1. Articles from Rajiv Raman

    1-24 of 24
    1. Deep Learning to Detect OCT-derived Diabetic Macular Edema from Color Retinal Photographs

      Deep Learning to Detect OCT-derived Diabetic Macular Edema from Color Retinal Photographs

      Purpose To validate the generalizability of a deep learning system (DLS) that detects diabetic macular edema (DME) from 2-dimensional color fundus photographs (CFP), for which the reference standard for retinal thickness and fluid presence is derived from 3-dimensional OCT. Design Retrospective validation of a DLS across international datasets. Participants Paired CFP and OCT of patients from diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening programs or retina clinics. The DLS was developed using data sets from Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States and validated using 3060 unique eyes from 1582 patients across screening populations in Australia, India, and Thailand. The DLS was ...

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    2. Distribution of macular pigments in macular telangiectasia type 2 and correlation with optical coherence tomography characteristics and visual acuity

      Distribution of macular pigments in macular telangiectasia type 2 and correlation with optical coherence tomography characteristics and visual acuity

      Background: To estimate macular pigment values in macular telangiectasia (MacTel) Type 2 in comparison with healthy subjects in the South Indian population across different spatial profiles and to quantify the regional differences of macular pigment optical density (MPOD) in MacTel Type 2. Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, healthy controls and patients diagnosed with various stages of MacTel Type 2 underwent MPOD measurement using dual-wavelength autofluorescence technique with Spectralis HRA + OCT. Results: Sixty eyes of 31 healthy subjects and 41 eyes of 22 MacTel type 2 patients were included. We found an overall decrease in MPOD values in MacTel type ...

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    3. Deep learning to detect optical coherence tomography-derived diabetic macular edema from retinal photographs: a multicenter validation study

      Deep learning to detect optical coherence tomography-derived diabetic macular edema from retinal photographs: a multicenter validation study

      Purpose: To validate the generalizability of a deep learning system (DLS) that detects diabetic macular edema (DME) from two-dimensional color fundus photography (CFP), where the reference standard for retinal thickness and fluid presence is derived from three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT). Design: Retrospective validation of a DLS across international datasets. Participants: Paired CFP and OCT of patients from diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening programs or retina clinics. The DLS was developed using datasets from Thailand, the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States and validated using 3,060 unique eyes from 1,582 patients across screening populations in Australia, India and ...

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    4. Correlating the patterns of Diabetic macular edema, Optical Coherence Tomography Biomarkers and Grade of Diabetic Retinopathy With Stage of Renal Disease

      Correlating the patterns of Diabetic macular edema, Optical Coherence Tomography Biomarkers and Grade of Diabetic Retinopathy With Stage of Renal Disease

      Purpose To correlate Optical coherence tomography (OCT) based morphological patterns of diabetic macular edema (DME), prognostic biomarkers and grade of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) secondary to diabetes. Design Multicentric retrospective cross-sectional study conducted at seven centres across India. Methods Data from medical records of patients with DME and CKD was entered in a common excel sheet across all seven centers. Staging of CKD was based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results The most common morphological pattern of DME was cystoid pattern (42%) followed by the mixed pattern (31%). The proportion ...

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    5. Zone-wise examination of optical coherence tomography features and their correspondence to multifocal electroretinography in eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy

      Zone-wise examination of optical coherence tomography features and their correspondence to multifocal electroretinography in eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy

      Purpose To examine (1) the retinal structure by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and function by means of multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) in eyes with and without nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) (2) for correspondence between local retinal function and OCT zones with retinal lesions. Methods One hundred and thirty-two eligible participants (30 with nonproliferative DR (NPDR) and 102 with diabetes with no DR) underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examination, optical coherence tomography for retinal thickness measures, mfERG, and ultra-wide field fundus photography. OCT Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) grid was overlaid on to mfERG plots. Results Those with NPDR had significantly thicker full ...

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    6. Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Prevalence of Diabetic Macular Edema and its Associated Risk Factors in Urban South India: A Population-Based Study

      Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Prevalence of Diabetic Macular Edema and its Associated Risk Factors in Urban South India: A Population-Based Study

      Background : To estimate the prevalence of optical coherence tomography (OCT)-defined diabetic macular oedema (DME) in urban South Indian population and to elucidate their associated risk factors. Methods: Of 911 participants from the Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy and Molecular Genetics Study-II (SN-DREAMS-), 759 who underwent OCT were analysed. The participants underwent a comprehensive examination and retinal photography following a standard protocol for diabetic retinopathy (DR) grading. The subjects were categorized into centre-involving DME (CI-DME), non-centre involving DME (NCI-DME), and No-DME based on the mean retinal thickness at the central 1 mm, inner and outer ETDRS subfields. Results: The prevalence of ...

