Significant advances for optical systems in terms of both performance and packaging are enabled by freeform optical components. Yet, surface form metrology for freeform optics remains a challenge. We developed and investigated a point-cloud cascade optical coherence tomography (C-OCT) technique to address this metrology challenge. The mathematical framework for the working principle of C-OCT is presented. A novel detection scheme is developed to enable high-speed measurements. Experimental results validate the C-OCT technique with the prototype setup demonstrating single-point precision of ±26 nm (∼λ/24 at the He-Ne wavelength), paving the way towards full surface measurements on freeform optical components.