1. Featured Articles

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    1. Loose powder detection and surface characterization in selective laser sintering via optical coherence tomography

      Loose powder detection and surface characterization in selective laser sintering via optical coherence tomography

      Defects produced during selective laser sintering (SLS) are difficult to non-destructively detect after build completion without the use of X-ray-based methods. Overcoming this issue by assessing integrity on a layer-by-layer basis has become an area of significant interest for users of SLS apparatus. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used in this study to detect surface texture and sub-surface powder, which is un-melted/insufficiently sintered, is known to be a common cause of poor part integrity and would prevent the use of SLS where applications dictate assurance of defect-free parts. To demonstrate the capability of the instrument and associated data-processing algorithms ...

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    2. The new kid on the block for advanced imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a review of volumetric laser endomicroscopy

      The new kid on the block for advanced imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a review of volumetric laser endomicroscopy

      Advanced imaging techniques used in the management of Barrett’s esophagus include electronic imaging enhancement (e.g. narrow band imaging, flexible spectral imaging color enhancement, and i-Scan), chromoendoscopy, and confocal laser endomicroscopy. Electronic imaging enhancement is used frequently in daily practice, but use of the other advanced technologies is not routine. High-definition white light endoscopy and random four quadrant biopsy remain the standard of care for evaluation of Barrett’s esophagus; this is largely due to the value of advanced imaging technologies not having been validated in large studies or in everyday practice. A new advanced imaging technology called volumetric ...

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    3. Evaluation of a Micro-Optical Coherence Tomography for the Corneal Endothelium in an Animal Model

      Evaluation of a Micro-Optical Coherence Tomography for the Corneal Endothelium in an Animal Model

      Recent developments in optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems for the cornea have limited resolution or acquisition speed. In this study we aim to evaluate the use of a ‘micro-OCT’ (μOCT ~1 μm axial resolution) compared to existing imaging modalities using animal models of corneal endothelial disease. We used established cryoinjury and bullous keratopathy models in Sprague Dawley rats comparing ex vivo μOCT imaging in normal and diseased eyes to (1) histology; (2) in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM); and (3) scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Qualitative and quantitative comparisons amongst imaging modalities were performed using mean endothelial cell circularity [(4π × Area)/Perimeter ...

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    4. Toward High-Speed Imaging of Cellular Structures in Rat Colon Using Micro-optical Coherence Tomography

      Toward High-Speed Imaging of Cellular Structures in Rat Colon Using Micro-optical Coherence Tomography

      The mucosal microanatomy of the large intestine is characterized by the presence of crypts of Lieberkühn, which is associated predominantly with goblet cells. Such cellular-level intestinal microstructures undergo morphological changes during the progression of bowel diseases, such as colon cancer or ulcerative colitis. As an indicator of gastric cancers, intestinal metaplasia in the large intestine is characterized by the appearance of goblet cells in gastric epithelium, and therefore, visualization of intestinal microstructure changes in cross-sectional view, particularly in vivo, in a highspeed fashion would assist early disease diagnosis and its treatment. In this paper, we investigated the capability of ...

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    5. The Development, Commercialization, and Impact of Optical Coherence Tomography

      The Development, Commercialization, and Impact of Optical Coherence Tomography

      This review was written for the special issue of IOVS to describe the history of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and its evolution from a nonscientific, historic perspective. Optical coherence tomography has become a standard of care in ophthalmology, providing real-time information on structure and function – diagnosing disease, evaluating progression, and assessing response to therapy, as well as helping to understand disease pathogenesis and create new therapies. Optical coherence tomography also has applications in multiple clinical specialties, fundamental research, and manufacturing. We review the early history of OCT describing how research and development evolves and the important role of multidisciplinary collaboration ...

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    6. Key Developments for Partial Coherence Biometry and Optical Coherence Tomography in the Human Eye Made in Vienna

      Key Developments for Partial Coherence Biometry and Optical Coherence Tomography in the Human Eye Made in Vienna

      Purpose : To describe key developments of optical biometry and optical coherence tomography (OCT) for ophthalmic applications made by one of the pioneering research groups. Methods : Partial coherence interferometry (PCI) as the basic ranging technology for modern optical biometry and for OCT was introduced for biomedical applications in the 1980s. Later, Fourier domain (FD) OCT was introduced and demonstrated to provide superior sensitivity as compared to time domain OCT. Further developments comprised ultrahigh-resolution OCT and deep-penetration OCT at wavelengths of approximately 1050 nm. Important functional extensions comprise Doppler OCT/OCT angiography, polarization-sensitive OCT, and adaptive optics OCT. Results : High-precision PCI biometry ...