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    7. EARLY SPECTRAL-DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY BIOMARKERS TO CONFIRM FELLOW EYE CHANGES IN ASYMMETRIC TYPE-2 MACULAR TELANGIECTASIA

      EARLY SPECTRAL-DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY BIOMARKERS TO CONFIRM FELLOW EYE CHANGES IN ASYMMETRIC TYPE-2 MACULAR TELANGIECTASIA

      Purpose: To evaluate the earliest spectral-domain optical coherence tomography markers in fellow eyes of asymmetric Type-2 macular telangiectasia (MacTel). Methods: A multicentered case–control study of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images captured on Spectralis Heidelberg Engineering, Germany, comparing features of fellow eyes of patients with asymmetric clinical presentation of MacTel with 50 age-matched control subjects. Results: Of 649 patients, 28 (4.3%) with MacTel presented with asymmetric features. The mean age of the MacTel patients was 63.5 (12.4) years with female predilection (4:1). Mean best-corrected visual acuity of the unaffected eye was 0.2 logarithm of the ...

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    8. Correlation of retinal changes with choroidal changes in acute and recurrent central serous chorioretinopathy assessed by swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Correlation of retinal changes with choroidal changes in acute and recurrent central serous chorioretinopathy assessed by swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Purpose: To evaluate affected choroidal regions and corresponding retinal changes in acute and recurrent central serous chorioretinopathy using swept-source optical coherence tomography. Methods: The foveal and subfoveal choroidal thicknesses were measured with swept-source optical coherence tomography. The retina was divided into five zones on the swept-source optical coherence tomography image based on baseline choroidal thickness being <100, 100– 199, 200–299, 300–399 and ⩾400μm. The retinal and choroidal thicknesses in the same five regions were evaluated during follow-up. The measurements were then compared between baseline (when central serous chorioretinopathy was active) and follow-up (after complete resolution of disease ...

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    9. Influence of orientation of the external linear incision created by the 25-gauge trocar and related factors on sclerotomy closure: A clinical and optical coherence tomographic study

      Influence of orientation of the external linear incision created by the 25-gauge trocar and related factors on sclerotomy closure: A clinical and optical coherence tomographic study

      Purpose: To assess the influence of orientation of the external linear incision created by the trocar and related factors on sclerotomy closure in 25-gauge (25G) transconjunctival vitreous surgery (TVS). Methods: A total of 46 eyes of 46 patients who underwent 25G TVS (23 circumferential incisions and 23 radial incisions) were studied. Clinical and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT)-based comparison of self-sealed and sutured sclerotomies was done. The influence of age, ocular surgeries and injections, axial length, cannula type, sclerotomy quadrant, surgery duration, vitreous base excision, and tamponade on suture rates was analyzed. Results: Of the 46 eyes, 23 ...

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    10. Artificial intelligence and deep learning in ophthalmology

      Artificial intelligence and deep learning in ophthalmology

      Artificial intelligence (AI) based on deep learning (DL) has sparked tremendous global interest in recent years. DL has been widely adopted in image recognition, speech recognition and natural language processing, but is only beginning to impact on healthcare. In ophthalmology, DL has been applied to fundus photographs, optical coherence tomography and visual fields, achieving robust classification performance in the detection of diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity, the glaucoma-like disc, macular oedema and age-related macular degeneration. DL in ocular imaging may be used in conjunction with telemedicine as a possible solution to screen, diagnose and monitor major eye diseases for ...

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    11. Choroidal thickness in normal Indian subjects using Swept source optical coherence tomography

      Choroidal thickness in normal Indian subjects using Swept source optical coherence tomography

      Aim To determine choroidal thickness in healthy Indian subjects using Swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods In this prospective, observational, cross-sectional study; healthy Indian subjects (n = 230) with no history of ocular and/or systemic disorders were enrolled in the study. Choroidal thickness was measured for 230 eyes using SS-OCT. Subjects were divided into six age groups. Main outcome measures were subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and macular choroidal thickness (MCT) up to 3 mm at 500-micron interval from the fovea was measured in eight different quadrants. Results The mean SFCT was 307±79 μm and mean MCT was 285 ...

