1. Articles from Joel S. Schuman

    1-24 of 137 1 2 3 4 5 6 »
    1. The Development and Clinical Application of Innovative Optical Ophthalmic Imaging Techniques

      The Development and Clinical Application of Innovative Optical Ophthalmic Imaging Techniques

      The field of ophthalmic imaging has grown substantially over the last years. Massive improvements in image processing and computer hardware have allowed the emergence of multiple imaging techniques of the eye that can transform patient care. The purpose of this review is to describe the most recent advances in eye imaging and explain how new technologies and imaging methods can be utilized in a clinical setting. The introduction of optical coherence tomography (OCT) was a revolution in eye imaging and has since become the standard of care for a plethora of conditions. Its most recent iterations, OCT angiography, and visible ...

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    2. The Role of OCT Criteria and Machine Learning in Multiple Sclerosis and Optic Neuritis Diagnosis

      The Role of OCT Criteria and Machine Learning in Multiple Sclerosis and Optic Neuritis Diagnosis

      Background and objectives: Recent studies have suggested that inter-eye differences (IEDs) in peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) or ganglion cell+inner plexiform (GCIPL) thickness by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) may identify people with a history of unilateral optic neuritis (ON). However, this requires further validation. Machine learning classification may be useful for validating thresholds for OCT IEDs and for examining added utility for visual function tests, such as low-contrast letter acuity (LCLA), in the diagnosis of people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and for unilateral ON history. Methods: Participants were from 11 sites within the International Multiple Sclerosis Visual ...

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    3. 3D Microstructure of the Healthy Non-Human Primate Lamina Cribrosa by Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

      3D Microstructure of the Healthy Non-Human Primate Lamina Cribrosa by Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

      Purpose: The lamina cribrosa (LC) has an important role in the pathophysiology of ocular diseases. The purpose of this study is to characterize in vivo, noninvasively, and in 3D the structure of the LC in healthy non-human primates (NHPs). Methods: Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT; Leica, Chicago, IL) scans of the optic nerve head (ONH) were obtained from healthy adult rhesus macaques monkeys. Using a previously reported semi-automated segmentation algorithm, microstructure measurements were assessed in central and peripheral regions of an equal area, in quadrants and depth-wise. Linear mixed-effects models were used to compare parameters among regions, adjusting for visibility ...

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    4. Virtual Reality Oculokinetic Perimetry Test Reproducibility and Relationship to Conventional Perimetry and OCT

      Virtual Reality Oculokinetic Perimetry Test Reproducibility and Relationship to Conventional Perimetry and OCT

      Purpose Vivid Vision Perimetry (VVP; Vivid Vision, Inc) is a novel method for performing in-office and home-based visual field assessment using a virtual reality platform and oculokinetic perimetry. Here we examine the reproducibility of VVP Swift and compare results with conventional standard automated perimetry (SAP) and spectral-domain (SD) OCT. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants Fourteen eyes of 7 patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) (average age, 64.6 years; 29% women) and 10 eyes of 5 patients with suspected glaucoma (average age, 61.8 years; 40% women) were enrolled. Methods Patients with OAG and suspected glaucoma were enrolled prospectively and underwent 2 ...

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    5. In Vivo Sublayer Analysis of Human Retinal Inner Plexiform Layer Obtained by Visible-Light Optical Coherence Tomography

      In Vivo Sublayer Analysis of Human Retinal Inner Plexiform Layer Obtained by Visible-Light Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : Growing evidence suggests that dendrite retraction or degeneration in a subpopulation of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) may precede detectable soma abnormalities and RGC death in glaucoma. Visualization of the lamellar structure of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) could advance clinical management and fundamental understanding of glaucoma. We investigated whether visible-light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT) could detect the difference in the IPL sublayer thicknesses between small cohorts of healthy and glaucomatous subjects. Method : We imaged nine healthy and five glaucomatous subjects with vis-OCT. Four of the healthy subjects were scanned three times each in two separate visits, and five ...

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    6. Optical Coherence Tomography and Glaucoma

      Optical Coherence Tomography and Glaucoma

      Early detection and monitoring are critical to the diagnosis and management of glaucoma, a progressive optic neuropathy that causes irreversible blindness. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become a commonly utilized imaging modality that aids in the detection and monitoring of structural glaucomatous damage. Since its inception in 1991, OCT has progressed through multiple iterations, from time-domain OCT, to spectral-domain OCT, to swept-source OCT, all of which have progressively improved the resolution and speed of scans. Even newer technological advancements and OCT applications, such as adaptive optics, visible-light OCT, and OCT-angiography, have enriched the use of OCT in the evaluation of ...

