1. Featured Articles

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    1. Real-time, noninvasive optical coherence tomography of cross-sectional living cell-sheets in vitro and in vivo

      Real-time, noninvasive optical coherence tomography of cross-sectional living cell-sheets in vitro and in vivo

      Cell sheet technology has a history of application in regenerating various tissues, having successfully completed several clinical trials using autologous cell sheets. Tomographic analysis of living cell sheets is an important tool in the field of cell sheet-based regenerative medicine and tissue engineering to analyze the inner structure of layered living cells. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is commonly used in ophthalmology to noninvasively analyze cross-sections of target tissues at high resolution. This study used OCT to conduct real-time, noninvasive analysis of living cell sheet cross sections. OCT showed the internal structure of cell sheets in tomographic images synthesized with backscatter ...

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    2. Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging

      Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging

      Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) is a well-established method for the high-resolution investigation of atherosclerosis in vivo. Intravascular near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging is a novel technique for the assessment of molecular processes associated with coronary artery disease. Integration of NIRF and IVOCT technology in a single catheter provides the capability to simultaneously obtain co-localized anatomical and molecular information from the artery wall. Since NIRF signal intensity attenuates as a function of imaging catheter distance to the vessel wall, the generation of quantitative NIRF data requires an accurate measurement of the vessel wall in IVOCT images. Given that dual modality, intravascular ...

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    3. All-fiber wavelength swept ring laser based on Fabry-Perot filter for optical frequency domain imaging

      All-fiber wavelength swept ring laser based on  Fabry-Perot filter for optical frequency domain  imaging

      Innovations in laser engineering have yielded several novel configurations for high repetition rate, broad sweep range, and long coherence length wavelength swept lasers. Although these lasers have enabled high performance frequency-domain optical coherence tomography, they are typically complicated and costly and many require access to proprietary materials or devices. Here, we demonstrate a simplified ring resonator configuration that is straightforward to construct from readily available materials at a low total cost. It was enabled by an insight regarding the significance of isolation against bidirectional operation and by configuring the sweep range of the intracavity filter to exceed its free spectral ...

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    4. Longitudinal necrotic shafts near TCFAs—A potential novel mechanism for plaque rupture to trigger ACS?

      Longitudinal necrotic shafts near TCFAs—A potential novel mechanism for plaque rupture to trigger ACS?

      It has been questioned for over 15 years why only less than 20% of TCFAs trigger ACS. We illustrate TCFA rupture into adjacent longitudinal necrotic shafts of massive amounts of thrombogenic material into the blood, leading to catastrophic clot formation. This is the potential mechanism for TCFAs triggering ACS. One case presented also illustrates the dangers of stent edges rupturing TCFAs.

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    5. Bioresorbable vascular scaffold treatment induces the formation of neointimal cap that seals the underlying plaque without compromising the luminal dimensions: a concept based on serial optical coherence tomography data

      Bioresorbable vascular scaffold treatment induces the formation of neointimal cap that seals the underlying plaque without compromising the luminal dimensions: a concept based on serial optical coherence tomography data

      Aims: To evaluate the implications of an Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold (Absorb BVS) on the morphology of the superficial plaques. Methods and results: Forty-six patients who underwent Absorb BVS implantation and 20 patients implanted with bare metal stents (BMS) who had serial optical coherence tomographic examination at baseline and follow-up were included in this analysis. The thin-capped fibroatheromas (TCFA) were identified in the device implantation regions and in the adjacent native coronary segments. Within all regions, circumferential locations of TCFA and calcific tissues were identified, and the neointimal thickness was measured at follow-up. At six to 12-month follow-up, only 8 ...

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    6. The Application of Optical Coherence Tomography to Image Subsurface Tissue Structure of Antarctic Krill Euphausia superba

      The Application of Optical Coherence Tomography to Image Subsurface Tissue Structure of Antarctic Krill Euphausia superba

      Many small open ocean animals, such as Antarctic krill, are an important part of marine ecosystems. To discover what will happen to animals such as krill in a changing ocean, experiments are run in aquaria where conditions can be controlled to simulate water characteristics predicted to occur in the future. The response of individual animals to changing water conditions can be hard to observe, and with current observation techniques it is very difficult to follow the progress of an individual animal through its life. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technique that allows images at high resolution to ...

