1. Featured Articles

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    1. Noninvasive in vivo imaging reveals differences between tectorial membrane and basilar membrane traveling waves in the mouse cochlea

      Noninvasive in vivo imaging reveals differences between tectorial membrane and basilar membrane traveling waves in the mouse cochlea

      Sound is encoded within the auditory portion of the inner ear, the cochlea, after propagating down its length as a traveling wave. For over half a century, vibratory measurements to study cochlear traveling waves have been made using invasive approaches such as laser Doppler vibrometry. Although these studies have provided critical information regarding the nonlinear processes within the living cochlea that increase the amplitude of vibration and sharpen frequency tuning, the data have typically been limited to point measurements of basilar membrane vibration. In addition, opening the cochlea may alter its function and affect the findings. Here we describe volumetric ...

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    2. Application and Practical Use of Optical Coherence Tomography to Guide Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Clinical Practice

      Application and Practical Use of Optical Coherence Tomography to Guide Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Clinical Practice

      Background While many hundreds of studies have been published utilising coronary artery optical coherence tomography (OCT), very few have focused on the application of OCT in daily clinical practice. The following case studies are intended to help guide physicians on specific clinical situations in which OCT can help optimise physician treatment strategies. The cardiac cath lab at Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, New York, is a leader in sharing best practices for improving outcomes in complex coronary cases. Mount Sinai has established guidelines to help drive best practices among interventional cardiologists and fellows in the cath lab. OCT has been ...

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      Mentions: St. Jude Medical
    3. Optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis and evaluation of human otitis media

      Optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis and evaluation of human otitis media

      We report the application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to the diagnosis and evaluation of otitis media (OM). Whereas conventional diagnostic modalities for OM, including standard and pneumatic otoscopy, are limited to visualizing the surface of the tympanic membrane (TM), OCT effectively reveals the depth-resolved microstructure below the TM with very high spatial resolution, with the potential advantage of its use for diagnosing different types of OM. We examined the use of 840-nm spectral domain-OCT (SD-OCT) clinically, using normal ears and ears with the adhesive and effusion types of OM. Specific features were identified in two-dimensional OCT images of abnormal ...

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    4. Analyzing three-dimensional ultrastructure of human cervical tissue using optical coherence tomography

      Analyzing three-dimensional ultrastructure of human cervical tissue using optical coherence tomography

      During pregnancy, the uterine cervix is the mechanical barrier that prevents delivery of a fetus. The underlying cervical collagen ultrastructure, which influences the overall mechanical properties of the cervix, plays a role in maintaining a successful pregnancy until term. Yet, not much is known about this collagen ultrastructure in pregnant and nonpregnant human tissue. We used optical coherence tomography to investigate the directionality and dispersion of collagen fiber bundles in the human cervix. An image analysis tool has been developed, combining a stitching method with a fiber orientation measurement, to study axially sliced cervix samples. This tool was used to ...

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    5. NASA presents Heidelberg Engineering the NASA Certificate of Appreciation

      NASA presents Heidelberg Engineering the NASA Certificate of Appreciation

      Heidelberg Engineering was honored today by visitors from NASA. The guests from NASA: Dr. Christian Otto, Lead Scientist for the Vision Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) project ; Dr. Steven Hart, lead flight surgeon for VIIP ; Rachel Brady, VIIP Science Coordinator; and Jennifer Villarreal, Project Manager came for a ceremony to present Heidelberg Engineering with the NASA Certificate of Appreciation in recognition of Heidelberg Engineering’s support in placing a SPECTRALIS ® OCT system on the International Space Station (ISS). During the ceremony, the NASA guests described the physiological challenges encountered with long duration space flight and the research underway to understand ...

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    6. Parametric imaging of viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography

      Parametric imaging of viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography

      We demonstrate imaging of soft tissue viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography. Viscoelastic creep deformation is induced in tissue using step-like compressive loading and the resulting time-varying deformation is measured using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography. From a series of co-located B-scans, we estimate the local strain rate as a function of time, and parameterize it using a four-parameter Kelvin–Voigt model of viscoelastic creep. The estimated viscoelastic strain and time constant are used to visualize viscoelastic creep in 2D, dual-parameter viscoelastograms. We demonstrate our technique on six silicone tissue-simulating phantoms spanning a range of viscoelastic parameters. As an example in soft ...