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    12. Choroidal and Retinal Anatomical Responses Following Systemic Corticosteroid Therapy in Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada Disease Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Choroidal and Retinal Anatomical Responses Following Systemic Corticosteroid Therapy in Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada Disease Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : To assess structural changes in retina and choroid after systemic corticosteroid therapy in Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada (VKH) disease using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods : SS-OCT was conducted before treatment and during first-month follow-up in 16 eyes treated with systemic corticosteroids for active VKH. Retina was divided into five zones depending on pretreatment choroidal thickness (CT) of <100, >100 to <200, >200 to <300, >300 to <400 and >400μm, and changes in retinal thickness and CT after treatment in these zones were compared with baseline. Results : Mean CT significantly improved from 83.1±8.75 to 156.4 ...

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    13. Phenotypic characterization of X-linked retinoschisis: Clinical, electroretinography, and optical coherence tomography variables

      Phenotypic characterization of X-linked retinoschisis: Clinical, electroretinography, and optical coherence tomography variables

      Aims: To study the phenotypic characteristics of X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) and report the clinical, electroretinogram (ERG), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) variables in Indian eyes. Design: A retrospective study. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 21 patients with retinoschisis who were genetically confirmed to have RS1 mutation were reviewed. The phenotype characterization included the age of onset, best-corrected visual acuity, refractive error, fundus findings, OCT, and ERG. Statistical Analysis Used: Data from both the eyes were used for analysis. A P < 0.05 was set as statistical significance. Data were not normally distributed ( P < 0.05, Shapiro wilk); hence, nonparametric ...

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    14. Quantitative spectral domain optical coherence tomography thickness parameters in type II diabetes

      Quantitative spectral domain optical coherence tomography thickness parameters in type II diabetes

      Purpose: To elucidate the changes in retinal thickness and individual layer thickness in subjects with diabetic retinopathy (DR) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). Materials and Methods: A total of 251 eyes from 170 subjects were included in this study. The study sample was subdivided into nondiabetic subjects; subjects with diabetes but no DR; subjects with mild, moderate, and severe nonproliferative DR (NPDR); and proliferative DR. Various retinal thickness parameters were assessed using SDOCT. Results: The mean age of the study population was 55.34 ± 9.02 years (range: 32-80 years) and 56.6% of the subjects were males ...

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    15. Imaging drusens using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Imaging drusens using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose The purpose was to evaluate pathological changes of photoreceptor layer and retinal pigment epithelium in eyes with drusens using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT). Methods Twenty-nine eyes of 29 patients with (drusens) dry age-related macular degeneration and 43 eyes of 43 controls were included in this study. All subjects underwent complete ophthalmic examination including SD-OCT. Central foveal thickness (CFT), photoreceptor layer (PRL) thickness and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) thickness were measured and compared between the groups. P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ranged between 20/20 and 20/200. RPE ...

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    16. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography characteristics in diabetic retinopathy

      Spectral domain optical coherence tomography characteristics in diabetic retinopathy

      Purpose: To report the appearance of diabetic retinopathy lesions using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Materials and Methods: A total of 287 eyes of 199 subjects were included. All the subjects underwent complete ophthalmic examination including SD-OCT. Results: The appearance of various lesions of diabetic retinopathy and the retinal layers involved were reported. In subjects with macular edema the prevalence of incomplete PVD was 55.6%. Conclusion: SD-OCT brings new insights into the morphological changes of the retina in diabetic retinopathy.

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    17. Macular Thickness Measurements using Copernicus Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Macular Thickness Measurements using Copernicus Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose To provide normal macular thickness measurements using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SDOCT, Copernicus, Optopol Technologies, Zawierci, Poland). Methods Fifty eight eyes of 58 healthy subjects were included in this prospective study. All subjects had comprehensive ophthalmic examination including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). All the subjects underwent Copernicus SDOCT. Central foveal thickness (CFT) and photoreceptor layer (PRL) thickness were measured and expressed as mean and standard deviation. Mean retinal thickness for each of the 9 regions defined in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study were reported. The data was compared with published literature in Indians using Stratus and Spectralis ...