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    7. Capturing structure and function in an embryonic heart with biophotonic tools

      Capturing structure and function in an embryonic heart with biophotonic tools

      Disturbed cardiac function at an early stage of development has been shown to correlate with cellular/molecular, structural as well as functional cardiac anomalies at later stages culminating in the congenital heart defects (CHDs) that present at birth. While our knowledge of cellular and molecular steps in cardiac development is growing rapidly, our understanding of the role of cardiovascular function in the embryo is still in an early phase. One reason for the scanty information in this area is that the tools to study early cardiac function are limited. Recently developed and adapted biophotonic tools may overcome some of the ...

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    8. Correction of rotational distortion for catheter-based en face OCT and OCT angiography

      Correction of rotational distortion for catheter-based en face OCT and OCT angiography

      We demonstrate a computationally efficient method for correcting the nonuniform rotational distortion (NURD) in catheter-based imaging systems to improve endoscopic en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography. The method performs nonrigid registration using fiducial markers on the catheter to correct rotational speed variations. Algorithm performance is investigated with an ultrahigh-speed endoscopic OCT system and micromotor catheter. Scan nonuniformity is quantitatively characterized, and artifacts from rotational speed variations are significantly reduced. Furthermore, we present endoscopic en face OCT and OCT angiography images of human gastrointestinal tract in vivo to demonstrate the image quality improvement using the correction algorithm.

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    9. Michelson Diagnostics launches new improved version of VivoSight OCT scanner with Micro-Camera to aid skin cancer diagnosis

      Michelson Diagnostics launches new improved version of VivoSight OCT scanner with Micro-Camera to aid skin cancer diagnosis

      Michelson Diagnostics, the UK based medical device company focused on multi-beam Optical Coherence Tomography (‘OCT’) technology, announces the launch of a new improved version of its innovative VivoSight OCT scanner at the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (EADV) Annual Meeting, 8-12 October, Amsterdam. The VivoSight scanner probe is now equipped with a new Micro Camera that provides the user with a real-time, colour, magnified view of the skin lesion being scanned. The new Micro Camera image is shown simultaneously with the vertical and en face OCT images, making the VivoSight scanner the only dermatological clinical OCT device to provide ...

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    10. Optical Coherence Tomography and Cryosurgery (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography and Cryosurgery (Book Chapter)

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides real-time, cross-sectional skin images to a depth of up to 2 mm. OCT is a convenient and fast imaging technology that can be used bedside. In dermatology, the pretherapeutic delineation of both actinic keratoses (AK) and keratinocyte carcinomas has been a natural focus for applied OCT research, and more recently OCT research has turned on non-invasive monitoring of treatments. Previous studies have found good agreement between OCT images and histopathological images. Cryotherapy is a fast and easy treatment modality frequently used for the treatment of AK lesions in everyday dermatology practise. Cryosurgery with liquid nitrogen ...

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    11. Frequency and predictors of thrombus inside the guiding catheter during interventional procedures: an optical coherence tomography study

      Frequency and predictors of thrombus inside the guiding catheter during interventional procedures: an optical coherence tomography study

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is able to identify thrombus. We detect the frequency of thrombus inside the guiding catheter by OCT and its relationship with clinical and procedural factors. We screened 77 patients who underwent OCT pullbacks. Only patients with visible guiding catheter were finally included (35) and divided into thrombus (21) or no-thrombus group (14). Patients within thrombus group were mostly males (100 vs. 71 %, p = 0.05), with acute coronary syndrome (76 vs. 36 %, p = 0.02) and received more frequently percutaneous coronary intervention (86 vs. 43 %, p = 0.01) as compared to other group. A second dose ...