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    7. Automated peroperative assessment of stents apposition from OCT pullbacks

      Automated peroperative assessment of stents apposition from OCT pullbacks

      This study׳s aim was to control the stents apposition by automatically analyzing endovascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) sequences. Lumen is detected using threshold, morphological and gradient operators to run a Dijkstra algorithm. Wrong detection tagged by the user and caused by bifurcation, struts’presence, thrombotic lesions or dissections can be corrected using a morphing algorithm. Struts are also segmented by computing symmetrical and morphological operators. Euclidian distance between detected struts and wall artery initializes a stent׳s complete distance map and missing data are interpolated with thin-plate spline functions. Rejection of detected outliers, regularization of parameters by generalized cross-validation ...

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    8. Real-time OCT guidance of an ablation laser for advancement in the fight of atherosclerotic cardio-vascular disease

      Real-time OCT guidance of an ablation laser for advancement in the fight of atherosclerotic cardio-vascular disease

      Real-time OCT guidance of an ablation laser has now been developed for use in the treatment of atherosclerotic cardio-vascular disease. DWH Systems, Inc. of Seminole Florida working with ELAN Vascular Technologies has developed a system whereby three OCT imaging heads monitor a femtosecond ablation laser in real-time, to perform micro ablation on the outer surface of diseased arteries. OCT is used first to acquire a 3D, C-scan map of the diseased portion of an artery then develops an ablation map for the system to follow. As ablation is performed, OCT again monitors the lasers cutting process from multiple angles in ...

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    9. James Fujimoto Awarded the Honorary Doctorate Degree at the Nicolaus Copernicus University

      James Fujimoto Awarded the Honorary Doctorate Degree at the Nicolaus Copernicus University

      On February 19 th , the birthday of Nicolaus Copernicus, Professor James G. Fujimoto was awarded the Honorary Doctorate Degree at the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Poland. Professor Fujimoto was awarded the University’s highest academic distinction, Doctor Honoris Causa, by Rector Andrzej Tretyn and Dean Andrzej Kowalczyk in recognition of his contribution to the fields of biomedical optics and medicine, his training and mentoring of young scientists, and his service to the international scientific community. Presentation of the Honorary Doctorate to Prof. Fujimoto by Dean Andrzej Kowalczyk (left) and Rector Andrzej Tretyn (right), photo by Andrzej Romański. The Copernicus University ...

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    10. Compensation of spectral and RF errors in swept-source OCT for high extinction complex demodulation

      Compensation of spectral and RF errors in swept-source OCT for high extinction complex demodulation

      We provide a framework for compensating errors within passive optical quadrature demodulation circuits used in swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT). Quadrature demodulation allows for detection of both the real and imaginary components of an interference fringe, and this information separates signals from positive and negative depth spaces. To achieve a high extinction (∼60 dB) between these positive and negative signals, the demodulation error must be less than 0.1% in amplitude and phase. It is difficult to construct a system that achieves this low error across the wide spectral and RF bandwidths of high-speed swept-source systems. In a prior work ...

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    11. Sensing of Tooth Microleakage Based on Dental Optical Coherence Tomography

      Sensing of Tooth Microleakage Based on Dental Optical Coherence Tomography

      This study describes microleakage sensing based on swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). With a handheld scanning probe, the SS-OCT system can provide portable real-time imaging for clinical diagnosis. Radiography is the traditional clinical imaging instrument used for dentistry; however, it does not provide good contrast images between filling material and the enamel of treated teeth with microleakage. The results of this study show that microleakage can be detected with oral probing using SS-OCT in vivo . The calculated microleakage length was 401  μ m and the width is 148  μ m, which is consistent with the related histological biopsy measurements. The diagnosis of ...

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    12. Optical coherence tomography appraisal of residual thrombus burden in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing intraprocedural versus post-stenting prolonged bivalirudin infusion. Rationale and design of the MATRIX (Minimizing A

      Optical coherence tomography appraisal of residual thrombus burden in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing intraprocedural versus post-stenting prolonged bivalirudin infusion. Rationale and design of the MATRIX (Minimizing A

      Aims: Residual thrombus accumulation around stent struts has been observed after the end of primary PCI and may represent a risk factor for acute stent thrombosis. The aim of this study is to test whether a strategy of prolonged bivalirudin infusion may reduce thrombosis of stent struts as compared to an intraprocedural only administration in subjects undergoing primary PCI. Methods and results: One hundred and sixty patients will be selected from the MATRIX (Minimizing Adverse Haemorrhagic Events by TRansradial Access Site and angioX) study with all the following inclusion criteria: a) STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI with stent implantation, b ...

