1. Membrane fouling by clay suspensions during NF-like forward osmosis: Characterization via optical coherence tomography

    Membrane fouling by clay suspensions during NF-like forward osmosis: Characterization via optical coherence tomography

    The use of a membrane with a relatively loose ‘active layer’ opened a new paradigm for the application of osmotically driven processes. An effective way of imparting the osmotic pressure difference across the ‘active layer’ is to employ divalent salts as the draw solute, whose negative effects on the organic fouling have been documented in the literature. This study was targeted on investigating the fouling by clay suspensions when performing the forward osmosis (FO) with a nanofiltration (NF)-like membrane. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was exploited to analyze the fouling phenomena in a way of determining the critical point of ...

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