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    12. Anatomy of the fetal membranes using optical coherence tomography: Part 1

      Anatomy of the fetal membranes using optical coherence tomography: Part 1

      Introduction In vitro studies on the structure of human fetal membranes have involved light or electron microscopy with fixation, dehydration, and staining. Recently, optical coherence tomography (OCT), an imaging technology, has provided high-resolution cross-sectional images of living biological tissues, with a penetration of 2 to 3 mm. We evaluated the use of this technology to examine the histologic features of human fetal membranes immediately after delivery. Methods Samples of fetal membranes of ten patients undergoing cesarean deliveries (four uncomplicated pregnancies, four with preeclampsia, and two with chorioamnionitis) and eight patients undergoing vaginal deliveries (six uncomplicated pregnancies and two with chorioamnionitis ...

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    13. Widefield OCT with SPECTRALIS

      Widefield OCT with SPECTRALIS

      Heidelberg Engineering GmbH has announced a new widefield OCT imaging modality for its SPECTRALIS OCT family of products. The technology was first presented at the EURETINA-ESCRS congress in London. Spectral-domain OCT has become an indispensable technology for eye care professionals aiding in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with a variety of diseases including glaucoma, Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy. Until recently, the area scanned during an examination has been limited to a 30° field of view. The new Widefield OCT module for the SPECTRALIS expands the OCT field of view to 55°. The new Widefield OCT module ...

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    14. Influence of different sized nanoparticles combined with ultrasound on the optical properties of invitro normal and cancerous human lung tissue studied with OCT and diffuse reflectance spectra

      Influence of different sized nanoparticles combined with ultrasound on the optical properties of invitro normal and cancerous human lung tissue studied with OCT and diffuse reflectance spectra

      The present study is concerned with the in vitro study of different sized titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles' (NPs) penetration and accumulation in human normal lung (NL) tissue and lung adenocarcinoma tumor (LAT) tissue by the methods of continuous optical coherence tomography (OCT) monitoring and diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra measurement, and their evaluating the effects of TiO 2 NPs in two sizes (60 nm and 100 nm) and their combination with ultrasound (US) on the optical properties of human NL and LAT tissue. Spectral measurements indicate that TiO 2 NPs penetrate and accumulate into the tissues and thus induce enhancement ...

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    15. Pediatric Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders: Advances in imaging and computational modeling.

      Pediatric Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders: Advances in imaging and computational modeling.

      We understand now that sleep of sufficient length and quality is required for good health. This is particularly true for infants and children, who have the added physiologic task of growth and development, as compared to their adult counterparts. Sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs) are common in childhood and if unrecognized and not treated can result in significant morbidity. For example, children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can exhibit behavioral, mood, and learning difficulties. If left untreated, alterations in the function of the autonomic nervous system and a chronic inflammatory state result, contributing to the risk of heart disease, stroke, glucose ...

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    16. Probing biological nanotopology via diffusion of weakly constrained plasmonic nanorods with optical coherence tomography

      Probing biological nanotopology via diffusion of weakly constrained plasmonic nanorods with optical coherence tomography

      Biological materials exhibit complex nanotopology , i.e., a composite liquid and solid phase structure that is heterogeneous on the nanoscale. The diffusion of nanoparticles in nanotopological environments can elucidate biophysical changes associated with pathogenesis and disease progression. However, there is a lack of methods that characterize nanoprobe diffusion and translate easily to in vivo studies. Here, we demonstrate a method based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) to depth-resolve diffusion of plasmon-resonant gold nanorods (GNRs) that are weakly constrained by the biological tissue. By using GNRs that are on the size scale of the polymeric mesh, their Brownian motion is minimally ...

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    17. Endoscopy for diagnosis and treatment in esophageal cancers: high-technology assessment

      Endoscopy for diagnosis and treatment in esophageal cancers: high-technology assessment

      The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on the endoscopic tools to recognize squamous cell dysplasia; confocal laser endomicroscopy for Barrett's esophagus; confocal microscopy in the cancer patient; optical coherence tomography in the assessment of subsquamous Barrett's metaplasia; endoscopic mucosal resection for high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus; HALO in the treatment of squamous dysplasia; and the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect dysplasia and adenocarcinoma in patients with Barrett's esophagus.