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    7. Optical Coherence Tomography and the Development of Antiangiogenic Therapies in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

      Optical Coherence Tomography and the Development of Antiangiogenic Therapies in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

      Purpose : To explain the pivotal role optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging had in the development of antiangiogenic therapies for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD). Methods : A historical literature review was combined with personal perspectives from the introduction of OCT imaging and the early clinical use of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors. Results : At the time that OCT emerged, the gold standard for imaging of nvAMD was fluorescein angiography (FA), a time-consuming, dye-based, invasive technique that provided en face images of the retina and was used to characterize leakage, perfusion status, and the types of macular neovascularization ...

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    8. MIT’s 10-Material 3D Printer Heading to Production?

      MIT’s 10-Material 3D Printer Heading to Production?

      In 2015, MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) reported news that the lab had developed a unique multimaterial 3D printer capable of combining 10 different materials and integrating complex components, such as sensors and circuits, during the printing process. Perhaps most exciting was the fact that the system required only $7,000 in parts to build. Now, a bit of news has come across the wire indicating that MIT CSAIL’s MultiFab 3D printer may be going into production. he MultiFab 3D printer fabricates objects by jetting up to 10 different photopolymers through piezoelectric inkjet printheads, which ...

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    9. Minimal basilar membrane motion in low-frequency hearing

      Minimal basilar membrane motion in low-frequency hearing

      To perceive speech, the brain relies on inputs from sensory cells located near the top of the spiral-shaped cochlea. This low-frequency region of the inner ear is anatomically difficult to access, and it has not previously been possible to study its mechanical response to sound in intact preparations. Here, we used optical coherence tomography to image sound-evoked vibration inside the intact cochlea. We show that low-frequency sound moves a small portion of the basilar membrane, and that the motion declines in an exponential manner across the basilar membrane. Hence, the response of the hearing organ to speech-frequency sounds is different ...

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    10. Special Issue: 25 Years of Optical Coherence Tomography

      Special Issue: 25 Years of Optical Coherence Tomography

      Commemorating the 25th anniversary of the development of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), the journal Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science ( IOVS ) has released a special issue with over 70 papers from authors on five continents. The special issue covers a wide range of topics, including OCT technology and methods, cornea/anterior, retina, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. To learn more click this link http://iovs.arvojournals.org/ss/octissue.aspx

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    11. Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2016 NIH Grant for Celiac Disease Diagnosis Using Tethered Capsule Endomicroscopy

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2016 NIH Grant for Celiac Disease Diagnosis Using Tethered Capsule Endomicroscopy

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2016 NIH Grant for $573,805 for Celiac Disease Diagnosis Using Tethered Capsule Endomicroscopy. The principal investigator is Guillermo Tearney. The program began in $2014 and ends in 2019. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune response to gluten proteins that affects 3M people in the US and 50M worldwide. These proteins incite an inflammatory reaction that eventually destroys the absorptive villi in the duodenum, resulting in gastrointestinal symptoms, malabsorption, malnutrition, and an increased incidence of other autoimmune diseases, diabetes, and cancer. A definitive diagnosis of CD is ...

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    12. Quantitative measurement and real-time tracking of high intensity focused ultrasound using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography: Feasibility study

      Quantitative measurement and real-time tracking of high intensity focused ultrasound using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography: Feasibility study

      Purpose: Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PhS-OCT) is proposed, as a new high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) imaging guidance to detect and track HIFU focus inside 1% agar samples in this work. The experiments studied the effect of varying HIFU power on the induction of shear wave, which can be implemented as a new technique to monitor focused ultrasound surgery (FUS). Method: A miniature HIFU transducer (1.02 MHz, 20 mm aperture diameter, 15 mm radius of curvature) was produced in-house, pressure-field mapped, and calibrated. The transducer was then embedded inside a 1% agar phantom, which was placed under PhS-OCT for ...