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    13. Imaging endocervical mucus anatomy and dynamics in macaque female reproductive track using optical coherence tomography

      Imaging endocervical mucus anatomy and dynamics in macaque female reproductive track using optical coherence tomography

      Background: Endocervical mucus acts as an important barrier to block human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Disruption of the mucus layer increases the risk of infection for females. An effective method to image the mucus properties can serve as a pre-screening step to risk-stratify the susceptible population. Methods: We proposed to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to quantitatively measure the thickness of endocervical mucus. We used a home-built bench-top OCT system to monitor the dynamic change in mucus thickness of a cultivated sample. We also fabricated a prototype endoscopic OCT probe to demonstrate potential in ...

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    14. Line-field parallel swept source MHz OCT for structural and functional retinal imaging

      Line-field parallel swept source MHz OCT for structural and functional retinal imaging

      We demonstrate three-dimensional structural and functional retinal imaging with line-field parallel swept source imaging (LPSI) at acquisition speeds of up to 1 MHz equivalent A-scan rate with sensitivity better than 93.5 dB at a central wavelength of 840 nm. The results demonstrate competitive sensitivity, speed, image contrast and penetration depth when compared to conventional point scanning OCT. LPSI allows high-speed retinal imaging of function and morphology with commercially available components. We further demonstrate a method that mitigates the effect of the lateral Gaussian intensity distribution across the line focus and demonstrate and discuss the feasibility of high-speed optical angiography ...

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    15. Assessment of natural enamel lesions with optical coherence tomography in comparison with microfocus x-ray computed tomography

      Assessment of natural enamel lesions with optical coherence tomography in comparison with microfocus x-ray computed tomography

      A technology to characterize early enamel lesions is needed in dentistry. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive method that provides high-resolution cross-sectional images. The aim of this study is to compare OCT with microfocus x-ray computed tomography ( μ CT ) for assessment of natural enamel lesions in vitro . Ten human teeth with visible white spot-like changes on the enamel smooth surface and no cavitation (ICDAS code 2) were subjected to imaging by μCT (SMX-100CT, Shimadzu) and 1300-nm swept-source OCT (Dental SS-OCT, Panasonic Health Care). In μ CT , the lesions appeared as radiolucent dark areas, while in SS-OCT, they appeared as areas of ...

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    16. Depth-encoded synthetic aperture optical coherence tomography of biological tissues with extended focal depth

      Depth-encoded synthetic aperture optical coherence tomography of biological tissues with extended focal depth

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proven to be able to provide three-dimensional (3D) volumetric images of scattering biological tissues for in vivo medical diagnostics. Unlike conventional optical microscopy, its depth-resolving ability (axial resolution) is exclusively determined by the laser source and therefore invariant over the full imaging depth. In contrast, its transverse resolution is determined by the objective’s numerical aperture and the wavelength which is only approximately maintained over twice the Rayleigh range. However, the prevailing laser sources for OCT allow image depths of more than 5 mm which is considerably longer than the Rayleigh range. This limits high ...

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    17. Intravascular magnetomotive optical coherence tomography of targeted early-stage atherosclerotic changes in ex vivo hyperlipidemic rabbit aortas

      Intravascular magnetomotive optical coherence tomography of targeted early-stage atherosclerotic changes in ex vivo hyperlipidemic rabbit aortas

      Representative magnetomotive signal (green) using targeted and non-targeted magnetomotive microspheres in atherosclerotic diseased rabbit aortas. We report the development of an intravascular magnetomotive optical coherence tomography (IV-MM-OCT) system used with targeted protein microspheres to detect early-stage atherosclerotic fatty streaks/plaques. Magnetic microspheres (MSs) were injected in vivo in rabbits, and after 30 minutes of in vivo circulation, excised ex vivo rabbit aorta samples specimens were then imaged ex vivo with our prototype IV-MM-OCT system. The alternating magnetic field gradient was provided by a unique pair of external custom-built electromagnetic coils that modulated the targeted magnetic MSs. The results showed a ...

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    18. Michelson Diagnostics closes £2.5 million First Tranche of £4.0 million Series B fundraising Smith & Nephew as Cornerstone Investor

      Michelson Diagnostics closes £2.5 million First Tranche of £4.0 million Series B fundraising Smith & Nephew as Cornerstone Investor

      Michelson Diagnostics, the UK based medical device company focused on multi-beam Optical Coherence Tomography (‘OCT’) technology, is pleased to announce that it has closed the £2.5 million First Tranche of its Series B financing. This was led by strategic investor, global medical technology business Smith & Nephew and included new investor Kent County Council as well as existing investors. The £2.5 million investment will be used to expand the Michelson Diagnostics’ commercial presence in Germany; launch the Company’s next generation VivoSight OCT tissue-imaging system; complete the ongoing US multi-centre clinical biopsy avoidance study and explore further applications of ...

