Purpose To benchmark the human and machine performance of spectral-domain (SD) and swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) image segmentation, i.e., pixel-wise classification, for the compartments vitreous, retina, choroid, sclera. Methods A convolutional neural network (CNN) was trained on OCT B-scan images annotated by a senior ground truth expert retina specialist to segment the posterior eye compartments. Independent benchmark data sets (30 SDOCT and 30 SSOCT) were manually segmented by three classes of graders with varying levels of ophthalmic proficiencies. Nine graders contributed to benchmark an additional 60 images in three consecutive runs. Inter-human and intra-human class agreement was ...