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    18. Communications between intraretinal and subretinal space on optical coherence tomography of neurosensory retinal detachment in diabetic macular edema

      Communications between intraretinal and subretinal space on optical coherence tomography of neurosensory retinal detachment in diabetic macular edema

      Background: The pathogenesis of development and progression of neurosensory retinal detachment (NSD) in diabetic macular edema (DME) is not yet fully understood. The purpose of this study is to describe the spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) morphological characteristics of NSD associated with DME in the form of outer retinal communications and to assess the correlation between the size of communications and various factors. Materials and Methods: This was an observational retrospective nonconsecutive case series in a tertiary care eye institute. We imaged NSD and outer retinal communications in 17 eyes of 16 patients having NSD associated with DME using ...

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    19. Optical Coherence Tomography Characteristics in Eyes With Optic Pit Maculopathy

      Optical Coherence Tomography Characteristics in Eyes With Optic Pit Maculopathy

      Purpose: To study the optical coherence tomography characteristics of optic pit maculopathy and propose the anatomical pathophysiology of fluid conduit from pit to macula. Methods: The charts of 32 patients (32 eyes) with the diagnosis of optic pit maculopathy were reviewed. Clinical variables that were studied included duration of visual impairment, initial visual acuity, and associated fundus features. Optical coherence tomography characteristics including communication with pit, layer of retina involved in schisis, and presence of subretinal fluid were noted. Results: The mean age of the patients was 27.8 years, and the mean duration of visual impairment was 21.8 ...

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    20. Morphological and functional changes in spectral domain optical coherence tomography and microperimetry in macular microhole variants: Spectral domain optical coherence tomography and microperimetry correlation

      Morphological and functional changes in spectral domain optical coherence tomography and microperimetry in macular microhole variants: Spectral domain optical coherence tomography and microperimetry correlation
      Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between the morphology and retinal function of macular microhole (MMH) variants. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 12 eyes of 11 patients with defects in the IS/OS junction of photoreceptor layer with SD-OCT. All patients underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examination including spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and microperimetry. Results: The mean logMAR visual acuity in the affected eye was 0.15 ± 0.17 (range 0.00-0.5). Mean horizontal diameter of the MMH was 163 ± 99 μm; the mean retinal sensitivity in the area corresponding to the MMH was 13.79 ± 4.6 dB. Negative ...
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    21. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography and microperimetry in foveal hypoplasia

      Spectral domain optical coherence tomography and microperimetry in foveal hypoplasia
      A case of foveal hypoplasia associated with ocular albinism with anatomic and functional changes by various techniques using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), microperimeter and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope is described. This case highlights the importance of microperimeter in detecting the functional abnormalities of vision and SD-OCT in identifying the retinal laminar abnormalities in foveal hypoplasia.
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    22. Evaluation of In Vivo Human Retinal Morphology and Function in Myopes

      Evaluation of In Vivo Human Retinal Morphology and Function in Myopes
      Purpose: To compare the retinal sensitivity, using Microperimeter and the morphological changes in retinal layers, using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT), between myopes and age-matched emmetropes. Methods: Twenty-nine myopic eyes and 29 emmetropic eyes were enrolled in this prospective case control study. All subjects underwent subjective refraction as part of the ophthalmic examination and in addition, SDOCT and Microperimetry were performed. Based on the reflectivity on the OCT cross sections, the thickness of the retinal layers was measured 2.5 mm on either side of the fovea. Results: The mean retinal sensitivity was significantly (p = 0.001) reduced in ...
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    23. High-resolution optical coherence tomography correlates in ischemic radiation retinopathy

      Purpose: To find the abnormalities in various retinal layers caused by radiation retinopathy using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: We report a case of radiation retinopathy that was imaged using SD-OCT Copernicus (Optopol, Zawiercie, Poland). Analysis and synthesis of the OCT image were done using information both at the fovea and 2.5mm temporal to the fovea. Results: The layers that were reduced in thickness included the inner plexiform layer (47μm vs. 74μm), the inner nuclear layer (17μm vs. 48μm), and the outer plexiform layer (25μm vs. 45μm), whereas the layers with comparable thickness included the nerve fiber ...
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    24. Spectral-Domain OCT and Microperimeter Characterization of Morphological and Functional Changes in X-linked Retinoschisis

      A case of X-linked retinoschisis with anatomic and functional issues correlated by a constellation of methods, including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, microperimeter, electroretinography, and multifocal electroretinography, is described. This case highlights the importance of microperimetry in the presence of normal or subtle abnormalities in full-field electroretinography. The ability of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in diagnosis and follow-up in cases with X-linked retinoschisis is demonstrated. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging 2009;40:71-74.]
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    1-24 of 24
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