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    19. Current and evolving uses of optical coherence tomography in the genitourinary tract

      Current and evolving uses of optical coherence tomography in the genitourinary tract

      Optical coherence tomography is an emerging imaging modality that provides high-resolution, real-time, cross-sectional visualization of urologic tissue with promising results. Early studies have demonstrated detailed, accurate histologic information of tissues sampled. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has also been applied in evaluating malignancy of the bladder, prostate, and kidney. In the bladder, it can assist in the identification, biopsy, and intraoperative resection of lesions suspicious for bladder cancer. Intraoperative use of OCT during radical prostatectomy can improve visualization of the neurovascular bundle and surgical margins. Several small, ex vivo studies have also shown promising results in the ability of OCT to ...

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    20. OCT for the Identification of Vulnerable Plaque in Acute Coronary Syndrome

      OCT for the Identification of Vulnerable Plaque in Acute Coronary Syndrome

      After 2 decades of development and use in interventional cardiology research, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has now become a core intravascular imaging modality in clinical practice. Its unprecedented spatial resolution allows visualization of the key components of the atherosclerotic plaque that appear to confer “vulnerability” to rupture—namely the thickness of the fibrous cap, size of the necrotic core, and the presence of macrophages. The utility of OCT in the evaluation of plaque composition can provide insights into the pathophysiology of acute coronary syndrome and the healing that occurs thereafter. A brief summary of the principles of OCT technology and ...

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    21. Wideband Electrically-Pumped 1050 nm MEMS-Tunable VCSEL for Ophthalmic Imaging

      Wideband Electrically-Pumped 1050 nm MEMS-Tunable VCSEL for Ophthalmic Imaging

      In this paper, we present a 1050 nm electricallypumped micro-electro-mechanically-tunable vertical-cavitysurface- emitting-laser (MEMS-VCSEL) with a record dynamic tuning bandwidth of 63.8 nm, suitable for swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) imaging. These devices provide reduced cost & complexity relative to previously demonstrated optically pumped devices by obviating the need for a pump laser and associated hardware. We demonstrate ophthalmic SS-OCT imaging with the electrically-pumped MEMS-VCSEL at a 400 kHz axial scan rate for wide field imaging of the in vivo human retina over a 12 mm × 12 mm field and for OCT angiography of the macula over 6 mm × 6 ...

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    22. Polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging system for endobronchial imaging

      Polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging system for endobronchial imaging

      A polarization sensitive endoscopic optical frequency domain imaging (PS-OFDI) system with a motorized distal scanning catheter is demonstrated. It employs a passive polarization delay unit to multiplex two orthogonal probing polarization states in depth, and a polarization diverse detection unit to detect interference signal in two orthogonal polarization channels. Per depth location four electro-magnetic field components are measured that can be represented in a complex 2x2 field matrix. A Jones matrix of the sample is derived and the sample birefringence is extracted by eigenvalue decomposition. The condition of balanced detection and the polarization mode dispersion are quantified. A complex field ...

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    23. ARVO to host Imaging in the Eye Conference in May 2015

      ARVO to host Imaging in the Eye Conference in May 2015

      The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) will be hosting its annual Imaging in the Eye Conference on Saturday, May 2, 2015 in Denver, CO. This one-day conference takes place the day before the ARVO Annual Meeting. The conference brings together leading basic researchers, clinicians and engineers in the ophthalmic imaging field. Attendees can meet colleagues who are specialists in technology development, small animal imaging, image processing, translational research, clinical studies and clinical care in this rapidly changing area of research. The Imaging Conference highlights advances in many imaging techniques including optical coherence tomography (OCT), adaptive optics (AO ...

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    24. Voxeleron Releases Orion, Advanced OCT Analysis Software

      Voxeleron Releases Orion, Advanced OCT Analysis Software

      Orion™ is an application that offers fully-automated, rapid and accurate segmentation of seven layers in OCT images of the human retina. Currently for research use only, the award-winning software is platform independent - meaning it processes data from different OCT devices - and is now available following extensive beta testing. “We used Orion to process a considerable amount of data and found it to be a very useful research tool. The analysis tools that come with some of the OCT devices do not offer the functionality we need to do some of our fundamental clinical research, so Orion is a very powerful ...

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