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    7. Adaptive spectroscopic visible-light optical coherence tomography for human retinal oximetry

      Adaptive spectroscopic visible-light optical coherence tomography for human retinal oximetry

      Alterations in the retinal oxygen saturation (sO2) and oxygen consumption are associated with nearly all blinding diseases. A technology that can accurately measure retinal sO2 has the potential to improve ophthalmology care significantly. Recently, visible-light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT) showed great promise for noninvasive, depth-resolved measurement of retinal sO2 as well as ultra-high resolution anatomical imaging. We discovered that spectral contaminants (SC), if not correctly removed, could lead to incorrect vis-OCT sO2 measurements. There are two main types of SCs associated with vis-OCT systems and eye conditions, respectively. Their negative influence on sO2 accuracy is amplified in human eyes due ...

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    8. Determining the Location of the Fovea Centralis Via En-Face SLO and Cross-Sectional OCT Imaging in Patients Without Retinal Pathology

      Determining the Location of the Fovea Centralis Via En-Face SLO and Cross-Sectional OCT Imaging in Patients Without Retinal Pathology

      Purpose: The purpose was to establish the position of the fovea centralis to the optic nerve via en-face, near-infrared spectral domain optical coherence tomography (NIR-OCT) in healthy patients. This may shed light on physiological variability and be used for studying subtle cases of foveal ectopia in macular pathology and after retinal detachment. Methods: SD-OCT data of 890 healthy eyes were retrospectively analyzed. Exclusion criteria included axial myopia causing tilting of the optic disc, peripapillary atrophy >1/3 the width of the disc, macular images excluding greater than half of the optic disc, and patients unable to maintain vertical head positioning ...

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    9. The APOSTEL 2.0 Recommendations for Reporting Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Studies

      The APOSTEL 2.0 Recommendations for Reporting Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Studies

      Objective: To update the consensus recommendations for reporting of quantitative optical coherence tomography (OCT) study results, thus revising the previously published Advised Protocol for OCT Study Terminology and Elements (APOSTEL) recommendations. Methods: To identify studies reporting quantitative OCT results, we performed a PubMed search for the terms "quantitative" and "optical coherence tomography" from 2015 to 2017. Corresponding authors of the identified publications were invited to provide feedback on the initial APOSTEL recommendations via online surveys following the principle of a modified Delphi method. The results were evaluated and discussed by a panel of experts, and changes to the initial recommendations ...

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    10. In Vivo Sublayer Analysis Of Human Retinal Inner Plexiform Layer Obtained By Visible-Light Optical Coherence Tomography

      In Vivo Sublayer Analysis Of Human Retinal Inner Plexiform Layer Obtained By Visible-Light Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: Growing evidence suggests, in glaucoma, the dendritic degeneration of subpopulation of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) may precede RGCs soma death. Since different RGCs synapse in different IPL sublayers, visualization of the lamellar structure of the IPL could enable both clinical and fundamental advances in glaucoma understanding and management. In this pilot study, we investigated whether visible-light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT) could detect the difference in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) sublayers thicknesses between small cohorts of healthy and glaucomatous subjects. Method: We investigated vis-OCT retinal images from nine healthy and five glaucomatous subjects. Four of the healthy subjects ...

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    11. Dueling Deep Q-Network for Unsupervised Inter-frame Eye Movement Correction in Optical Coherence Tomography Volumes

      Dueling Deep Q-Network for Unsupervised Inter-frame Eye Movement Correction in Optical Coherence Tomography Volumes

      In optical coherence tomography (OCT) volumes of retina, the sequential acquisition of the individual slices makes this modality prone to motion artifacts, misalignments between adjacent slices being the most noticeable. Any distortion in OCT volumes can bias structural analysis and influence the outcome of longitudinal studies. On the other hand, presence of speckle noise that is characteristic of this imaging modality, leads to inaccuracies when traditional registration techniques are employed. Also, the lack of a well-defined ground truth makes supervised deep-learning techniques ill-posed to tackle the problem. In this paper, we tackle these issues by using deep reinforcement learning to ...

