1. Assessing internal fouling during microfiltration optical coherence tomography and evapoporometry

    Assessing internal fouling during microfiltration optical coherence tomography and evapoporometry

    The internal fouling of membranes is typically presumed and inferred, but the direct characterization of representative samples is challenging. This study targeted to assess internal fouling using the Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Evapoporometry (EP) techniques for real-time monitoring during filtration and off-line measurement of the pore size distributions (PSDs) of the fouled membranes, respectively. The results were validated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements and also the three-mechanism fouling model. The foulant used was the well-studied bovine serum albumin (BSA), while the membranes were three commercially available polymeric microfiltration membranes with similar nominal pore sizes and porosities. Although the ...

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