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    13. Circumferential optical coherence tomography angiography imaging of the swine esophagus using a micromotor balloon catheter

      Circumferential optical coherence tomography angiography imaging of the swine esophagus using a micromotor balloon catheter

      We demonstrate a micromotor balloon imaging catheter for ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) which provides wide area, circumferential structural and angiographic imaging of the esophagus without contrast agents. Using a 1310 nm MEMS tunable wavelength swept VCSEL light source, the system has a 1.2 MHz A-scan rate and ~8.5 µm axial resolution in tissue. The micromotor balloon catheter enables circumferential imaging of the esophagus at 240 frames per second (fps) with a ~30 µm (FWHM) spot size. Volumetric imaging is achieved by proximal pullback of the micromotor assembly within the balloon at 1.5 mm/sec ...

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    14. The NHS is exploring whether Google’s AI could help to save people’s eyesight

      The NHS is exploring whether Google’s AI could help to save people’s eyesight

      NHS eye hospital Moorfields has announced it is working with DeepMind — an artificial intelligence research lab acquired by Google in 2014 for a reported £400 million — in a bid to identify people who are likely to lose their sight as a result of an eye disease. Through the medical research partnership, Moorfields will investigate whether DeepMind’s AI technology can be used to help spot early signs of eye conditions that human eye care experts might miss. In order to determine whether DeepMind’s AI technology is useful for diagnosing eye conditions, Moorfields is applying the company’s algorithms to ...

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    15. Google DeepMind will use machine learning to spot eye diseases early (with Video)

      Google DeepMind will use machine learning to spot eye diseases early (with Video)

      Google's DeepMind is embarking on a new research project to help doctors spot the early signs of sight-threatening eye diseases. The company's British-based artificial intelligence division will use machine learning to analyze more than one million anonymous eye scans, creating algorithms that can detect early warning signs that humans might miss. The project is DeepMind's second collaboration with the UK's National Health Service (NHS), but the first to use artificial intelligence. DeepMind is hoping to spot two eye conditions in particular: wet age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy, the latter being the fastest growing cause of ...

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    16. Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour

      Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour

      Identifying tumour margins during breast-conserving surgeries is a persistent challenge. We have previously developed miniature needle probes that could enable intraoperative volume imaging with optical coherence tomography. In many situations, however, scattering contrast alone is insufficient to clearly identify and delineate malignant regions. Additional polarization-sensitive measurements provide the means to assess birefringence, which is elevated in oriented collagen fibres and may offer an intrinsic biomarker to differentiate tumour from benign tissue. Here, we performed polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography through miniature imaging needles and developed an algorithm to efficiently reconstruct images of the depth-resolved tissue birefringence free of artefacts. First ex ...

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    17. PhD Student Position in Optical Coherence Tomography in Biomedical Research at the TU Dresden, Germany

      PhD Student Position in Optical Coherence Tomography in Biomedical Research at the TU Dresden, Germany

      Within the scope of the junior research group “Optical Technologies in Medicine”, new methods in optical imaging are transferred into medical and clinical application. The research is focused on optical coherence tomography and other optical methods for the diagnosis of different diseases. The PHD student will join a group of medical scientists, engineers, information and natural scientists. Requirements You hold, or to be about to receive before starting the contract, a MSc degree in physics, optical engineering, electrical engineering or related areas with high interest in optical imaging. (up to 4 years after MSC degree) You have good programming skills ...

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    18. Dynamic Optical Coherence Tomography Capillaroscopy A New Imaging Tool in Autoimmune Connective Tissue Disease

      Dynamic Optical Coherence Tomography Capillaroscopy A New Imaging Tool in Autoimmune Connective Tissue Disease

      Importance Vasculopathy characterized by functional and structural abnormalities of the microcirculation plays an important role in systemic sclerosis and dermatomyositis. Although there are several advantages in using capillaroscopy, the method does not offer insight on the skin architecture, flow status, or morphology of the deeper dermal vessels. Dynamic optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) is a recently developed OCT technique that enables detection of high-speed changes in back-scattered light caused by moving cells in vessels. The high resolution of OCT enables the detection of the papillary loops. Objective To explore the potential for OCT capillaroscopy of the nailfolds using D-OCT. Design, Setting ...