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    12. Retinal blood flow reduction in normal-tension glaucoma with single-hemifield damage by Doppler optical coherence tomography

      Retinal blood flow reduction in normal-tension glaucoma with single-hemifield damage by Doppler optical coherence tomography

      Aims To evaluate the associations between retinal blood flow (RBF) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) structural measurements in normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) eyes with single-hemifield visual field (VF) damage by the Doppler OCT. Methods The Doppler OCT was used to measure temporal artery (TA) RBF and temporal vein (TV) RBF. Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFLT) was measured by spectral-domain OCT. Results Forty-three consecutive eyes of 43 patients with NTG with VF defect confined to a single hemifield and 24 eyes of 24 age-matched healthy subjects were studied. TA and TV RBF and RNFLT were reduced in the damaged hemisphere compared ...

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    13. Estimating Visual Field Mean Deviation using Optical Coherence Tomographic Nerve Fiber Layer Measurements in Glaucoma Patients

      Estimating Visual Field Mean Deviation using Optical Coherence Tomographic Nerve Fiber Layer Measurements in Glaucoma Patients

      To construct an optical coherence tomography (OCT) nerve fiber layer (NFL) parameter that has maximal correlation and agreement with visual field (VF) mean deviation (MD). The NFL_MD parameter in dB scale was calculated from the peripapillary NFL thickness profile nonlinear transformation and VF area-weighted averaging. From the Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma study, 245 normal, 420 pre-perimetric glaucoma (PPG), and 289 perimetric glaucoma (PG) eyes were selected. NFL_MD had significantly higher correlation (Pearson R: 0.68 vs 0.55, p < 0.001) with VF_MD than the overall NFL thickness. NFL_MD also had significantly higher sensitivity in detecting PPG (0.14 vs ...

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    14. Speckle reduction in visible-light optical coherence tomography using scan modulation

      Speckle reduction in visible-light optical coherence tomography using scan modulation

      We present a technique to reduce speckle in visible-light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT) that preserves fine structural details and is robust against sample motion. Specifically, we locally modulate B-scans orthogonally to their axis of acquisition. Such modulation enables acquisition of uncorrelated speckle patterns from similar anatomical locations, which can be averaged to reduce speckle. To verify the effectiveness of speckle reduction, we performed in-vivo retinal imaging using modulated raster and circular scans in both mice and humans. We compared speckle-reduced vis-OCT images with the images acquired with unmodulated B-scans from the same anatomical locations. We compared contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and ...

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    15. Inference of visual field test performance from OCT volumes using deep learning

      Inference of visual field test performance from OCT volumes using deep learning

      Visual field tests (VFT) are pivotal for glaucoma diagnosis and conducted regularly to monitor disease progression. Here we address the question to what degree aggregate VFT measurements such as Visual Field Index (VFI) and Mean Deviation (MD) can be inferred from Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) scans of the Optic Nerve Head (ONH) or the macula. Accurate inference of VFT measurements from OCT could reduce examination time and cost. We propose a novel 3D Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for this task and compare its accuracy with classical machine learning (ML) algorithms trained on common, segmentation-based OCT, features employed for glaucoma diagnostics ...

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    16. Designing visible-light optical coherence tomography towards clinics

      Designing visible-light optical coherence tomography towards clinics

      Background: The capabilities of visible-light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT) in noninvasive anatomical and functional retinal imaging have been demonstrated by multiple groups in both rodents and healthy human subjects. Translating laboratory prototypes to an integrated clinical-environment-friendly system is required to explore the full potential of vis-OCT in disease management. Methods: We developed and optimized a portable vis-OCT system for human retinal imaging in clinical settings. We acquired raster- and circular-scan images from both healthy and diseased human eyes. Results: The new vis-OCT provided high-quality retinal images of both subjects without any known eye diseases and patients with various retinal diseases ...

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    17. Retinal optical coherence tomography image enhancement via deep learning

      Retinal optical coherence tomography image enhancement via deep learning

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the retina are a powerful tool for diagnosing and monitoring eye disease. However, they are plagued by speckle noise, which reduces image quality and reliability of assessment. This paper introduces a novel speckle reduction method inspired by the recent successes of deep learning in medical imaging. We present two versions of the network to reflect the needs and preferences of different end-users. Specifically, we train a convolution neural network to denoise cross-sections from OCT volumes of healthy eyes using either (1) mean-squared error, or (2) a generative adversarial network (GAN) with Wasserstein distance and ...

