretinal Neovascularization

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in a Patient With Diabetes and Preretinal Neovascularization

      A 39-year-old patient with type 2 diabetes (diagnosed in 1996) presented for an evaluation of bilateral proliferative diabetic retinopathy that had been treated previously with panretinal photocoagulation. His visual acuity was 20/25 OD. Examination by ophthalmoscopy showed scattered dot-blot intraretinal hemorrhages and an inferotemporal preretinal neovascular frond ( Figure , A). Optical coherence tomography angiography was also performed ( Figure , B).

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    21. Analysis of Hyperreflective Dots Within the Central Fovea in Healthy Eyes Using En Face Optical Coherence Tomography

      Analysis of Hyperreflective Dots Within the Central Fovea in Healthy Eyes Using En Face Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe and quantify superficial hyperreflective dots within the central fovea and correlate them with age, using en face and cross-sectional B-scan optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods : Healthy eyes, evaluated with a spectral domain instrument (primary cohort) at the Stein Eye Institute (UCLA) and with a swept source instrument (secondary cohort) at the Vitreous Retina Macula Consultants of New York, were included in this study. En face OCT images (3 × 3 mm) segmented at the level of the superior vascular plexus were acquired, and hyperreflective dots in the foveal avascular zone were ...

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    22. Optical coherence tomography en face analysis of the posterior vitreous reveal topographic relationships between premacular bursa, prevascular fissures and cisterns

      Optical coherence tomography en face analysis of the posterior vitreous reveal topographic relationships between premacular bursa, prevascular fissures and cisterns

      Purpose To characterize the topographic relationships among vitreous structures including the premacular bursa, prevascular vitreous fissures, cisterns and lacunae in healthy subjects using en face and cross-sectional swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Design Prospective comparative study. Subjects Sixty eyes of 60 healthy subjects (age range = 4 – 35 years). Eyes of individuals younger than 20 years (n= 29) were compared with eyes of individuals aged 20 years or older (n=31). Testing Twelve x 12-mm SS-OCT volume scans comprised of 1024 x 1024 A-scans centered at the fovea were acquired from each study eye. Main Outcome Measures En face and cross-sectional ...

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    23. Volumetric Analysis of Vascularized Serous Pigment Epithelial Detachment Progression in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Volumetric Analysis of Vascularized Serous Pigment Epithelial Detachment Progression in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose : To analyze the evolution of type 1 neovascularization associated with vascularized serous pigment epithelial detachment (vsPED) using three-dimensional, volumetric, en face optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods : This was a retrospective case series from four tertiary medical centers. OCTA images were analyzed at baseline and at the 3-, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up visit when available. Visual acuity, number of injections, PED maximal height and PED area and volume, and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) flow area and progression were determined at each visit. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of CNV progression (including CNV/PED flow area) and final PED morphology ...

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