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    19. Beyond Better Clinical Care: Optical Coherence Tomography's Economic Impact

      Beyond Better Clinical Care: Optical Coherence Tomography's Economic Impact

      The optical coherence tomography (OCT) industry has grown dramatically in its first 25 years, and while the positive effects on patient clinical care are the most important measure of OCT's success, its contributions to the economy in jobs, tax receipts, and healthcare savings are also noteworthy. The field of optical coherence tomography (OCT) has grown dramatically since its discovery in the early 1990s. The commercialization and growth of OCT, which has occurred over the past 25 years, has been highly impactful scientifically, clinically, and economically. Many factors have helped drive this success, starting with the clinical need for new ...

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    20. Quantitative Evaluation of Adult Subglottic Stenosis Using Intraoperative Long-range Optical Coherence Tomography

      Quantitative Evaluation of Adult Subglottic Stenosis Using Intraoperative Long-range Optical Coherence Tomography

      Objectives: To determine the feasibility of long-range optical coherence tomography (LR-OCT) as a tool to intraoperatively image and measure the subglottis and trachea during suspension microlaryngoscopy before and after endoscopic treatment of subglottic stenosis (SGS). Methods: Long-range optical coherence tomography of the adult subglottis and trachea was performed during suspension microlaryngoscopy before and after endoscopic treatment for SGS. The anteroposterior and transverse diameters, cross-sectional area (CSA), distance from the vocal cords, and length of the SGS were measured using a MATLAB software. Pre-intervention and postintervention airway dimensions were compared. Three-dimensional volumetric airway reconstructions were generated using medical image processing software ...

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    21. The EASE Study - Human Factor and Usability Testing of a Binocular OCT System

      The EASE Study - Human Factor and Usability Testing of a Binocular OCT System

      Ophthalmology is among the most technology driven of all medical specialties, with advanced medical imaging devices - and specialised computer software - increasingly adopted for routine clinical use. While many such devices are capable of completing specific tasks, lack of "usability" prevents their widespread adoption (i.e., such devices are not easy to learn and remember, or are not efficient or subjectively pleasing to use). Moreover, devices that are difficult to use expose patients to clinical risk as a result of human error during usage. With the introduction of a new medical technology, it is essential, therefore, to have a deep understanding ...

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    22. In vivo measurement of skin surface strain and sub-surface layer deformation induced by natural tissue stretching

      In vivo measurement of skin surface strain and sub-surface layer deformation induced by natural tissue stretching

      Stratum corneum and epidermal layers change in terms of thickness and roughness with gender, age and anatomical site. Knowledge of the mechanical and tribological properties of skin associated with these structural changes are needed to aid in the design of exoskeletons, prostheses, orthotics, body mounted sensors used for kinematics measurements and in optimum use of wearable on-body devices. In this case study, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and digital image correlation (DIC) were combined to determine skin surface strain and sub-surface deformation behaviour of the volar forearm due to natural tissue stretching. The thickness of the epidermis together with geometry changes ...

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    23. Characterization of Automotive Paint by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Characterization of Automotive Paint by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Automotive paint is a common trace evidence that plays a significant role in many vehicle-related criminal cases. However, the conventional methods of obtaining tomographic images tend to damage the samples. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel method to obtain high-resolution, and cross-sectional images of the automotive paints in a non-destructive, and high-speed manner. In this study, OCT was applied to image and analyze the automotive paint, using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as reference. Eight automotive paint samples of different brands were examined. The images of multi-layer structures provided by OCT system with 5 μm depth resolution were consistent with ...

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    24. High efficiency for prostate biopsy qualification with full-field OCT after training

      High efficiency for prostate biopsy qualification with full-field OCT after training

      Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) offers a fast and non-destructive method of obtaining images of biological tissues at ultrahigh resolution, approaching traditional histological sections. In the context of prostate cancer diagnosis involving multiple biopsies, FFOCT could be used to validate the cores just after they are obtained in order to guide the number of biopsies to be performed. The aim of the study was to define and test a training protocol for efficient FFOCT prostate biopsy assessment. Three readers (a pathologist with previous experience with FFOCT, a pathologist new to FFOCT, and a urologist new to FFOCT) were trained to ...

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