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    18. Classification of healthy and diseased retina using SD-OCT imaging and Random Forest algorithm

      Classification of healthy and diseased retina using SD-OCT imaging and Random Forest algorithm

      In this paper, we propose a novel classification model for automatically identifying individuals with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) using retinal features from Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) images. Our classification method uses retinal features such as the thickness of the retina and the thickness of the individual retinal layers, and the volume of the pathologies such as drusen and hyper-reflective intra-retinal spots. We extract automatically, ten clinically important retinal features by segmenting individual SD-OCT images for classification purposes. The effectiveness of the extracted features is evaluated using several classification methods such as Random Forrest ...

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    19. Optical coherence tomography as a rapid, accurate, non-contact method of visualizing the palisades of Vogt

      Optical coherence tomography as a rapid, accurate, non-contact method of visualizing the palisades of Vogt

      The innovation provides for a system and method available to image and visualize the palisades of Vogt via a non-contact process, analyze the image volumes acquired, evaluate the status of the palisades of Vogt from the data represented therein, and display the data in real-time or as a part of a medical record for ongoing consideration and evaluation.

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    20. An Automated Method for Choroidal Thickness Measurement from Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      An Automated Method for Choroidal Thickness Measurement from Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      The choroid is vascular tissue located underneath the retina and supplies oxygen to the outer retina; any damage to this tissue can be a precursor to retinal diseases. This paper presents an automated method of choroidal segmentation from enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) images. The Dijkstra shortest path algorithm is used to segment the choroid-sclera interface (CSI), the outermost border of the choroid. A novel intensity-normalisation technique that is based on the depth of the choroid is used to equalise the intensity of all non-vessel pixels in the choroid region. The outer boundary of choroidal vessel and CSI ...

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    21. The Future of Imaging in Detecting Glaucoma Progression

      The Future of Imaging in Detecting Glaucoma Progression

      Ocular imaging has been heavily incorporated into glaucoma management and provides important information that aids in the detection of disease progression. Longitudinal studies have shown that the circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer is an important parameter for glaucoma progression detection, whereas other studies have demonstrated that macular parameters, such as the ganglion cell inner plexiform layer and optic nerve head parameters, also are useful for progression detection. The introduction of novel technologies with faster scan speeds, wider scanning fields, higher resolution, and improved tissue penetration has enabled the precise quantification of additional key ocular structures, such as the individual retinal ...

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    22. Comparison of Glaucoma Progression Detection by Optical Coherence Tomography and Visual Field

      Comparison of Glaucoma Progression Detection by Optical Coherence Tomography and Visual Field

      Purpose To compare longitudinal glaucoma progression detection using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and visual field (VF). Design Validity assessment Method We analyzed subjects with more than 5 follow-up visits (every 6 months) in the multi-center Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study. Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to map the thickness of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (NFL) and ganglion cell complex (GCC). OCT-based progression detection was defined as a significant negative trend for either NFL or GCC. VF progression was reached if either the event or trend analysis reached significance. Result The analysis included 417 glaucoma suspect/pre-perimetric ...

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    23. Signal Normalization Reduces Image Appearance Disparity Among Multiple Optical Coherence Tomography Devices

      Signal Normalization Reduces Image Appearance Disparity Among Multiple Optical Coherence Tomography Devices

      Purpose : To assess the effect of the previously reported optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal normalization method on reducing the discrepancies in image appearance among spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) devices. Methods : Healthy eyes and eyes with various retinal pathologies were scanned at the macular region using similar volumetric scan patterns with at least two out of three SD-OCT devices at the same visit (Cirrus HD-OCT, Zeiss, Dublin, CA; RTVue, Optovue, Fremont, CA; and Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). All the images were processed with the signal normalization. A set of images formed a questionnaire with 24 pairs of cross-sectional images from each ...

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    24. Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography in glaucoma

      Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography in glaucoma

      Since the introduction of commercial optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems, the ophthalmic imaging modality has rapidly expanded and it has since changed the paradigm of visualization of the retina and revolutionized the management and diagnosis of neuro-retinal diseases, including glaucoma. OCT remains a dynamic and evolving imaging modality, growing from time-domain OCT to the improved spectral-domain OCT, adapting novel image analysis and processing methods, and onto the newer swept-source OCT and the implementation of adaptive optics (AO) into OCT. The incorporation of AO into ophthalmic imaging modalities has enhanced OCT by improving image resolution and quality, particularly in the posterior ...

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