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    18. Rescuing US biomedical research from its systemic flaws

      Rescuing US biomedical research from its systemic flaws

      The long-held but erroneous assumption of never-ending rapid growth in biomedical science has created an unsustainable hypercompetitive system that is discouraging even the most outstanding prospective students from entering our profession—and making it difficult for seasoned investigators to produce their best work. This is a recipe for long-term decline, and the problems cannot be solved with simplistic approaches. Instead, it is time to confront the dangers at hand and rethink some fundamental features of the US biomedical research ecosystem.

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    19. Glenn vs. The Volcano

      Glenn vs. The Volcano

      Today saw a "volley across the bow" between Volcano Corporation (Nasdaq: VOLC), a major manufacturer of IVUS, FFR and iFR technologies, and Engaged Capital LLC, an investment firm which holds over two million shares, or 5.1%, of Volcano stock. Engaged founder Glenn W. Welling sent a letter to Volcano demanding that the company begin a search for a new CEO and find a buyer for the company (press release printed below). The letter was prompted by the fact that Volcano's stock price has dropped by more than half over the past year. Engaged has been in discussions with ...

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    20. Bioptigen to Receive Grants Totaling $1.72 Million from the National Eye Institute for Development of Intraoperative SD-OCT

      Bioptigen to Receive Grants Totaling $1.72 Million  from the National Eye Institute for Development of Intraoperative SD-OCT

      Bioptigen announced today that the U.S. National Eye Institute, has allocated a total of $1.72 Million in grants to Bioptigen Inc. for development of microscope integrated intraoperative OCT technology. Presently, perioperative OCT imaging is performed using a hand-held probe, or by mounting such a probe to the surgical microscope. Under the new NEI grant, Bioptigen will advance development of a novel intraoperative OCT system integrated directly into the optical train of the surgical microscope. "The work advanced under these grants will bring surgeons one step closer to realizing the full value of intraoperative OCT," said Dr. Eric Buckland ...

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    21. Engaged Capital Sends Letter to the Board of Volcano Corporation

      Engaged Capital Sends Letter to the Board of Volcano Corporation

      Engaged Capital, an investment firm specializing in small and mid-cap North American equities and beneficial owner of approximately 2,638,403 shares of the common stock of Volcano Corporation (“VOLC” or the “Company”) (Nasdaq:VOLC), today sent an open letter http://engagedcapital.com/press/VOLCBODLetter.pdf to the Company’s Board of Directors (the “Board”), filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. “It is time for new leadership. We urge the Board to immediately commence a parallel process to evaluate strategic alternatives and conduct a search for CEO candidates with a history of driving profitability and extracting value ...

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    22. Quantitative technique for robust and noise-tolerant speed measurements based on speckle decorrelation in optical coherence tomography

      Quantitative technique for robust and noise-tolerant speed measurements based on speckle decorrelation in optical coherence tomography

      Intensity-based techniques in optical coherence tomography (OCT), such as those based on speckle decorrelation, have attracted great interest for biomedical and industrial applications requiring speed or flow information. In this work we present a rigorous analysis of the effects of noise on speckle decorrelation, demonstrate that these effects frustrate accurate speed quantitation, and propose new techniques that achieve quantitative and repeatable measurements. First, we derive the effect of background noise on the speckle autocorrelation function, finding two detrimental effects of noise. We propose a new autocorrelation function that is immune to the main effect of background noise and permits quantitative ...

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    23. In-situ biofilm characterization in membrane systems using Optical Coherence Tomography: Formation, structure, detachment and impact of flux change

      In-situ biofilm characterization in membrane systems using Optical Coherence Tomography: Formation, structure, detachment and impact of flux change

      Biofouling causes performance loss in spiral wound nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane operation for process and drinking water production. The development of biofilm formation, structure and detachment was studied in-situ, non-destructively with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in direct relation with the hydraulic biofilm resistance and membrane performance parameters: transmembrane pressure drop (TMP) and feed-channel pressure drop (FCP). The objective was to evaluate the suitability of OCT for biofouling studies, applying a membrane biofouling test cell operated at constant crossflow velocity (0.1 m s -1 ) and permeate flux (20 L m -2 h -1 ). In time, the biofilm ...

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    1-24 of 115 1 2 3 4 5 »
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